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WOOD WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

NAME COURSE FIELD ADMISSION NO

: C.J.WIJERATNE : NDT : MECHANICAL : 10/IT/ME/245

TABLE OF CONTENTS

OBJECTIVE ..........................................................................................................................................5 PROCEDURE OF MAKING FLOWER POT STAND (PROJECT NO.2) ......................................................5 CLASSIFICATION OF TREES .................................................................................................................6 CROSS SECTION OF A WOOD TRUNK .................................................................................................7 USES OF WOOD ..................................................................................................................................7 TYPES OF WOOD ................................................................................................................................8 SEASONING OF WOOD .......................................................................................................................8 AIR DRYING METHOD .........................................................................................................................8 KILN DRYING METHOD .......................................................................................................................9 CUTTIING METHODS ....................................................................................................................... 10 PLANE SAWN (TANGENTIAL SAWN) ............................................................................................... 11 QUATETR SAWN .............................................................................................................................. 11 RIFT SAWN ...................................................................................................................................... 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THESE SAWING TECHNIQUES ........................................ 11 QUALITIES OF GOOD TIMBER ......................................................................................................... 12 PRESERVATION OF TIMBER ............................................................................................................. 12 CARPENTARY TOOLS ....................................................................................................................... 13 CUTTING TOOOLS............................................................................................................................ 13 SAWS ............................................................................................................................................... 13 TENNON SAW.................................................................................................................................. 14 KEY HOLE SAW ................................................................................................................................ 14 HAND PLANERS ............................................................................................................................... 15 PARTS OF A HAND PLANE ............................................................................................................... 15 SMOOTHING PLANE ........................................................................................................................ 15 JACK PLANES ................................................................................................................................... 16 BLOCK PLANES................................................................................................................................. 16 JOINTERS ......................................................................................................................................... 16 WOOD CHISELS ............................................................................................................................... 17 GEOMETRIC TOOLS ......................................................................................................................... 17 STEEL RULES .................................................................................................................................... 17 SLIDING BEVEL................................................................................................................................. 18 TRY SQUARE .................................................................................................................................... 18

MARKING GUAGE ............................................................................................................................ 18 HOLDING AND SUPPORTING TOOLS ............................................................................................... 19 WORKING BENCH ............................................................................................................................ 19 BENCH WISE .................................................................................................................................... 19 CRAMPERS ...................................................................................................................................... 20 PERCUSSION AND IMPELLING TOOLS ............................................................................................. 20 WOODEN MALLET ........................................................................................................................... 20 WOOD JOINTS ................................................................................................................................. 21 MITER JOINT .................................................................................................................................... 21 MORTISE AND TENON ..................................................................................................................... 21 LAP JOINT ........................................................................................................................................ 21 TONGUE & GROOVE JOINT ............................................................................................................. 22 DOWEL JOINT .................................................................................................................................. 22 CROSS HALVING .............................................................................................................................. 22 DOVETAIL JOINT .............................................................................................................................. 23 SIMPLE MORTISE AND TENNON JOINT ........................................................................................... 23 HIDDEN MORTISE AND TENNON JOINT .......................................................................................... 24 T BRIDDLE JOINT........................................................................................................................... 24 DISSCUSSION ................................................................................................................................... 25 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 26

OBJECTIVE
To be familiarized with number of common joints used in carpentry in a single project in a single project where accuracy and the skill to be achieved through manipulation of wood working machines and hand tools.

PROCEDURE OF MAKING FLOWER POT STAND (PROJECT NO.2)


1. The timber work piece was checked whether it is plane and squared correctly in to given dimensions. 2. The timber work piece was checked whether it is plane and squared correctly in to given dimensions. 3. A 42*24 mm timber piece was taken and using the Radial arm saw set ,two pieces having a length of 24mm were cut. 4. With the Tri square, one aligned side of both pieces was selected and with respective to that side all the dimensions given in the drawing were marked on the wood pieces for cutting. There, special marks were drawn on the waste and assembling parts of the work pieces. To mark the lines a marking gauge and a steel ruler were used with a pencil. 5. According to the marked lines, waste wood parts were removed carefully with a tennon saw in order to create relevant joints. To obtain the finish of the joint surfaces unnecessary waste parts were removed with a chisel. 6. A 55*24mm timber piece was taken and with that, 4 work pieces were cut those having a length of 200mm. 7. Just as done in the 4th step, all significant lines were drawn as shown in the drawing and waste parts were cut off and the relevant joints were made correctly. 8. Outer profile of the legs were drawn as the given template and cut off the waste parts with the tnnon saw and the chisel. 9. The cuts were well shaped and finished with the sander machine and the correct shapes were obtained correctly. 10. The legs were fitted correctly at first and then the two braces were fitted at right angle to each other. 11. After the completion of all, again the legs were sand out with the sander machine until the flower pot stand stays in balance.

CLASSIFICATION OF TREES

TREES

EXOGENEOUS

Most of the trees are of this category. These kinds of trees supplies most of engineering timber. In these trees we can find annual rings. So every year they become fresh and new.

ENDOGENEOUS
These are the trees those who grow inwards or outwards. The stem of these trees are light and tough. But they are too flexible to be used.

CONITERES OR EVER GREEN TREES


These kinds of trees owns needle like leaves and the spread out of branches around the trunk is quite symmetrical. Basically the tree is in a shape of a cone and most of them have a specific smell

DECIDUOUS OR BROAD LEAF TERES


These trees shed their leaves in the autumn and get new leaves on the summer. These trees supplies hard woods which are strong, heavy and dark coloured

CROSS SECTION OF A WOOD TRUNK

USES OF WOOD

TIMBER WORKSHOP INSTRUMENTS PAPER FURNITURES

GLUE

EXPLOSIVES MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

WOOD

MEDICINE SPORT INSTRUMENTS

PARTS OF SHIPS CONTAINERS FUEL BUILDING METERIALS (MDF, OSB, CHIP BORD, HARD BORD) BUILDING STRUCTURES

TYPES OF WOOD
Mainly wood is divided in to two groups. 1. SOFT WOOD These are from Coniferous trees. These kinds of woods are lighter and simple in structure. From these woods someone can easily produce things. They are easy to handle and possess. The moisture content is approximately 12%. The density of softwoods varies with 350 700 kg/m3.Most of trees supplies softwoods. Because of that Softwoods are more commercialized than hardwood. 2. HARD WOOD These are from broad leave trees. These are generally heavier and have complex structure. Hardwoods are rather difficult to possess. The density of hardwood varies with 450 1250 kg/m3. The moisture content is approximately 12% so as the softwood. Because of hardwood is more hard and complex it is difficult to dry and season.

SEASONING OF WOOD

Before using the wood in to manufacturing process it has to be seasoned. In this seasoning procedure the water content of wood is being lowered. There are two main methods of seasoning woods. 01. Air drying method 02. Kiln drying method This seasoning improves the quality of wood such as Strength, Stiffness, Durability and Effectiveness of coating.

AIR DRYING METHOD In this method woods are dried by exposing in to air. Mainly the technique of air drying consists of making a stack of sawn timber (with the layers of boards separated by stickers) on raised foundations, in a clean, cool, dry and shady place. Rate of drying largely depends on climatic conditions, and on the air movement. A continuous and uniform flow of air throughout the pile of the timber leads to a successful air dry. Coating the ends of logs with oil or thick paint, improves the quality.

THE BENEFITS OF AIR DRYING METHOD

It is a less expensive drying method often produces a higher quality, more easily workable wood than with kiln drying

Disadvantages Depending on the climate, it takes several months to a number of years to air-dry the wood.

KILN DRYING METHOD The process of kiln drying consists of introducing heat. There are two main methods in kiln drying. First one is direct method. In this method wood pieces are heated by the means of natural gas or electricity .The other method is indirect method. In this method the wood pieces are heated by steam. The steam can be heated by heat exchangers or solar energy. In the process, control of temperature, relative humidity and air circulation is provided to give an effective drying to obtain a better seasoned wood. For this purpose, the timber is stacked in chambers, called wood drying kilns, which are fitted with equipment for treatment and control of the temperature and the relative humidity of the drying air and its circulation rate through the timber stack. Kiln drying provides a means of overcoming the limitations imposed by unpredictable weather conditions. In kiln drying as in air drying, unsaturated air is used as the drying medium. Almost all commercial timbers of the world are dried in industrial kilns. There are some advantages and disadvantages in kiln drying compared to the air drying. Timber can be dried to any desired moisture content, but in air drying, moisture contents of less than 18% are difficult to attain for most locations. The drying times are considerably less in kiln drying than in air drying. In air drying, there is little control over the drying elements, so drying degrade cannot be controlled. The temperatures engaged in kiln drying typically kill all the fungi and insects. This is not guaranteed in air drying. If air drying is done improperly (exposed to the sun), the rate of drying may be overly rapid in the dry summer months, causing cracking and splitting, and too slow during the cold winter months. The significant advantages of kiln drying include higher throughput and better control of the final moisture content. Conventional kiln and solar drying both enable wood to be dried to any moisture content regardless of weather conditions. For most large-scale drying operations solar and conventional kiln drying are more efficient than air drying. Kiln drying is more expensive than air drying.

It needs professional and knowledgeable workers to handle the process. Unless the wood pieces can even be destroyed with improper handling.

CUTTIING METHODS
The cutting method has a large influence in the quality of the finished product. Usually when cutting a log the goal is to obtain the largest volume of useful wood in a short period of time easily. Good selection of cutting method increases the value of the wood. Similarly bad selection of cutting method can destroy the whole log. There are three main ways to cut a log. They are 1. Plane sawn (Tangential sawn) 2. Quarter sawn 3. Rift sawn

PLANE SAWN (TANGENTIAL SAWN)

This is the simplest method of wood cutting. The log is squared and sawed lengthwise. Knots that occur are round or oval - shaped and have relatively little weakening effect on the timber piece. The annual rings appear as approximately straight lines running across grain. The lines join at the bottom. Wood cut this way shrinks and swells very little in thickness. There are some advantages of this method. It is easy to be done by any person who has a fair knowledge and a skill and it is also less expensive.

QUATETR SAWN
Wood cut with this method is called "quarter sawn if it is hardwood. If it is softwood it is called "edge grained" or "vertical grained". The log is sawed into quarters, then into boards. The angle between the cut and the growth rings varies from 90 degrees to about 45 degrees. In such wood, the lines formed by the rings run with the grain. Such timber pieces shrinks and swells less in width and wrapped less than plain sawn timber pieces. Another advantage is many species of wood shows beautiful patterns when they are quarter sawn.

RIFT SAWN
The logs are sawed at not less than 35 or more than 65 degrees to the annual rings, usually at about 45 degrees. In wood sawed this way, the rings appear as longitudinal lines. Rays always run longitudinally and are longer than lumber cut by the other methods.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THESE SAWING TECHNIQUES

Plan or Flat Sawn 1. Less waste but less stable. 2. Less time cutting. 3. More shrinkage in width. 4. Less expensive. 5. Wider widths.

Quartered or Rift Sawn 1. Most waste and most expensive. 2. Most stable but narrow widths. 3. Shrinks more in thickness than width. 4. More labor intensive.

QUALITIES OF GOOD TIMBER


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. It should be hart wood and shouldnt consist of any sap wood. It shouldnt have any defective parts like knots, shakes, resin pockets or warm holes. A uniform dark colour should be spread all over the wood. It should be properly seasoned without twisting, warping etc. It should be easily workable It should be strong and heavy. It must have a good resistance against fire. It shouldnt split out when nails are driven in to it or a pressure exerted over it.

PRESERVATION OF TIMBER
In order to protect the wood from internal decay and from insects attacks such as white ants, quality preservation must be given. This kind of preservation increases the durability of the timber structure and the quality of wood. A good preservation should have some characters. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It should be cheap and available. It shouldnt leave any mark on the timber. It should b able to penetrate in to the timber. It should be non flammable. It shouldnt give a stinky smell. It shouldnt help to corrode the metals which come to contact with the wood. It must be a poison for insects and funguses. It shouldnt be easily washed away by water. It shouldnt be fall of by heat, light or any natural effects. It must protect wood for a long period of time.

CARPENTARY TOOLS
There are number of tools used in wood working for various purposes for various tasks. Mainly we can divide these tools into four main groups. They are 1. 2. 3. 4. Cutting tools Geometric tools Holding and supporting tools Percussion and impelling tools

CUTTING TOOOLS
Cutting tools are used to cut and shape up the work piece in to desired dimensions.

SAWS The cutting ability of a saw blade depends upon three measurements, rake, pitch and set.

Rake This is the angle at which the teeth are ground.

Pitch This is the number of teeth per inch on the blade.

Set The teeth are offset on each side of the blade on a straight set blade, on fine toothed blades they may have a wavy set in which several teeth in a row will be offset to the same side.

The distance across the points of the teeth is known as the kerfs or the width of the cut.

TENNON SAW

There are number of saws which are used for various purposes. In our practical we used the Tennon saw because with the Tennon saw we can create a sharp and clear cutting.
Tenon Saw is the most used kind of backsaw. It is a medium sized saw. The stiff piece of metal along the top of the blade helps prevent the blade from bending during use and the added weight adds another level of control to the saw. Tenon Saws are available with two different kinds of teeth, depending on the cutting requirements. Rip-filed teeth can be used for rip cutting or cross-cut teeth can be used when cutting across the particle. This choice makes the Tenon Saw a very versatile tool in the workshop.

KEY HOLE SAW

The key hole saw is used to cut little holes through a wood work piece such as key holes.

HAND PLANERS

Hand planers are of four main types. 1. 2. 3. 4. Smoothing plane Jack plane Block plane Jointer plane

Basically these planes are used to create an even surface. By removing thin layers of wood we can create a smooth and well finished surface.

PARTS OF A HAND PLANE

SMOOTHING PLANE

These are 8" to 9" long and 1 3/4" to 2" wide. They are ideal for trouble spots where a board may have small piece that changes direction and has to be planed in different directions along its length. These planes cut a very fine shaving giving less chance of tear-out.

JACK PLANES

These are similar looking to smoothing planes but have a longer base, ranging from 12" to 15" in length. They are used for rough shaping of boards so are made to remove large quantities of wood quickly.

BLOCK PLANES

Block planes are designed to shear off end grain as the blade is mounted at a very low angle making them very useful in trimming and fitting.

JOINTERS

Jointers are very long planes used to flatten and joint the faces of boards. They range from 18" up to 30" or more.

WOOD CHISELS

Wood chisels are in size of 1/4" to 2" wide and in 1/8" graduations. They are available with wooden or plastic handles. Use a chisel about one half the width of the cut to be made. Thin cuts can be made by pushing by hand. Heavier cuts are made by tapping on the end with a wooden mallet.

GEOMETRIC TOOLS

These tools are used to take measurements for the desired dimensions on the wood piece. There are number of tools for measure various types of measurements such as angles, lengths, thicknesses, etc.

STEEL RULES

A good quality steel rule has many uses. Drawing plans, measuring material, aligning table saw wings and any other application where accuracy is necessary. They are available in various lengths, some have the markings starting from the edge, and others are indented. These are better for precise measurement since damage to the end will not affect the reading.

SLIDING BEVEL GAUGE

This tool has an adjustable blade which can be used to transfer angles to mark on a board to be cut or be used to set-up a power saw. It can also replace a try square but caution must be used so that the blade is not accidentally knocked out of square.

TRY SQUARE

It is made out of a steel tongue fixed into a wooden or steel handle. They range in size from 3" to 12". The use of this tool is to measure whether the angles are of 90 degrees. And also it can be used to measure a distance along a perpendicular line.

MARKING GUAGE

A marking gauge is used to mark a line parallel to a straight edge. The better quality gauges have brass inserts at the front of the stock. These help reduce the wear on the stock as it is pushed against the surface of the wood - to be marked. The marking gauge is an extremely important tool for marking parallel lines and preparing for cutting joints.

HOLDING AND SUPPORTING TOOLS

These are the tools which used to clamp or keep the work piece stationary while working. Working bench, Bench wise, Clampers and etc are such tools. Using correct holding tool for correct work helps to avoid work shop accidents. Also it helps to do the work accurately and speedily. So it indirectly relates with the quality of the work.

WORKING BENCH

BENCH WISE

Working Bench is normally made with a harder wood for its strength. All the works with the wood piece (work piece) are done on the bench. So it helps to hold the tools as well as the work piece. Most benches have two features in common. They are heavy and rigid enough to keep still while the wood is being worked, and there is some method for holding the work in place at a comfortable position and height so that the worker is free to use both hands on the tools. The main thing that distinguishes benches is the way in which the work is held in place. Most benches have more than one way to do this, depending on the operation being performed

BENCH WISE

In this wises the jaws are made of wood. They are usually faced with wood to avoid damaging the work piece. The top edges of the jaws are typically brought flush with the bench top by the extension of the wooden face above the top of the iron moveable jaw.

CRAMPERS

Cramp is a fastening device to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the process of work. Cramp is often used for temporary use for positioning components during wood working. The most common instrument is the Gcramp in wood working.

PERCUSSION AND IMPELLING TOOLS


These are tools those who dont have a direct connection with the work piece itself. They connect with the wood through another tool. Hammers, wooden mallets are some of these kinds of tools. Although there are many tools under this group we used only the wooden mallet for our practical with the chisels and with clamper.

WOODEN MALLET

WOOD JOINTS
Wood joints are considered as the heart of the wood working technology. For many purposes wood joints are used in the wood working field. Wood joints can be divided in to number of groups such as 1. 2. 3. 4. Lengthening joints Widening joints Strengthening joints Framing joints etc.

MITER JOINT
Miter joints are made by cutting the ends of the pieces on an angle equal to one half of the angle of the finished product. A square 90 corner is made by cutting each piece at a 45 angle. Finishing nails are usually needed with glue to strengthen the joint.

MORTISE AND TENON


Mortise and tenon joints consist of putting a square peg in a square hole, they hold extremely well and were used in most antique furniture building. The Mortise & Tenon joint is very strong and takes considerable work to construct. This joint works well for connecting chair or table rungs to legs

LAP JOINT
Lap joints are made by laying one piece on top of another. They can be used in angle or lengthwise joints. Half lap joints are when half of the thickness from each piece is removed, they can be made by hand with a saw and chisel, on a table saw.

HALF LAP JOINT

BASIC LAP JOINT

TONGUE & GROOVE JOINT


The Tongue & Groove joint is stronger than the Lap joint but requires more work to create. This joint works well on horizontal pieces like drawer supports or shelves.

DOWEL JOINT
The Dowel joint is very strong and requires care in locating the holes for the wood dowels. The dowels are usually made from .25" diameter birch or maple. This joint is typically used to join boards along their long edges

CROSS HALVING Half the thickness is removed from both pieces of timber where the cross. Mark out the width and depth of the recess in both pieces of timber and cut squarely to the depth line with the tenon saw. Use a chisel or pre-set router to remove the surplus material from between the cuts.

This joint was used in our practical.

DOVETAIL JOINT This join is used where a stronger joint is required. The sides of each half of the joint are cut at an angle of about 30 degrees so that when the joint is assembled, the separate pieces are locked together. Mark out the width and depth of the recess in the edge timber as for a T halving joint. Then mark the angle for the dove tail, this can be achieved by using an adjustable square or by measurement. Cut the angled sides of the dovetail down to the depth line with a tenon saw. Use a chisel to remove the extra material from between the cuts.

This joint was used in our practical.

SIMPLE MORTISE AND TENNON JOINT

This joint was used in our practical.

HIDDEN MORTISE AND TENNON JOINT

This joint was used in our practical.

T BRIDDLE JOINT

This joint was used in our practical.

DISSCUSSION
In this practical we got familiar with the wood working technology. There we got a good knowledge about various types of timbers, wood joineries, wood working tools, how to operate them correctly and many more. If we didnt do it correctly those tools can be very dangerous. Wood is a material which has been used by human for centuries. From early ages human has used wood to create equipments. Researchers have found that since the age of Neanderthals human have created tools to create things from wood. These tools were built with stones and animal bones. In those days they have commonly used wood javelins as a weapon. Lately ancient Egyptians invented many valuable things regarding wood working. They have made stools, beds, chairs and many more furniture with wood. In that time they had more developed tools to work with wood and even they had wood workshops.

When it comes to present days wood has became an essential media for human beings. From the birth to death our lives have bound with wood. When we did this practical we faced to lot of problems. Most of them were happened due to lack of experiences we had regarding wood working. We were totally new comers to the wood working field. We didnt have any knowledge about how to use the hand tools properly. At the start we couldnt find good timber pieces. Some of the pieces we took were with knots. Some times when we needed to use the saws we couldnt cut the work piece on the correct line. Sometimes we have cut the wood more than it needed to be cut. When we were using the planers we couldnt keep the balance and due to that the surface not finished properly and smoothly. We didnt have a good practice to adjust the planer well. So some time when we used the planer to shave out the surface it didnt shave the surface but peal out the surface and created a dent on the surface. When we worked with chisels sometimes our work piece was cracked due to wrong handling. Another problem was the timber we got was not well seasoned. First day we took measurements and we cut the work piece as mentioned in the drawing. But when we came in the second day after a week later the work piece was dried and the dimensions were not correct. Most of them have become smaller. Because of that it was really hard to fit the parts properly. Anyhow at the end we got a good knowledge about wood working technology which would be really helpful in our lives.

REFERENCES
http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Malle t%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Woo d%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Woo dworking%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Work bench%20%28woodworking%29%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http://www.finewoodworking.com/ToolGuide/ToolGuidePDF.aspx?id=26251 http://www.technologystudent.com/equip1/mgauge1.htm http://tenonsaw.net/ http://www.sawdustmaking.com/Chisels/wood_chisels.htm

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http://www.sawdustmaking.com/Clamps/clamps.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Clam ping/Clamp%20%28tool%29%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Clam ping/Vise%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm http:///C:/Users/HP/Documents/Engineering%20ebooks/Work%20Shop/Wood%20eBooks/Joints /Batch%20Production.htm http://www6.district125.k12.il.us/teched/Courses/TDresources/WoodJoints.html http://www.nafi.com.au