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Chapter 2Related Literature Language learning concepts must be given primary importance in helping learnersdevelop a realistic idea of their

own capacity to learn English. This can be through proper guidance from their teacher, on how to learn, creating awareness in the learners of their routesand these of others in learning g-teaching process. Another through creating enthusiasm for language task and helping learners to develop sense of responsibility for their social, cognitiveand psychological aspects of classroom communities. 1 To promote language learning effectively,the cooperation of both teachers and pupils should go hand in hand.Language construction should start with spoken English before reading and writing. 2 Speaking skills of the students should be developed at early stage. Before the students canactually communicate in sentences, they have to know first the sound system of the language.Hence, from the kindergarten to the sixth grade, pronunciation lessons are very important.People differ slightly in structure and use of their speech organs, so no two speakerspronounced a word exactly alike. Pronunciation may also vary in the same person an differentoccasions or situation. A person who is tired, for example, may slur his words. Likewise, aperson delivering a public speech will ordinarily take more care in his communication than if heis jus t engage in an inform al conversation.In accordance with Thorndikes L aw of Exercise of repetition, the more time stimulusinduced, response is repeated, and the larger it will be retained. Thus, one can learn to speak well with proper pronunciation by the practice. The students who continually avoid speaking Englishwill never speak well in the language. 3 Scarella mentioned that our educational system is learner-centered. As such, teachershave to pay attention to the characteristics of students. For instance, to provide optimalinstruction, it is important to know the students preferred learning styles. 4 This knowledge willhelp suits the activities to be conducted in the classroom. Without such knowledge, hisinstruction might miss the mark.Rarin added suggestions for the improvement of the students English: 1. ) student ca nbe encourage to speak English in school premises , outside the classroom, in the playground or elsewhere at any given time.2.) Teachers should speak English with their students anywhere. 3.)Let students talk more while the teachers talk less. 4.) Every student should be giving n a chanceto speak English during recitation. 5 In addition, Samomnte and Arbis also said that imitation is a potent factor in learning, of the speech skill. However, it is not advisable to overuse it, as it disastrously crippling. Thestudents therefore expected

to apply what he has learned in a new material that he has to work out with himself without having to depend on his teacher to model it for him. 6 Soriano addedthat the most efficient method of improving ones oral English is by accurate imitation and oncethe techniques have been mastered by intelligent and through intense practice. 7 His informationof the speech sound must be accurate enough so that his words are easily distinguishable. Thestudents second aim is ace pt able pronunciation which conforms to an acceptable standard. 8 Other literature discussed and identified the causes of errors encounter by the pupils. Wardbelieved that the quality of length is another element in pronunciation. 9 English makes greater differences in it that many languages between long and short vowels.Fehnema and Frankie revealed that are of the difficulties encountered by the learners inlearning grammar is on verb-tense, second is on stock of words of vocabulary; third, unable torecognize words; fourth is difficulty in pronunciation and fifth if difficulty in constructingsentences due to lack of knowledge in basic sentence pattern. 10 Based on the study conducted by Alcantara on the conservative linguistics, specificallythese who made comparative studies of native language (Filipino) claimed that generally,Filipino have difficulties in pronunciation in English because of native language interference,specifically, the absences of the English sounds in the native language as phonemes /o/ and /ae/are difficult sounds because they do not exist in it. 11 Therefore, the teacher must give ample drilllesson to enable the students pronounce them correctly. Aside from those, teacher should alsoteach the students the rule in stress, pitch, intonation of phonological competence.The study conducted by Garcia, she analyzed and ranked the different errors committedin English class and found out the corresponding oral error treatment such. She further recommended that; 1.) All teachers should be acquainted with the correction techniques whichare important components of any teaching and learning cycle providing them with in-servicetraining on the said topic relevant to the present needs and time, 2.) Different activities that willprovide pupils with the opportunities to express their ideas and encourage them to speak inEnglish should be by the teachers to develop pupils language competencies. 12