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# Basic Circuits

## Mesh Analysis: Basic Concepts:

In formulating mesh analysis we assign a mesh current to each mesh.

Mesh currents are sort of fictitious in that a particular mesh current does not define the current in each branch of the mesh to which it is assigned.

I1

I2

I3

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Basic Concepts:
R1
+
V1 _

R2
+ +
VL1 _ V2 _

VA

+
_

I1

Rx

I2

VB

## Figure 7.2: A circuit for illustrating mesh analysis. Around mesh 1:

V1 VL1

VA I1 R1 ; VL1 I1 I 2 R X VA
Eq 7.1

where V1

so, ( R1 RX ) I1 RX I 2

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Basic Concepts:
R1
+
V1 _

R2
+ +
VL1 _ V2 _

VA

+
_

I1

Rx

I2

VB

## Around mesh 2 we have V L1 V2 V B with; V L1 ( I 2 I 1 ) R X ; V 2 I 2 R2 Substituti ng Eq 7.3 in 7.2 gives, R X I 1 ( R X R2 ) I 2 V B or R X I1 ( R X R2 ) I 2 VB

Eq 7.2 Eq 7.3

Eq 7.4

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Basic Concepts:
We are left with 2 equations: From (7.1) and (7.4) we have,

( R1 RX ) I1 RX I 2

VA

Eq 7.5

RX I1 ( RX

R2 ) I 2

VB

Eq 7.6

## We can easily solve these equations for I1 and I2.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Basic Concepts:
The previous equations can be written in matrix form as:

( R1 or I1 I2

RX ) RX RX ( RX R2 ( R1

I1 I2
1

VA VB VA VB

Eq (7.7)

RX ) RX RX ( RX R2

Eq (7.8)

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.1.
Write the mesh equations and solve for the currents I1, and I2.
4 6 I1 2V + _ I2 _ + 2 7 20V

10V

+ _

## 4I1 + 6(I1 I2) = 10 - 2 6(I2 I1) + 2I2 + 7I2 = 2 + 20

Eq (7.9)

Mesh 2

Eq (7.10)

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.1, continued.
Simplifying Eq (7.9) and (7.10) gives,

## 10I1 6I2 = 8 -6I1 + 15I2 = 22

% A MATLAB Solution R = [10 -6;-6 15]; V = [8;22]; I = inv(R)*V I=
2.2105 2.3509

Eq (7.11) Eq (7.12)

I1 = 2.2105 I2 = 2.3509

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.2
Solve for the mesh currents in the circuit below.
9 12V _ _+

10

I3

11

8V + _

6 + _ _ I1 _ +

4 10V I2 3

20V

## Figure 7.3: Circuit for Example 7.2.

The plan: Write KVL, clockwise, for each mesh. Look for a pattern in the final equations.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.2
9 12V _ _+

10

I3

11

8V + _

6 + _ _ I1 _ +

4 10V I2 3

20V

Mesh 1: Mesh 2:

6I1 + 10(I1 I3) + 4(I1 I2) = 20 + 10 4(I2 I1) + 11(I2 I3) + 3I2 = - 10 - 8

Eq (7.13) Eq (7.14)

Mesh 3:

## 9I3 + 11(I3 I2) + 10(I3 I1) = 12 + 8

Eq (7.15)

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.2
Clearing Equations (7.13), (7.14) and (7.15) gives,

## Standard Equation form

20I1 4I2 10I3 = 30 -4I1 + 18I2 11I3 = -18 -10I1 11I2 + 30I3 = 20

In matrix form:

20 4 10

4 18 11

10 I 1 11 I 2 30 I 3

30 18 20

## WE NOW MAKE AN IMPORTANT OBSERVATION!!

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Standard form for mesh equations
Consider the following:

I1 I2 I3

R11 =

R22 =
R33 =

## of resistance around mesh 2, common to mesh 2 current I2.

of resistance around mesh 3, common to mesh 3 current I3.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Standard form for mesh equations
R12 = R21 = - resistance common between mesh 1 and 2 when I1 and I2 are opposite through R1,R2.

R13 = R31 = - resistance common between mesh 1 and 3 when I1 and I3 are opposite through R1,R3.
R23 = R32 = - resistance common between mesh 2 and 3 when I2 and I3 are opposite through R2,R3.

emfs(1) = sum of emf around mesh 1 in the direction of I1. emfs(2) = sum of emf around mesh 2 in the direction of I2. emfs(3) = sum of emf around mesh 3 in the direction of I3.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: Example 7.3 - Direct method.
Use the direct method to write the mesh equations for the following.
20 30 _ I2 + _ 10V + 15V 10 I3 _ + 30V 12 8

10 20V + _ I1

## Figure 7.4: Circuit diagram for Example 7.3.

30 10 0

10 50 10

0 I1 10 I 2 30 I 3

10 25 15

Eq (7.13)

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: With current sources in the circuit
Example 7.4: Consider the following:
2 20V _ + I3

10

20

10V + _

I1

I2 15

4A

Figure 7.5: Circuit diagram for Example 7.4. Use the direct method to write the mesh equations.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: With current sources in the circuit
This case is explained by using an example. Example 7.4: Find the three mesh currents in the circuit below.
2 20V _ + I3

10

20

10V + _

I1

I2 15

4A

## Figure 7.5: Circuit for Example 7.4.

When a current source is present, it will be directly related to one or more of the mesh current. In this case I2 = -4A.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: With current sources in the circuit
Example 7.4: Continued. An easy way to handle this case is to
remove the current source as shown below. Next, write the mesh equations for the remaining meshes.
2 20V _ + I3

10

20

10V + _

I1

I2 15

Note that I 2 is retained for writing the equations through the 5 and 20 resistors.

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: With current sources in the circuit
Example 7.4: Continued.
2 20V _ + I3

10

20

10V + _

I1

I2 15

or

## Equations for mesh 2:

2I3 + (I3-I2)20 = 20 or

- 20I2 + 22I3 = 20

Basic Circuits
Mesh Analysis: With current sources in the circuit
Example 7.4: Continued. Express the previous equations in Matrix form:

15 0 0

5 0 20 22 1 0
I1 = -0.667 A I2 = - 4 A
I3 = - 2.73 A

I1 I2 I3

10 20 4