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Vocabulary chapter 29 Absorbtion- process by which drugs are transferred from the site of entry into the body

to the bloodstream. Adverse drug effect- undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effect of a drug. Allergic effect- immune system response that occurs when the body interprets the administration drug as foreign substance and from antibodies against it. Ampule- glass flask containing a single dose of medication for parenteral administration. Anaphylactic reaction- severe reaction occurring immediately after exposure to a drug; characterized by respiratory distress and vascular collapse AnaphylaxisAntagonist effect- combined effect of two or more drugs that produces less than the effect of each drug alone. Cumulative effect- condition that occurs when the body cannot metabolize a drug before additional doses are administered. Distribution- movement of drugs by the circulatory system to the site of action. Drug tolerance- tendency of the body to become accustomed to a drug over time; larger doses are required to produce the desired effects. Excretion- removal of a drug from the body. Generic name- name assigned by the manufacturer who first develops a drug; it is often derived from the chemical name. Half-life- the amount of time it takes for half a dose of a drug to be eliminated from the body. Idiosyncratic effect- unusual, unexpected response to a drug that may manifest itself by overresponse, underresponse, or response different from the expected outcome. Inhalation- (1) act of breathing in; synonym for inspiration; (2) administration of a drug in solution via the respiratory tract.

Intradermal injection- injection placed just below the epidermis. Intramuscular injection- an injection into deep muscle tissue, usually of the buttock, thigh, or upper arm. Intravenous route- injection of a solution into the vein. Metabolism- (1) chemical changes on the body by which energy is provided; (2) breakdown of a drug to an inactive form; also referred to as biotransformation. Mini-infusion pump- battery-operated pump for intermittent infusion allowing medication mixed in a syringe to be connected to the primary line and delivered by mechanical pressure applied to the syringe plunger. Official name- name by which a drug is identified in official publications. Parenteral- outside of intestines or alimentary canal; popularly used to refer to injection routes. Peak level- highest plasma concentration of a drug. Pharmacodynamic- process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body. Pharmacokinetic- movement of drug molecules in the body in relation to the drugs absorbtion, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Pharmacology- study of actions of chemical on living organisms. Pharmacotherapeutic- dynamic that achieves the desired therapeutic effect of the drug without causing the undesirable effects. Piggyback delivery system- intermittent IV administration of medications through a primary IV line, with the additive container positioned higher than the primary IV solution. Placebo- Latin work meaning, I shall please; an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it. p.r.n. order- directives commonly written for treatment of symptoms as needed. stat order- single order carried out immediately.

Subcutaneous injection- injection into the subcutaneous tissue that lies between the epidermis and the muscle. Synergistic effect- combined effect of two or more drugs is greater than the effect of each drug alone. teratongenic- known to have potential to cause developmental defects in the embryo or fetus. therapeutic range- that concentration of drug in the blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing toxicity. topical application- application of a substance directly to a body surface. toxic effect (toxicities)- specific groups of symptoms related to drug therapy that carry risk for permanent damage or death. trade name- drug name selected and trademarked by the company marketing the drug; also called brand name or proprietary name. trough level- the point when a drug is at its lowest concentration. vial- glass bottle with self-sealing stopper through which medication is removed; may be single or multiple dose. volume-control administration set- intermittent intravenous medication infusion diluted with a small amount of solution. Z-track technique- technique used to administer medications intramuscularly that ensures the medication does not leak back along the needle track and into the subcutaneous tissue, reducing pain and discomfort.