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PREPARED BY : MOHD FADHIL BIN RAMLE 1

PREPARED BY : MOHD FADHIL BIN RAMLE

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There are several types of printers: 1. Impact printer. 2. Bubble-jet printers. 3. Laser printers
There are several types of printers:
1. Impact printer.
2. Bubble-jet printers.
3. Laser printers (pages printers).
4. Other printers.
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Is an output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as

Is an output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film.

Is an output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper

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The most basic printer. Use some form of impact and an inked ribbon to make

The most basic printer. Use some form of impact and an inked ribbon to make an imprint on the paper. Like a typewriter. There are two major types of impact printers:

1. Daisy wheel

2. Dot matrix.

imprint on the paper. Like a typewriter. There are two major types of impact printers: 1.

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Contain a wheel (called daisy-wheel because it looks like a daisy) with raised letters and
Contain a wheel (called daisy-wheel because it
looks like a daisy) with raised letters and symbols
on each petal.
When the printer needs to print a character, it
sends a signal to the mechanism (printhead) that
contains the wheel.
The printhead rotates the daisy-wheel until the
required character is in replace.
An electromechanical hammer (called solenoid)
then strikes the back of the petal containin the
character.
The character pushes up against an inked ribbon
that ultimately strikes the paper, makin the
impression of the requested character.
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Speed is rated by the number of characters
per second (cps) they can print.
Disadvantages:
◦ The early printers could only print between two
and four characters per second.
◦ The other advantage is that it makes a lot of
noise when printing.
Advantages:
◦ Can print on multipart forms (like carbonless
receipts).
◦ Inexpensive compared to the price of laser
printer at the same vintage.
◦ The print quality (LQ) is comparable to that of a
typewriter because it uses a very similar
technology.
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A daisy-wheel printer mechanism 6
A daisy-wheel printer mechanism
A daisy-wheel printer mechanism

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These printers work in a manner similar to daisy- wheel printers, but instead of a

These printers work in a manner similar to daisy- wheel printers, but instead of a spinning, character-imprinted wheel, the printhead contains a row of pins (short, sturdy stalks of hard wire). These pins are triggered in patterns that form letters and numbers as the printhead move across the paper. The early dot-matrix printers used only nine pins to make those patterns. As more pins crammed into the printhead (17-pin and 24-pin models were eventually developed), the quality increased (Near Letter Quality).

into the printhead (17-pin and 24-pin models were eventually developed), the quality increased (Near Letter Quality).

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Formation of images in a dot-matrix printer 9
Formation of images in a dot-matrix printer
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Disadvantages: ◦ Image quality (draft quality) is quite poor compared to the quality produced with
Disadvantages:
Image quality (draft quality) is quite poor compared
to the quality produced with a daisy wheel.
Advantages:
◦ Print speed is faster (typically in the range of 36 to
72cps).
◦ Can use multipart forms.
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The pins in the printhead are wrapped with coils of wire to create a solenoid

The pins in the printhead are wrapped with coils of wire to create a solenoid and are held in the rest position by a combination of a small magnet and spring. To trigger a particular pin, the printer controller sends a signal to the printhead, which energizes the wires around the appropriate print wire. This turns the print wire into an electromagnet, which repels the print pin, forcing it against the ribbon and making a dot on the printer.

wire into an electromagnet, which repels the print pin, forcing it against the ribbon and making

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An advanced form of an older technology known as inkjet printers. Both types of printers

An advanced form of an older technology known as inkjet printers. Both types of printers spray ink on the pages, but inkjet printers used a reservoir of ink, a pump and an ink nozzle to accomplish this. Inkjet printer were messy, noisy an inefficient and bubble-jet printers work much more efficiently and are much cheaper. In a bubble-jet printer, bubbles of ink are sprayed onto a page and form patterns that resemble the items being printed.

a bubble-jet printer, bubbles of ink are sprayed onto a page and form patterns that resemble

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The printer parts can be divided into the following cateories. ◦ Printhead/ink catridge. ◦ Head
The printer parts can be divided into the
following cateories.
◦ Printhead/ink catridge.
◦ Head carriage, belt and stepper motor.
◦ Paper-feed mechanism.
◦ Control, interface and power curcuitry.
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Chamber
Inside the ink cartridge are small chambers.
At the top of each chamber are a metal
plate and a tube leading to the ink supply.
At the bottom of each chamber is a small
pinhole used to spray ink on the page to
form character and images as patterns of
dots (similar to a dot-matrix printer but
with higher resolution).
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Contains many small nozzles (usually 100- 200) that spray the ink in small dots onto the page. Many times the printhead is part of the ink catridge, which contain reservoir of ink and the printhead in a removable package. Colour bubble-jet printers include multiple printhead, one for each of the CMYK print inks.

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There are two methods of spraying the ink out of the catridge.

1.

First developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP):

When a particular chamber needs to spray ink, an electrical signal is sent to to the heating element, energizing it.

The elements heat up quickly, causing the ink to vaporize.

Because of the expanding ink vapor, the ink is pushed out the pinhole and forms a bubble.

As the vapor expands, the bubble eventually gets large enough to break off into a droplet.

The rest of the ink is pulled back into the chamber by the surface tension of theh ink.

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When another drop needs to be sprayed, the process begins again.

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2. Second method developed by Epson: ◦ Use a piezoelectric element that flexes when energized.

2.

Second method developed by Epson:

Use a piezoelectric element that flexes when energized.

The outward flex pushes the ink from the nozzle; on the return, it sucks more ink from the reservoir.

 

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Stepper motor and belt make the printhead carriage move. Stepper motor:

Move in the same very small increment each time it is activated.

Move the printhead.

Called carriage motor or carriage stepper motor.

 

Belt:

Placed around two small wheels or pulleys and attached to the printhead.

 

Called carriage belt, and driven by the carriage motor.

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Printhead carriage : moves back and forth during printing. Contains the physical as electronic connections

Printhead carriage : moves back and forth during printing. Contains the physical as electronic connections for the printhead and the ink reservoir. To keep the printhead carriage aligned and stable, the carriage rests on a small metal stabilizer bar.

and stable, the carriage rests on a small metal stabilizer bar . A printhead carriage in

A printhead carriage in

a bubble-jet printer

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A carriage stepper motor 20
A carriage stepper motor 20

A carriage

stepper

motor

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Stabilizer bar, carriage belt, and pulley in a bubble jet printer
Stabilizer bar, carriage belt, and pulley in a bubble jet printer

Stabilizer bar, carriage belt, and pulley in a bubble jet printer

21 Bubble-jet pickup rollers 23
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Bubble-jet pickup rollers
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Pickup Rollers. Several rubber rollers with a slightly flat spot; they rub against the paper

Pickup Rollers. Several rubber rollers with a slightly flat spot; they rub against the paper as they rotate, and feed the paper into the printer.

Separator pads. Keep the rest of the paper in place.

Paper Tray Holds the paper until it is fed into the printer.

Paper Feeder The paper is placed vertically into paper feeder at the back of the printer; it uses gravity with combination with feed rollers and separator pads, to get the paper into the printer.

of the printer; it uses gravity with combination with feed rollers and separator pads, to get
22 Bubble-jet seperator pads 24
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Bubble-jet seperator pads
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A paper tray on a bubble jet printer 25
A paper tray on a bubble jet printer
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Printer control circuit. Contains the circuitry to run the stepper motors. Monitoring the health of

Printer control circuit. Contains the circuitry to run the stepper motors. Monitoring the health of the printer and reporting that information back to the PC

Interface Circuit (commonly called a port).

Make a physical connection to whatever signal is coming from the computer (parallel, serial, SCSI, network, infrared and so on). Connect the interface to control circuit. Convert the signals from the computer into the datastream that the printer uses.

Power Circuits. Convert 110V or 220V into 12V and 5V.

from the computer into the datastream that the printer uses. Power Circuits. Convert 110V or 220V

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Paper-Feed Sensor. Tell the printer when it is out of paper, as well as when

Paper-Feed Sensor. Tell the printer when it is out of paper, as well as when a paper jam occurred during the paper feed process.

printer when it is out of paper, as well as when a paper jam occurred during

Paper-Feed Sensor

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Laser printers and inkjet printers are referred to as page printers because they received their printer job instructions one page at a time. Two major types of page printers:

Use the electrophotographic (EP) print process.

Use the light-emitting diode (LED) print process.

   

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light-emitting diode (LED) print process.     29 Basic Components Contains eight standard assemblies: ◦

Basic Components Contains eight standard assemblies:

Toner cartridge

Laser scanner

High-voltage power supply

 

DC power supply

Paper transport assembly

 

Transfer corona.

Fusing assembly

Controller circuitry

Ozone filter.

   

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Scientist at Xerox developed the electrophotographic (EP) process in 1971. Xerox, Hewlett-Packard and Canon were

Scientist at Xerox developed the electrophotographic (EP) process in 1971. Xerox, Hewlett-Packard and Canon were pioneer in laser printer technology. This technology uses a combination of static electric charges, laser light and a black powdery substance called toner.

This technology uses a combination of static electric charges, laser light and a black powdery substance

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TonerTonerTonerToner CartridgeCartridgeCartridgeCartridge Hold the toner. Toner = black carbon substance + polyster

TonerTonerTonerToner CartridgeCartridgeCartridgeCartridge Hold the toner. Toner = black carbon substance + polyster resins (to make it flow better) + iron oxide particles (to make the toner sensitive to electrical charges). This two components make the toner capable of being attracted to the photosensitive drum and of melting into the paper. Developer carries the toner until it is used by the EP process. Print Drum is coated with photosensitive material that can hold static charge when not exposed to light. Cleaning blade continuously scrapes the used toner off the photosensitive drum to keep it clean.

exposed to light. Cleaning blade continuously scrapes the used toner off the photosensitive drum to keep

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An EP toner cartridge
An EP toner cartridge

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The EP laser assembly (side view and simplified top view) 35
The EP laser assembly (side view and simplified top view)
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Laser Scanning Assembly Shine particular area of the photosensitive drum. The drum will discharge but

Laser Scanning Assembly Shine particular area of the photosensitive drum. The drum will discharge but only in that area. The laser light is damaging to human eyes, therefore the laser is kept in an enclosure and will operate when the laser printer’s cover is closed.

to human eyes, therefore the laser is kept in an enclosure and will operate when the

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High-voltage Power Supply (HVPS) EP process requires high-voltage electricity. HVPS provide the high voltages during

High-voltage Power Supply (HVPS) EP process requires high-voltage electricity. HVPS provide the high voltages during the EP process. Converts house AC current (120V and 60Hz) into higher voltages that the printer can use. This high voltage is used to energize both the charging corona and transfer corona.

that the printer can use. This high voltage is used to energize both the charging corona

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DC Power Supply (DCPS) The high voltage cannot power the other components in the printer

DC Power Supply (DCPS) The high voltage cannot power the other components in the printer (the logic circuit and motors). Convert house AC current into +5VDC, - 5VDC (for logic circuit) and +24VDC (for paper transport motor).

and motors). Convert house AC current into +5VDC, - 5VDC (for logic circuit) and +24VDC (for
37 Paper transport rollers 39
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Paper transport rollers
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Paper Transport Assembly Moving the paper through the printer. Feed roller : D-shaped roller that

Paper Transport Assembly Moving the paper through the printer. Feed roller: D-shaped roller that rotates again the paper and pushes one sheet into the printer.

Registration roller: there are two

registration roller that synchronize the paper movement with the image-formation process.

roller : there are two registration roller that synchronize the paper movement with the image-formation process.

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Transfer Corona Assembly Transfer corona is given a high-voltage charge which is transferred to the

Transfer Corona Assembly Transfer corona is given a high-voltage charge which is transferred to the paper which pulls the toner from the photosensitive drum.

Static –eliminator strip: drain away the

charge imparted to the paper by corona. Paper would stick to the EP cartridge and jam the paper if the charge didn’t away. Two type of transfer corona assemblies:

Contains a transfer corona wire

Contains a transfer corona roller

Two type of transfer corona assemblies: ◦ Contains a transfer corona wire ◦ Contains a transfer

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The transfer corona assembly 41
The transfer corona assembly 41

The transfer corona assembly

The transfer corona assembly 41

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The fuser 43
The fuser
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Fusing Assembly Use two rollers that apply pressure and heat to fuse the plastic toner

Fusing Assembly Use two rollers that apply pressure and heat to fuse the plastic toner particles to the paper. Made up of three parts: a halogen heating lamp, a Teflon-coated aluminum fusing roller and rubberized pressure roller. Halogen lamp heat the fusing roller to

between 165

o

C-180 o C.

As paper pass through the two rolles, the presure roller pushes the paper against the fusing roller which melts the toner into the paper.

the two rolles, the presure roller pushes the paper against the fusing roller which melts the

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Printer Controller Circuit Converts signals from the computer into signal for various assemblies in the

Printer Controller Circuit Converts signals from the computer into signal for various assemblies in the laser printer using process called known as

resterizing.

Formats the information into page’s worth of line-by-line commands for the laser printer.

known as resterizing. Formats the information into page’s worth of line-by-line commands for the laser printer.

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Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone
Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone

Ozone filter Ozone is a chemically reactive gas that created by the high-voltage coronas. Ozone can reduce the life of laser printers component. Ozone filter used to remove ozone gas. But, many newer laser printer don’t have ozone filter because they done use transfer corona wires but instead use transfer corona roller.

printer don’t have ozone filter because they done use transfer corona wires but instead use transfer
printer don’t have ozone filter because they done use transfer corona wires but instead use transfer
printer don’t have ozone filter because they done use transfer corona wires but instead use transfer

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STEP 1 : Cleaning Rubber blade inside EP cartridge scrapes any toner left on the

STEP 1 : Cleaning Rubber blade inside EP cartridge scrapes any toner left on the drum. Fluorescent lamp discharge any remaining charge on the photosensitive drum.

scrapes any toner left on the drum. Fluorescent lamp discharge any remaining charge on the photosensitive

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Electrophotographic (EP) Print Process. 1. Cleaning 2. Charging 3. Writing 4. Developing 5. Transferring 6.

Electrophotographic (EP) Print Process.

1. Cleaning

2. Charging

3. Writing

4. Developing

5. Transferring

6. Fusing

Electrophotographic (EP) Print Process. 1. Cleaning 2. Charging 3. Writing 4. Developing 5. Transferring 6. Fusing
46 The cleaning step of the EP process 48
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The cleaning step of the EP process
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STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge
STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge

STEP 2 : Charging special wire or roller (called charging corona) within EP toner cartridge gets high voltage to apply strong, uniform negative charge (around -600VDC) to the surface of the photosensitive drum.

gets high voltage to apply strong, uniform negative charge (around -600VDC) to the surface of the
gets high voltage to apply strong, uniform negative charge (around -600VDC) to the surface of the
gets high voltage to apply strong, uniform negative charge (around -600VDC) to the surface of the

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STEP 3 : Writing Laser is turn on and scans the drum from side to

STEP 3 : Writing Laser is turn on and scans the drum from side to side. The laser flashing on and off according to the bits of information. Wherever the laser beam touches, the photosensitive drum’s charge is severely reduced from -600VDC to a slight negative charge (-

100VDC).

As the drum rotates, a pattern of exposed area is formed, representing the image to be printed.

charge (- 100VDC). As the drum rotates, a pattern of exposed area is formed, representing the

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The charging step of the EP process
The charging step of the EP process
The charging step of the EP process
50 The writing step of the EP process 52
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The writing step of the EP process
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STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be

STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be printed.

STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be printed.
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be printed.
STEP 4 : Developing Surface of drum holds an electrical representation of image to be printed.

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STEP 5 : Transferring The controller sends a signal to the charging corona wire or

STEP 5 : Transferring The controller sends a signal to the charging corona wire or roller and tells it to turn on. The corona wire/roller acquires a strong positive charge (+600VDC) and apply that charge to the paper. The paper thus charged, pulls the toner from the photosensitive drum at the line of contact between the roller and paper, because the paper and have positive charge. Once the registration roller move the paper past the corona wire, the static-eliminator strip removes all charge from that linbe of the paper.

move the paper past the corona wire, the static-eliminator strip removes all charge from that linbe

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The developing step of the EP process 54
The developing step of the EP process 54
The developing step of the EP process
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The transferring step of the EP process 56
The transferring step of the EP process 56
The transferring step of the EP process 56

The transferring step of the EP process

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STEP 6 : Fusing The toner image is made permanent. As the paper passes through

STEP 6 : Fusing The toner image is made permanent. As the paper passes through the fuser, the 350oF fuser roller melts the polyester resin of the toner and rubberized pressure roller presses it permanently into the paper.

fuser roller melts the polyester resin of the toner and rubberized pressure roller presses it permanently
57 The EP print process 59
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The EP print process
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The fusing step of the EP process 58
The fusing step of the EP process 58
The fusing step of the EP process 58

The fusing step of the EP process

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Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page
Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page

Primarily developed by Okidata and Panasonic. There are two main differences between a LED page printer and a laser printer: toner cartridges and print process.

There are two main differences between a LED page printer and a laser printer: toner cartridges
There are two main differences between a LED page printer and a laser printer: toner cartridges
There are two main differences between a LED page printer and a laser printer: toner cartridges
There are two main differences between a LED page printer and a laser printer: toner cartridges
 

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LED Page Printer Process Same process as a laser printer. Use a row of small light-emitting diodes held very close to the photosensitive drum to expose it. Each LED is about the same size as the diameter of the laser beam used in laser printers. Basically same as EP process printers except that in the writing step , they used LED instead of a laser. Benefit:

Cheaper

Smaller

not dangerous to eye

Disadvantages over laser printer

Resolution 800dpi

Messier (because its slight static charge, toner isn’t easy to removefrom surfaces).

 
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LED Page Printer Toner Cartridges Photosensitive drum/toner and toner separate and replaceable item. When replacing

LED Page Printer Toner Cartridges Photosensitive drum/toner and toner separate and replaceable item. When replacing the photosensitive drum, you swing the photosensitive drum/toner cartridge out of the printer first. Filling the toner hopper is fairly easy.

you swing the photosensitive drum/toner cartridge out of the printer first. Filling the toner hopper is

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Printer Interface: collection of hardware and software that allows the printer to communicate with computer.

Printer Interface: collection of hardware and software that allows the printer to communicate with computer.

Hardware-port

Interface software-correct software for the platform being used.

   

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software for the platform being used.     65 SERIAL Send data one bit at a

SERIAL Send data one bit at a time.

 

PARALLEL Receiving data 8 bit at a time over eight separate wires. Faster than serial Parallel cable consists of DB-25 connector that connects to the computer and a male 36-pin Centronics connector. Cable long less than 10 feetlong. Should be IEEE 1284 compliant.

   

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Communication Types Ports used in getting the printed information from the computer to the printer.

Communication Types Ports used in getting the printed information from the computer to the printer. Eight major type: serial, parallel, Universal Serial Bus (USB), network, infrared, SCSI, IEEE 1394 and wireless.

Eight major type: serial, parallel, Universal Serial Bus (USB), network, infrared, SCSI, IEEE 1394 and wireless.

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Universal Serial Bus (USB) Most popular type of printer interface. Higher transfer rate than either

Universal Serial Bus (USB) Most popular type of printer interface. Higher transfer rate than either serial or parallel. Automatically recognizes new devices.

NETWORK Some newer printers (laser and LED printers) have special interface that allows them to be hooked directly to a network. This printers have a network interface card and ROM based software that allows them to communicate with networks, servers and workstations.

network interface card and ROM based software that allows them to communicate with networks, servers and

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INFRARED Many laser printers (and some computer) come with infrared transmitter/receivers so that they can

INFRARED Many laser printers (and some computer) come with infrared transmitter/receivers so that they can communicate with the infrared ports on many handhelds. The infrared interfaces are enabled by default on most computer, handhelds and printers.

SCSI Only few types of printers use SCSI interfaces to the PC: laser printers, dye-sublimation printers or typesetters Benefit:

There could be more than one device on a single SCSI connection through daisy chaining.

Fairly simple to implement.

◦

Had large throughput compared to other interfaces of time.

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IEEE 1394 FIREWIRE .supports devices with a maximum throughput of 800MBps and is capable of

IEEE 1394 FIREWIRE .supports devices with a maximum throughput of 800MBps and is capable of speeds up to 3.2Gbps.

WIRELESS Some printers have bulilt-in 802.11 interfaces or are hooked to 802.11 bridges with their built-in network cards. Another wireless technology is bluetooth with maximum range is 100 meters and most device work within 10meters.

Another wireless technology is bluetooth with maximum range is 100 meters and most device work within

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Need regular cleaning . The condition of both the platen and the print head direcly

Need regular cleaning . The condition of both the platen and the print head direcly impacts print quality. If too much dried ink and print fiber gets jammed into the print head, the pins might not be ejected by the springs. Never send print job onto dot matrix printer when there’s no paper installed. Both the print head and the platen need to be in proper alignment as well, if not, individual characters will shade from light to dark.

and the platen need to be in proper alignment as well, if not, individual characters will

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Printer errors will generally fall under one of four categories: 1. Communication errors. 2. Processing
Printer errors will generally fall under one of
four categories:
1. Communication errors.
2. Processing errors
3. Paper transport errors
4. Imaging errors
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2.
Processing Error
• Occur when the data gets to the printer, but
nothing but gobbledygook comes out.
• Frequently this is simply a corrupted printer
driver and can be fixed easily by reinstalling
driver.
• In laser printers, there are two other things
that can cause this: bad memory and chip
failure.
• Also cause by insufficient memory to process a
given job.
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1. Communication error • Occur when computer can’t find the printer. • First thing to

1. Communication error

Occur when computer can’t find the printer.

First thing to check is cable

Bypass the driver by opening a command prompt and copying an ASCII tect file directly to LPT1.

As example:

i. open notepad, type out a few characters and save the file as C:\document\test.txt.

ii. At command prompt, type copy C:\document\test.txt. LPT1 and see if the printer fires up and spits out the document.

If it does, you have physical connectivity to the printer. The problem is in the configuration.

Reinstall the driver and use the correct one this time.

to the printer. The problem is in the configuration. • Reinstall the driver and use the

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3. Paper transport error • Cause by paper jams or the paper not being picked

3. Paper transport error

Cause by paper jams or the paper not being picked up out of the delivery tray.

Paper jam cause by rollers are smooth and medium not supported (too light or too heavy) by printer.

delivery tray. • Paper jam cause by rollers are smooth and medium not supported (too light

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4. Imaging Errors • Cause by unwanted marks on the page, smearing, a totally black
4.
Imaging Errors
• Cause by unwanted marks on the page,
smearing, a totally black page, or skewed image.
• How to solve:
Pull the toner cartridge and in dim light open the
shutter and rotate the imaging drum around.
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