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AIU APA Style Guide

FALL 2009

Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE

AIU APA Style Guide Fall 2009

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE

Table of Contents Note. Click on the subject or page number to go to that section Subject Introduction/ Limitations on scope of use and applicability References Books One Author Two or more authors Book with edition Book with edition and Jr or Sr. in authors name Edited book One editor Two editors Elements of a reference to an article or chapter in an edited book Encyclopedia or dictionary Authored entry Online dictionary, handbook or encyclopedia reference Reference retrieved from a library collection Review of a book Brochure Journal Articles One author Two authors Three to Six authors More than six authors Article in an internet only journal Journal articles from library subscription databases Magazine article Online copy Hard copy Newspaper article With author (by-line) No author listed Article on discontinuous pages Online newspaper article Web pages Author listed No author listed No publication date listed Blog posting Discussion forum posting Audiovisual Media Page # 6

7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 18 18

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Motion pictures Television Broadcast Television series Single episode from a television series Streaming video Review of a video game Review of a video Music Artwork Retrieved from an article or book in a library database Retrieved from the web Technical, Research, and Government Reports United States Government Nongovernmental publishers PowerPoint Presentations Podcasts Software Non-retrievable Information Referencing elements of the AIU Online virtual campus site Discussion Board Post Chat posting Multimedia Course Materials Online Textbook Citations (In-text and parenthetical) In-text citations Paraphrased Quoted Parenthetical citations Paraphrased Quoted Author name suffixes Same author, same date, two different sources Three or more authors of one source More than six authors of one listed source Ten or more authors of one listed source In text citations to source with no author listed Example citation of an unauthored article Example citation of an unauthored book Two or more unauthored sources which also have the same first few words in the title Block quotations Secondary or indirect citations General information Plagiarism and self plagiarism What is Self Plagiarism and will it have an effect on a student? 18 19 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 27

28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 33

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Paraphrasing Basic guidelines for formatting citations (in-text citations and parenthetical citations) Basic guidelines for direct quotations of online material without pagination Basic guidelines for formatting the paper and References page Abbreviations Publishers locations Numbers in the text At beginning of sentence Common fractions Common phrases Lists in text Numbered lists Bulleted list List in a sentence Bulleted list in a sentence Formatting the document and citing sources in PowerPoint Presentations Undergraduate student research paper considerations Third person Abstract Masters level research paper considerations Sources Monograph as part of a journal issue Abstract as original source Conference paper retrieved online Figures Personal photographs as figures Citing photos from outside sources Citing other image types Clip art as figures Figures taken from outside sources Created by the student from sources Citing works of art discussed in text Taken from an article or book in a library database Found on the web Headings Appendixes Legal referencing Court decisions Appealed Case State trial court opinion Federal district court opinion Case appeal to state supreme court Case appealed to state court of appeals Case decided by U.S. Supreme Court 34 34 36 36 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 45 45 47 48 49 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 55 55

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Statutes Statute in a state code Statute in a federal code Legislative Materials Full Federal Hearing Enacted federal bills and resolution Administrative and Executive Materials Federal Regulations Executive Order References

56 56 57 57 58 58

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE AIU APA Guide APA Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension (American Psychological Association, 2009, What is APA Style?). Since 1929, the style has been adopted by professional groups and publishers in many fields, and is used in university programs, departments and courses worldwide, making it among the most

commonly used citation styles. Effective and accurate use of APA style, sometimes called APA format or APA rules, is required of every student at AIU. Limitations on scope of use and applicability Please note that the rules and guidelines in this document should be followed in any documents submitted as course work at AIU only. Other institutions or publishers which require the use of APA may modify APA rules, delete selected rules, or apply them differently than does this guide.

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Books One author (APA 7.02:18, p. 203) Example reference. Johnson, J. M. (2008). The joy of theory (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Structure. Author. (date). Title of book (ed.). Where published: Who published. Two or more Authors Example Reference. Nelson, B., Phillips, A., Enfinger, F., & Steuart, C. (2004). Computer forensics and investigations. Boston: Thomson Learning. Structure. Authors. (date). Title of book. Where published: Who published. Note. Only the first word of the title is capitalized, but if there is a proper noun, such as New York, Eiffel Tower, Donald Trump, those are also capitalized. The first word in a title after a dash or a colon (colons are used for subtitles) is also capitalized. Book with edition Example Reference.

Saferstein, R. (2007). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Structure. Author(s). (date). Title of book (edition.). Where published: Who published.
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Note. Do not put the th, st, nd in the edition in a superscript. Many word processing programs automatically make superscripts; a student may have to override this. Book with edition and Jr., or Sr. in name Example Reference. Costantine, J. W., Jr., & Brown, J. (2008). Organizational overview: An introduction to organizational behavior (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Structure. Author(s) (date). Title of book (ed.). Where published: Who published. Note. After the first initial of the author, give the period, then a comma, then Jr, and final period. Suffixes such as Jr. are not included in the in text citation, but are included in the references section of the paper. Edited book One editor. Example Reference. Kasraie, M. (Ed.). (2008). Business classes can be fun! Boston: Oxford University Press. Structure. Name of editor. (Ed.). (date). Title of book (ed.). Where published: Who published. Note. Use the capital E for editor (Ed.) and the lowercase e for edition (ed.). Two editors.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example Reference. Krasraie, M., & Douglas, E. (Eds). (2003). Mathematics leads the way to success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Structure. Names of editors (Eds.). (date). Title (ed.). Where published: Who published. Note. When there is more than one editor, do not forget the letter s as in (Eds.).

Elements of a reference to an article or chapter in an edited book. Example Reference. Ver Steeg, J. (2008). Library resources are invaluable. In Johnson, J., & Sheetz, M. (Eds.), How to prepare a research paper (pp. 121- 183). New York: Pearson. Structure. Author. (date). Title of chapter. In Names of editors (Eds.), Title of book (pp. inclusive pages). Where published: Who published. Note. There is no punctuation after the title of the book. The punctuation goes after the inclusive pages. Encyclopedia or dictionary Authored entry. (APA 7.02:27, p. 204) Example Reference. Domaratskaya, E. (Ed.). (2009). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (8th ed., Vols 1-14). London: Macmillan.
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Structure. Editor(s). (Ed(s).). (date). Title of dictionary (edition, volume). Where published: who published. Note. There is no period after the title; the period goes after the edition and volume(s). Grove is a proper noun; and therefore it is capitalized in the example. Online dictionary, handbook or encyclopedia reference. Example reference. Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/ Structure. Authors. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Names of editors (Ed.), Title (Ed.). (Volume number and page numbers, if given). Retrieved from web address. Reference (dictionary, handbook or encyclopedia reference) retrieved from a library collection Example reference. Shapka, J. D., Domene, J. F., & Keating, D. P. (2008). Gender, mathematics achievement, and the educational and occupational aspirations of Canadian youth. In Watt, H. M. G.& Eccles, J. S., (Eds.), Gender and occupational outcomes: Longitudinal assessments of individual, social, and cultural influences (pp. 27-54).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from PsycBooks database. Structure.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Names of editors (Ed. or Eds.), Title (ed., if given). (Volume number and page numbers, if given). Location: Publisher. Retrieved from Name of collection database. Review of a book. (APA 7.06:45, p. 209) Example Reference.

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Johnson, J. M. (2009). Learning by rote. [Review of the book Psychology: An insiders view, by J. W. Smith & S. P. Douglass]. Science, 248, 148. Retrieved from the Criminal Justice Periodicals Index. Structure. Author (date). Title. [designation of type name of book, author(s) of book]. Journal or magazine, volume, page. Retrieval information. Brochure Corporate author Example Reference. Research and Training Center for Downs Syndrome Sufficiency. (2003). Guidelines for household chores (3rd ed.) [Brochure]. Topeka, KS: Author. Structure. Name of corporation. (Year of publication). Title of Brochure (ed.). [Designation of type]. Where published: Who published. Notes. This is an example of a reference to a brochure written by a corporate or group author. The name of the corporation can be shortened, but the reader must be able to tell

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE the difference if there is more than one Research and Training Center listed in the references. Look in the section Citations for further information. Journal Articles One Author Example Reference. Curry, J. B. (2008). The downfall of our future: Setting up our juveniles for failure. Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 117-137. Structure.

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Author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Inclusive pages. Note. Inclusive pages are the first page number of the article, a hyphen, and the last page number of the article. Two authors Example Reference. Domaratskaya, E., & Curry, J. B. (2007, June 12). The hiring process for organizations. Business Weekly, 43(6), 111-118. Structure. Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue number), Inclusive pages. Three to six authors Example Reference, Smith, T., Jones, J., Johnson, A., & Cohen, F. (2005). A longitudinal study of delinquent youth in Great Britain: Ages twelve to seventeen. Journal of Adolescent Behavior, 45(8), 114 American Intercontinental University 2009

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125. Structure. Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Inclusive pages. More than six authors Example Reference. Sonaike, K., Curry, J. B., Ver Steeg, J., Sheetz, M., Douglas, E., Kasraie, M., et al. (2000). A cognitive study of children with a chromosome 18 deficiency. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 64(9), 113-127. Structure. Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Inclusive pages. Note. List the first six listed authors in the reference, then add the Latin abbreviation et al. rather than listing all remaining authors. Look in the section Citations for information on the in-text and parenthetical citation of works with three to six and more than six authors. Article in an internet only journal Example reference. Smith, T., Jones, J., Johnson, A., & Cohen, F. (2005). A longitudinal study of delinquent youth in Great Britain: Ages twelve to seventeen. Journal of Adolescent Behavior, 45(8), 114125. Retrieved from http://www.agric456.edu/vol44is22/html Structure.
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Author(s). (Date of publication).Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Inclusive pages. Retrieval information. Note. References to web material should provide the exact page address and not the higher level web site address or that of an index page. If the web page does not provide all information about the article such as the volume, issue or inclusive pages - the exact web address will lead readers to the information that is available. The web address should not be a hyperlink or be clickable. When creating the references list, cut and paste the web address into the list, then highlight the web address, and right click the mouse. Youll see a little box with several choices. Select Remove Hyperlink, and the blue font and underlining in the web address will go away, as well as the link. Journal articles from library subscription databases Journal articles can be found using the Find Articles and Books page on the online campus site, accessed from the campus library portals on the MyCampus portal, and in online collections in other libraries the world over. Example reference. Greenleaf, E., & Winer, R. (2002). Putting the customer back into customer relationship management (CRM). Advances in Consumer Research, 29(1), 357-360. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Structure. Author(s). (Date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number (issue number), page number(s). Retrieval information name of collection database. Note.
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List the authors in the order given in the original article, last name first and initials for first and middle names. The periodical title and volume number are italicized. Magazine article (APA 7.01:7, p.200) Online article. Example reference. Perina, K. (2009, August). In defense of jealousy. Psychology Today, 42(4), 5. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/magazine/archive/2009/08/000099994 Structure. Author(s). (year, month). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Inclusive pages. Retrieval information Hard copy. Example reference. King, S. T., & Squire, C. W. (2009, April). The neuro-functions of the brain. Science Digest, 180, 1117-1128. Structure: Author(s). (Year, month). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, Inclusive pages. Newspapers articles With author (by-line) (APA 7.01:10, p. 200) Example reference. Johnson, B. L. (2009, April 1). The joy of shopping in outlet stores vs. retail stores. The St. Petersburg Times, p. A5. Structure.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Author. (year, month day). Title of article. Name of Newspaper, p. Section and Page number. No author listed Example reference.

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The joy of shopping in outlet stores vs. retail stores. (2009, April 1). The St. Petersburg Times, p. A5. Structure: Title of article. (year, month day). Name of Newspaper, p. Section and Page number(s). Article published on discontinuous pages Example reference. The joy of shopping in outlet stores vs. retail stores. (2009, April 1). The St. Petersburg Times, p. A5, A7, A9. Structure. Title of article. (year, month day). Name of Newspaper, p. Section(s) and Page number(s). Online newspaper article (APA 7.01:11, p.200) Example reference. Schmidt, T. J. (2008, February 3). Does obesity have an effect upon your social status? The New York Times, pp. A20, A22. Retrieved from http://www.newyorktimes.com/rrrrr/123/stuff Structure: Author. (year, month day). Title of article..Name of newspaper, Section and Page numbers if noted. Retrieval information Web pages Author listed
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example reference. Jones, M. (2006). Children are fun. Retrieved from http://wwww.childrenrule.org/fun Structure: Author(s), (date). Title of paper. Retrieved from Note. Do not give the title of the larger website as the name of the author. You may give the

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sponsoring body as the group or corporate author in the case of documents with no author listed posted on a corporation site. When in doubt, however, cite as no listed author. Note that it is retrieved from the exact web address of the page where the material can be found, not the web address of the homepage of the larger site, or an index page. Give the full web address including the prefix http:// There is no period after the web address in a reference. No author listed Example reference Children are fun. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.childrenrule.org/fun Structure. Name of paper. (date). Retrieved from No publication date listed Example reference. Children are fun. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.childrenrule.org/fun Structure. Title of paper. (no date abbreviation). Retrieved from Note. n.d. stands for no date and is not capitalized.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Blog posting Example reference. Boeninger, C. (2009, February 10). The state of the news media 2008 [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.library.ohiou.edu/subjects/businessblog/ Structure.

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Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog entry [Web log message]. Retrieved from web address Note. If the blogger posted under a screen name, use that as the author name. For example, if the author is AdmiralAckbarRules1981, use that. Discussion forum posting Example reference. Merv123. (2007, August 20). Mail all going to bulk [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.library.ohiou.edu/subjects/businessblog/ Structure. Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog entry [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from web address. Note. If the poster posted under a screen name, use that as the author name. For example, if the author is AdmiralAckbarRules1981, use that. Audiovisual Media Motion pictures Example reference. Scorsese, M. (Director), & Getchell, R. (Writer). (1975). Alice doesnt live here anymore
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures. Structure. Name of the Producer (or director) and writer and their functions in parentheses. (Year of release). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Movie studio. Note If the focus of the reference in your work is on the Writer or the Director or even the Producer, that persons name would be listed first in your reference. Television Broadcast Example reference.

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Vickers, D. (Executive Producer). (2009, April 13). The Tonight Show with Jay Leno [Television broadcast]. New York: National Broadcasting Company. Structure. Producer name (Producer). (Date of airing-year, month date). Name of show [Television broadcast]. Where produced: Who produced. Television Series Example reference. Johnson, R. (Producer). (1999). The universe [Television series]. New York: WNET. Structure. Producer name.(Producer). (year of the series). Name of the series [Television series]. Where it was aired: Call letters of the television station which produced/aired the series. Single episode of a television series (APA 7..07:51, p. 210)
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example reference. Hall, B. (Writer), & Bender, J. (Director). (1991). The rules of the game [Television series episode]. In J. Sander (Producer), Ill fly away. New York: New York Broadcasting Company. Structure. Writer (Writer) & director (Director). (Year of series). The title of the specific episode [Television series episode]. In Producer of the series (Producer), Title of the series. Where televised: Name of broadcasting company. Note. List the script writer(s) first, followed by the director. Identify their functions in

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parentheses. Place the name of the producer of the series where an editor name would typically be in the reference to a work in an edited anthology. Streaming video Example reference. Kloft, M. (Producer/Director). (2008). Walt Whitman [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/whitman/program/ Structure. Producer/Director (Producer/director). (Year file uploaded). Title [Video file]. Retrieval information Note. If the video is found on a video sharing site like YouTube, give any information available. For example, this posting below did not give author or producer information, so the reference will look like that of a resource with no author:
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Walt Whitman [Video file]. (2008, September 18). Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cm-n9wFZMiE Review of a Video Game (no author or date of publication) (APA 7.06:47, p.209) Example.

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[Review of the video game ShockWorld, produced by 3KS Games, 2007] (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whatagame.com/products/arcade/w34wrw Structure. Author. (Year of publication). Title of review. [Review of Title of Game, producer, year]. Retrieved from web address. Note. If the review has no title and no author given, begin the reference with the bracketed description of the review as shown. Review of a video (APA 7.07:49, p.209) Example. Deadwood: The Complete Series, Seasons 1-3. (2009, August). [Review of the DVD Deadwood: The Complete Series, Seasons 1-3. Produced by Home Box Office, 2009]. Wild West, 22 (2), 77. Retrieved from the Masterfile Premier database. Structure. Author. (Year of publication). Title of review. [Review of DVD Title of video, producer, year]. Periodical information if needed. Retrieval information if needed. Music Example
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Pop, I., & Williamson, J. (1973). Search and destroy. On Raw Power [CD]. New York: Columbia Records. Structure. Songwriter(s). (Year of copyright). Title of song. On Title of album [CD, mp3, or other file designation]. Location: Label. Note. List the songwriters name first, then the year of copyright, followed by the title of the

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song and the recording artist, if the artist is different than the writer. Often the recording artist is different from the songwriter, in which case each needs to be named, but if they are the same person, the name does not have to be listed twice. Artwork Retrieved from an article or book in a library database Example. da Vinci, L. (c. 1500-1507). Mona Lisa. [Painting]. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Retrieved from Grove Art Online database. Structure. Artist. (Year, or range of years, following the abbreviation c., for circa). Title. [Type of artwork, i.e. Painting, Sculpture]. Museum in which it resides, Museum location. Retrieved from name of database. Retrieved from the web Example. da Vinci, L. (c. 1500-1507). Mona Lisa. [Painting]. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Retrieved from http://www.louvre.fr/media/repository/ressources/sources/illustration/atlas/
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE x196image_64 477_v2_m56577569830685177.jpg Structure.

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Artist. (Year, or range of years, following the abbreviation c., for circa). Title. [Type of artwork: Painting, Sculpture]. Museum in which it resides, Museum location. Retrieval information Technical, Research and Government Reports United States Government Example. If you do not know the department from which it came. U.S. Government Printing Office. (2007). Climate change research: Agencies have data-sharing policies but could do more to enhance the availability of data from federally funded research (Publication no. GAO-07-1172). Washington, DC: Author. If you do know the department from which it came. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). Climate change research: Agencies have data-sharing policies but could do more to enhance the availability of data from federally funded research (Publication no. GAO-07-1172). Washington, DC: Author. Structure. Specific department or printing office. (Date of publication). Title of report (Publication number). Where published: Who published. Note. If the author and publisher are the same agency, give Author at the end of the Reference as publisher.

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Nongovernmental publishers Example. Jones, S.G. & Libicki, M.C. (2008). How terrorist groups end: Lessons for countering al Qa'ida. (Publication no. MG-741-RC). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Structure. Authors. (Date of publication). Title of report (Publication number). Where published: Who published. PowerPoint presentations Example Indiana Department of Corrections. (n.d.). Diversity in the workplace [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from http://www.in.gov/idoc/files/Culture.ppt Structure. Author (often a corporation). (Year). Name of presentation [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Podcasts (APA 7.07:50, pg 210) Example reference Wolbe, D. (Producer). (2009, February 13). Pre-MWC edition [Audio Podcast] Retrieved from http://podcasts.engadget.com/3w3 Structure. Producer or writer name. (designation as Producer or Writer). (year, month. day). Title of podcast [Type of podcast noted]. Retrieved from Software
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example Mazzoni, D. (2009). Audacity (Version 1.2) [Computer software]. Available from http://audacity.sourceforge.net/download/ Structure.

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Author or developer. (Year). Title of Software (version number if applicable) [Designation that it is computer software]. Retrieval information. Note. APA rules stipulate that software such as Microsoft Office, or programming languages like Java or C++, do not need to be cited. However, if the software is unique and from a smaller vendor, if you are writing a review of the software itself, or if you used information from the program in your assignment, it must be cited. Look for publisher information on the packaging of the software, or go to the software producers website and look for that information. If the software was downloaded from the web, follow the same format in creating the reference, but instead of the publisher name and location, give the web address where the software may be downloaded as shown above. Non-retrievable Information Information obtained from interviews, phone conversations, e-mail messages, and so forth are unpublished and irretrievable, APA rule state that this source cannot be listed in the References at the end of the paper, but there must be an in-text citation when using information from irretrievable sources, as in this example: While speaking to Sgt. T. Johnson (personal communication, March 26, 2009), he stated .... Structure IN sentence.

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE First initial. Last name (phrase personal communication, Month day and year of communication.), actual communication in quotes Referencing elements of the AIU Online virtual campus site Students attending AIU Online have access to sources which are unavailable to anyone

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who is not affiliated with the online campus. While online students may use this information in their coursework, they are not able to cite them in work outside the university, because technically a References page must list information to which the reader may gain access. Because these sources are outside of APA referencing rules, we recommend these reference formats based on APA for the purpose of using this information in Online coursework. Discussion Board Post Example. Jones, J. (2009, January 6). Discussion board posting. Retrieved from AIU Online Virtual Campus. Understanding the learning process: EDU610-0903A-02 website. Structure. Name of posting student (year, month day). Discussion board posting or discussion thread title, if available. Retrieved from School. Name of course: course number term number and section number website. Note. There are no page numbers on the discussion board posting, so the in-text citation format for a quote looks the same as that for a paraphrase, but dont forget to place quotation marks around any direct quote used.

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For most archived information on the virtual campus, a web address may or may not be displayed at the top of the page, but it rarely will lead a reader back to the source used, so we recommend leaving it off the reference to such materials. Chat Posting Example. Curry, J. (2008, March 26). Chat posting. Retrieved from AIU Online Virtual Campus. First week chat-APA. Juvenile Justice: CRJ310-0903A-01 website. Structure. Name of Poster. (Year, Month day). Chat posting. Retrieved from school. Name of chat. Name of course: course number term number and section number website. Multimedia Course Materials Example. AIU Online. (2009). BUS 300: Unit 2: Models of decision making [Multimedia presentation]. Retrieved from AIU Online Virtual Campus. Decision Making: BUS3000903B:04 website. Structure. Corporate author. (year). Class number: unit number: Title of presentation [Multimedia presentation]. Retrieved from school. Name of course: course number term number and section number website. Note. The title is sometimes not given in the presentation. If not, look for it in the text version of the presentation that is linked in the classroom. Online text book
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE (APA 7.02:19, p. 203) Example. Siegel, L. J., Welsh, B. C., & Senna, J. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice and law [Online version]. Retrieved from AIU Online Virtual Campus. Juvenile Delinquency: CRJ310-0903A:01 website. Structure. Author(s). (Date). Title [Online version]. Retrieved from campus. Name of Course: course number term number and section number website. Citations (In-text and parenthetical) In-text citations Paraphrased information.

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According to Johnson (2008), theories constantly change as our society changes. Quoted information in-text citation. Johnson (2008, p.43) stated, Although we would like to say that theories are the basic idea of why we behave in a certain manner, these theories are in a constant flux as our society adapts to change. Or: Johnson (2008) stated, Although we would like to say that theories are the basic idea of why we behave in a certain manner, these theories are in a constant flux as our society adapts to change (p. 43). Parenthetical citations Paraphrased information. Theories constantly change as our society changes (Johnson, 2008).
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Quoted information. Johnson stated, Although we would like to say that theories are the basic idea of why we behave in a certain manner, these theories are in a constant flux as our society adapts to change (2008, p. 43). Or: Johnson (2008) stated, Although we would like to say that theories are the basic idea of why we behave in a certain manner, these theories are in a constant flux as our society adapts to change (p. 43). Note. Whether incorporated in text or placed at the end of a quote, the citation is placed in the text: not in the References list, to which these in-text citations refer, nor in footnotes or endnotes. Author name Suffixes Suffixes such as Jr. are not included in the citation, but are included in the References section of the paper. Same author, same date, two different sources (APA 7.02:19, p. 182) When listing two or more works by the same author written in the same year in the References list, add lowercase letters directly following the publication year, starting with a for the first article, b for the second, c for the third, and so on. Sequence the articles in alphabetical order by title: Examples. Internal Revenue Service. (2009a). Business expenses. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article/0,,id=109807,00.html
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Internal Revenue Service. (2009b). Small business forms and publications. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article/0,,id=99200,00.html

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This affects the in text citation, because an in-text citation to the first document would be (Internal Revenue Service, 2009a), while a citation to the second would be (Internal Revenue Service, 2009b). Three or more authors of one source The first text citation to information taken from the document lists all authors full last names, for example: (Nelson, Phillips, Enfinger, & Steuart, 2004). All additional citations to this source in the same paragraph are written (Nelson et al). In following paragraphs, it would be (Nelson et al., 2004) for the first mention, and then (Nelson et al.) for each text citation to the source in the remainder of the paragraph. Omit the year from all other subsequent citations within the same paragraph. For example, Nelson et al. found.... In subsequent paragraphs, you will need to list the year again the first time you cite information from this source. More than six authors of one listed source List all authors in the reference, but in citations, give only the last name of the first author followed by et al. in the text. Ten or more authors of one listed source Both the reference and the in-text citation would only list the first authors name and then et al. after that for every in-text citation to the work. For example, Example citation.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE (Nelson et al., 2004). In text citations to source with no author listed Give the works title in the text, or give the first few words of the works title in the in-

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text citation and include the year of publication. In the parenthetical citation, the first few words of the titles of articles and chapters should be enclosed in quotation marks. The first few words of the titles of books and reports should be italicized, and the in-text citation should retain the capitalization of the original title, unlike the references list, where only the first word of the title, subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized. Example parenthetical citation to an unauthored article. Suitable sites for renewable energy facilities often exist in areas where those in the community are eager to see the land reused (Producing Renewable Energy, 2008). Example parenthetical citation to an unauthored book. Suitable sites for renewable energy facilities often exist in areas where those in the community are eager to see the land reused (Producing Renewable Energy, 2008). Two or more unauthored sources which also have the same first few words in the titles If a source from which you quote has no author listed, use a shortened version of the title as part of the in text citation as noted above. If one wants to cite both of the following unauthored documents in one paper: Children Are Fun in New York, But Boring in Vermont Children Are Fun in Florida, But Sunburned The references would have to indicate which is which with a subscript lowercase letter after the date, with the first listed article being the one that comes first alphabetically: Children are fun in Florida, but sunburned. (2006a). Retrieved from
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE

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http://www/children/Florida/sunburn/3432html Children are fun in New York, but boring in Vermont. (2006b). Retrieved from http://www.children/fun/NewYork/Vermont/23424html Example citations of the above. ` Similarly, the in-text title must go out to the first word that differs between the titles.

(Children Are Fun in Florida, 2006a) (Children Are Fun in New, 2006b) Block quotations If the quotation incorporated in text is more than 40 words long, you must use a block quotation. This is a block quotation, which has no quotation marks around it, but is tabbed in five spaces from the documents own left margin. If this block quotation comprised another paragraph from the original source, that new paragraph would again be tabbed in five spaces from the left margin of the block quotation. In a block quotation, you should not use any quotation marks at all unless they are single quote marks to indicate a quotation within the original text. Note also that the end period is before, and not after, the in-text citation. (Citation here) Secondary or indirect citations Some sources refer to information written or research performed by people other than the author(s) of the source. APA refers to this type of information as indirect or secondary information. If you cite information from a source that was cited in the source you read, give the original source (the source your source cited) in your parenthetical or in-text citation. List the secondary source (the work you actually read) in the references list.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example citations.

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Marr, Nofsinger, and Trimble (1993) argue that the private pension system is threatened by those who specifically seek out economically targeted investments (as cited in Watson, 1994). Watson (1994) refers to Marr, Nofsinger, and Trimbles 1993 research, which argues that the private pension system is threatened by those who specifically seek out economically targeted investments. The study by Jones (2003), as cited in Birzer & Roberson (2007), was both valid and replicable. General Information Plagiarism and self plagiarism Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due (APA Ethics Code Standard 8:11, Plagiarism). Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e. summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 15) The key element of this principle is that authors do not present the work of another as if it were their own work. This can extend to ideas as well as written words (APA, 2010, p.16). Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your thesis, provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. (APA, 2010, p. 169)

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are

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encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text (APA, 2010, p. 171). The requirement that the paragraph or page number be included when citing paraphrased material is at the discretion of your instructor: who may or may not require it. Does Self Plagiarism apply to student work? Self plagiarism usually has an effect on researchers who publish their work and then they publish in a different journal but use some of their own words. They must credit themselves (American Psychological Association, 2010). When feasible, all of the authors own words that are cited should be located in a single paragraph or a few paragraphs, with a citation at the end of each. Opening each paragraph with a phrase like as I have previously discussed will also alert readers to the status of the upcoming material (APA, 2010). In other words, when you quote your own previously written works, put your prior words in one or two paragraphs and make those paragraphs a block quotation, (assuming the quoted material is over forty words long). (APA, 2010) Paraphrasing (APA 6.04, p.171) When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number [in the in-text citation], especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage (APA, 2010, p.171).

Basic guidelines for formatting in-text citations and parenthetical citations The citation should be enclosed in parentheses.
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Citations should not be italicized, except for the short version of a book title used in an in text citation to a source with no author. Give the authors last name and publication date for the in-text citation of paraphrased material. For a citation to quoted material, add a page number or (in the case of material from a source with no page numbers given) a paragraph number, if listed. Do not give the full first and last name or just first and last initials of the author in the citation. If the article is a PDF file (.pdf) with stable page numbers, use the page number in any intext citation to a direct quote, as when quoting a print source. In the citation of direct quotations from sources which provide page numbers, make sure to include the abbreviation p. or pp. before the page numbers. Place a period after the final parentheses of the in-text citation unless the citation concludes a block quote. Never give only a web address as an in-text citation. The only instance in which you may give a web address in text is if you are writing a critique of a website or making some kind of recommendation, as in the following example. Example citation. The APA Style website links to a blog of updates, downloadable video tutorials on the sixth edition, and more (http://www.apastyle.org/). The abbreviation for the word edition is ed., not Ed. The uppercase E is used for the word editor. Lets say that you read several articles or web pages and they give the same information.
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If you use more than one source to come up with a kind of summary, in the in-text citation, you list all of the sources within the parentheses alphabetically by author last name or first element, separated by semi-colons. Example citation. Experts agree that any direct lift of more than three consecutive words needs to be in quotation marks (Applegate, 2002; Folderol, 2000; Stephens, 2004). Basic guidelines for direct quotations of online material without pagination (Note: the following is reprinted from the APA Manual, pages 171-12) Many websites do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para. Example citation. Beau and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace (para. 4). If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, [give] the heading and the number of the paragraph following it [in the in-text citation] to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material. Example citation. In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition (Discussion section, para. 1). In some cases in which no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too [lengthy] to cite in full. Instead, use a short version of the heading enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating

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consumers and changing consumption behavior (Golan, Kuchler & Krissol, 2007, Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted, para. 4). (the above taken from American Psychological Association, 2010, pp. 171-172). Basic guidelines for formatting the paper and References page Black Times New Roman 12 point font is the only font accepted in APA style writing. APA formatting rules require that there be two spaces after each sentence and before the next. The page header gives a running head flush left and the page number flush right (This document is an example). The running head is a shortened version of the paper title, up to fifty characters, all in upper case letters, which appears at the top of every page in the header. References are listed in alphabetical order and are not numbered or grouped by type. Each entry is formatted with a hanging indent. The first line of each reference is flush with the left margin and then each line after the first is indented. Each element (title, year, etc) of a reference should be separated by a period or a comma. This will depend upon the type of reference. (Look at the examples in this guide). Do not give the full names of authors in the reference. Use only the last name(s) and first initial(s) of authors and editors. If there is no publication year given, use (n.d.), which stands for no date, in the in-text citations and in the references. When there is no author listed, begin the reference (or citation) with the title of the book or the article.

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In an article, or book title, capitalize the first title word, proper nouns, and the first word after a dash or colon. Do not place quotation marks around any title in the References list. Never include a source of information in your references that you do not cite at least once in the text. The purpose of the References list is to indicate what sources the author has incorporated as sources of information discussed or included in the document. References to web pages should provide exact web addresses, and not the higher level web site address or that of an index page. If the web page does not provide all information about the article such as the volume, issue or inclusive pages the exact web address will lead readers to the information that is available. The web address should not be a hyperlink or be clickable. When creating the references list, cut and paste the web address into the list, then highlight the web address, and right click. Youll see a little box with several choices. Select Remove Hyperlink, and the blue font and underlining in the web address will go away, as will the link. There is no period after the web address in a reference. Abbreviations chap. ed. Rev. ed. 2nd ed. Ed. (Eds.). Trans. n.d. p. (pp.) Vol. vols. No. Pt. Chapter edition Revised edition 2nd, 3rd, 4th and so forth Editor, Editors Translator(s) no date page (pages) Volume (as in Vol.4) Volumes (as in 4 vols) Number Part
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Tech.Rep. Suppl. Para Technical Report Supplement .graph Publishers Locations The following locations can be listed in a reference without providing a state abbreviation or country. In the United States: Baltimore Boston Chicago Los Angeles New York Philadelphia San Francisco Outside the States: Amsterdam Jerusalem London Milan Moscow Paris Rome Stockholm Tokyo Vienna Numbers in the text At beginning of sentence According to the Publication Manual, use words to express any number that begins a

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sentence, title, or text heading. Whenever possible, reword [the sentence] to avoid beginning the sentence with a number (APA, 2009b). Examples. Fifteen librarians jumped in the lake. Seventy nine percent of teens surveyed reported daily use; 2% report no history of use. Common fractions Examples.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE one third of the subjects two-thirds majority Common phrases Examples. The Ten Commandments Seven Deadly Sins Use numerals in the text for numbers 10 and greater. Use numerals in text if representing dates, times, ages, game scores, or sums of money.

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Lists in text Numbered list A numbered series or list can be used to list conclusions or steps in a procedure. For these, separate paragraphs should be preceded by a numeral followed by a period. Capitalize the first word of the list item, and end the item/sentence/paragraph with a period. Example. 1. Select the treatment carefully. 2. Randomize the control group. 3. Run a regression analysis. Bulleted list If list items are not arranged in order of size, importance, or steps in a series, a bulleted list may be used. Example. Great Britain
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE China United States List in a sentence Within a sentence, a list or series of items can be set off with lowercase letters in parentheses. Example. The primary consumers of wheat on a global scale are (a) the United States (b) China and (c) Belarus. Bulleted list in sentence Finally, a list within a sentence can also be treated as a bulleted list. Capitalize and punctuate the list as though it was a separate sentence. Example. Over the 11-year span from 1930-1940 the Dust Bowl region saw 15% to 25% less precipitation than normal; some years only had less than half of the normal annual precipitation; and there was an aggressive reform movement by the federal government. Formatting the document and citing sources in PowerPoint Presentations PowerPoint files cannot be analyzed by the plagiarism detection software Turnitin, therefore some instructors may request a Microsoft Word document containing the text on the slides and notes to be submitted along with the ppt file, to be submitted to Turnitin. Because APA format does not give any specific rules as to the look of a PowerPoint presentation, instructors can ask for any slide format they wish.

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE APA also has no specific rules for the format of citations and references given in a

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PowerPoint presentation, although it can be assumed that they are mandatory as they are in any document. Thus, the instructor may ask that the last slide serve as a References list, or he or she may ask for the references to be in the Notes field on the last slide, and the same will be true of the in-text citations. This is the instructors judgment call. Undergraduate Student research paper considerations Every research paper should include a title page, an abstract, the body of the paper, and the references. Appendices, tables or figures, if used, are included after the references. Not every discipline or paper type includes every one of these sections. Therefore, it is up to the instructor to dictate what he or she requires. Third person voice Do not use first person (I, me, or my) in the paper, except in the conclusion section of an undergraduate paper, where personal opinions or reflections are given. (APA, 3.09, p. 69) Abstract An abstract summarizes the finding of the paper. It is a block paragraph of 120 to 150 words. It is given on a separate page, with the heading Abstract. Masters level research paper considerations Masters students are expected to follow the same outline as undergraduates except in courses in which the students do primary research, where the papers may contain different sections or elements. The third person voice is used throughout. First person voice is not used except in the Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research section of a research paper. In this

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE section, as in the undergraduate Conclusion section; the use of I, me, or my may be used when discussing conclusions and recommendations. Sources Monograph as part of a journal issue. (APA 7.01:13, p.201) Example.

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Johnson, T. W, Keepers, L. A., Smythe, L. S., & VanHorn, A. J. (2000). The changes of capital punishment in the United States [Monograph]. Journal of Social Psychology, 73, 294304. Structure. Author(s). (date). Title of monograph [Monograph]. Title of Journal, volume, inclusive page numbers. Note. Retrieval information from a database or a website should be added as needed. Abstract as original source (APA 7.01:16, p.202) Example Moffett, S & McAdam, R. (2009). Knowledge management: A factor analysis of sector effects. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(3), 44-59. Abstract retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid= 1E90E006FDA4CE919F4419740FE7CD94?contentType=Article&contentId=1793712 Structure. Author(s). (date). Title of article. Journal title, volume number (issue if there is one), inclusive pages. Retrieval information
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Note. Although it is preferable to cite information from the full published article, information about a research article may be cited from an abstract describing it. Conference paper retrieved online Example Gierl, M.J., Jodoin, M.G. & Ackerman, T.A. (2000, April). Performance of Mantel-Haenszel,

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Simultaneous Item Bias Test, and logistic regression when the proportion of DIF items is large. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), New Orleans, LA, USA. Retrieved from http://www.education.ualberta.ca/educ/psych/crame/files/matching.pdf Structure. Author last name, first initial. (Year, Month of conference). Title of paper. Paper presented at Title of conference, location of conference. Retrieved from web address Notes. References to conference papers or posters from published proceedings follow the format for the reference to a chapter in an edited book. References to papers included in regularly published proceedings follow the format for the reference to an article in a periodical. Figures Any illustration included in a paper, such as a chart, graph, photo or clip art, is a figure. Every figure should convey information that (a) cannot be easily given in text form, and (b) is discussed or referenced in the text. APA rules ask that you consider carefully the information value of a figure: if the information is given in text form already, if the information is not
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE discussed in the text, or if the information duplicates another section of the paper, the figure should not be included.

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Each figure in the text should be titled and numbered above the figure, in the order that it appears in the text (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Refer to the figure in the text by number (e.g., "As shown in Figure 1") and point out to the reader what to look for in the figure. Each figure should also include a caption below the figure. The caption describes the figure and gives any information about where the figure was found, a reference to the source of the figure, information about permission given to use the figure, or an indication if the figure was adapted from another figure. If the figure was created by the author using a source or sources of published information, that too should be noted in the caption. Personal photographs as figures. You can use photos you take for the purpose of inclusion in your work. If the photo is discussed in the paper, it would be labeled as a figure and include a caption, as in the example below. Example. Figure 1. Phyllis Cook Family

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Figure 1. 2009 by Jennie Ver Steeg. Citing photos from outside sources. The decision to use photographs found on the web or through photo services will need more thought. Most websites do in fact hold the copyright for the photo, and would expect that you either purchase, license, or otherwise ask for permission to use the photo. For unpublished student work, it is unlikely that the copyright holder of a given photo would find that paper and sue the author or AIU; its also true that there is such a thing as free educational use -- but its better to err on the side of caution and not use any work you are unsure about, or ask for written permission to use it. Example.
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Figure 1. Phyllis Cook family.

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From: 1950s families are scary by J. Jones, 2000, Journal of Popular Iowans, 87(9), 34-67. Retrieved from http://www.famousiowans/Jennie_family/50s.htm Reprinted with permission. Citing other image types Clip art as figures. Some students use clip art, such as the school logo, a logo for a company discussed in the paper, etc, in their work, simply to dress the papers up. This is permissible with PowerPoint presentations, but discouraged in individual projects and group projects, due to the emphasis on the concept of information value. The clip art must convey important information discussed or
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE referred to in the paper. If the clip art is found in the clip art gallery in Microsoft PowerPoint, number and title the image as a figure, and use a caption if explanation of the figure is needed.

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However, the caption will not need to give the source or indicate permission to use the clipart, as its use is permitted in the software license. If the clip art used is from another source, such as a public clip art site like http://www.clipart.com, read the terms of use for the clip art site. Many clip art sites say they are royalty free, but that does not mean that the images can be used by anyone, for any purpose, or that they can be altered, or used without attribution. For example, the terms of use for clipart.com state, among other stipulations: JUPITERIMAGES requests the copyright notice " [insert current year] Jupiterimages Corporation" appear adjacent to the Image(s) or on a credit page. Unless you are very sure that unlimited free use is permitted by a provider of clip art, ask for permission from the copyright or license holder to use the image, and keep the permission on file. The clip art would then have a caption indicating the copyright holder and permission. The following is a captioned clip art as figure: Example. Figure 2. Example Twentieth Century catalog card.

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Figure 2. Sample card catalog card. From Jeffahrens photostream (2009). Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeffahrens/3435346745/ Copyright Jeff Ahrens. Used by permission. Figures taken from an outside source Example. Figure 4. Provincial Share of Exports to U.S., 1999.

Figure 4. Percent share by province of exports from Canada to the United States in 1999. Adapted from Haggart, B. (2003, April 3). Canada and the United States: Trade, investment and integration (PRB Publication No. PRB 01-3E). Retrieved from http://dsppsd.tpsgc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/prb013-e.htm#a. Regional%20Trade%20Patterns Created by the student from sources

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A student may create his or her own figure synthesizing several information sources. In this case, the in-text citation to those sources listed in the references list will serve as caption. Example. Figure 4. Provincial Share of Exports to U.S., 1999.

Figure 4. Percent share by province of exports from Canada to the United States in 1999 (Anderson, 2001; Jones, 2004). Citing works of art discussed in text Citing works of art is unusual, because no matter what the copyright date on the page, or who the sponsoring site may be, da Vincis Mona Lisa was painted by him (so he is the author) in 1507!

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE If the paper discusses the painting, and describes it in the text, the source where the artwork was viewed would be included in the list of References and the artwork would also be cited in text as a numbered, titled and captioned figure. Figure taken from an article or book from a library database If you retrieve a work of art from a library database, such as Oxford Art Online, the figure caption would be: Figure 1. Mona Lisa

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Figure 1. Mona Lisa, panel, 600470 mm. da Vinci, L. (c. 1500-1507). Mona Lisa. [Painting]. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Retrieved from Grove Art Online database. Figure for same artwork, found on the web Figure 1. Mona Lisa, panel, 600470 mm. da Vinci, L. (c. 1500-1507). Mona Lisa. [Painting]. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Retrieved from http://www.louvre.fr/media/repository/resources/sources/illustration/atlas/x196image_64 477_v2_m56577569830685177.jpg
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Headings

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Headings indicate the sections of your paper. There are five levels of headings possible in APA style. Level 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and lower case Level 2 Flush left, Boldface, Uppercase and lower case Level 3 Indented, Boldface, Lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Level 4 Indented, Boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Level 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period

Level One Level Two Level Three. Level four. It would start here and the paragraph would follow these words on the same line. Level five. It would start here and the paragraph would follow these words on the same line. Headings do not necessarily identify each section of the paper. Do not use a heading to identify the introduction, body, or conclusion. Rather, headings identify a topic or subtopic within the body of the paper. Commonly used headings are: Methods, Results, Principle Findings, Rationale, Discussion, etc. Choice of headings is dictated by the organization of the paper and number of sections and subsections. Undergraduates would not be expected to use more than the first three heading levels: Masters students may choose to use more to enhance organization. Appendixes Appendixes (or Appendices) are sections of the paper which are appended at the end of the paper, after the References list. They consist of documents that would aid the reader in

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understanding the material, but are not a part of the larger paper. The text of the paper may refer to the information in an appendix, in a sentence such as: See Appendix A for the full text of the survey used. Typical information included in an appendix would be a consent form created for the research project, the text of a survey or other instrument used in the research being presented in the paper, or the raw data the paper analyzes. Each Appendix begins on a separate page. If there is only one appendix, the word Appendix is centered on the first line below the page header. If there is more than one appendix, title the first one Appendix A, the second Appendix B, and so on. Double space and type the appendix title (centered, in uppercase and lowercase letters) on the next line, after the word Appendix. Note that the word Appendix and the title of the appendix are not bold or italicized. Legal References The following section is taken from the APA Publication Manual, pages 217-224. Please note: To type a section symbol (), hold down the Alt key and type the numerals 0167 to make this symbol. (You may also find it in MS Word 2007 as follows: Click Insert at the top of the page. Look for the Symbols section and click on it. You have a choice of symbol or equation; choose Symbol. Click on More Symbols. Finally, choose iLatin-1 Supplement. The symbol is in there.). These references below are formatted as though the legal documents were retrieved in paper format from a law library. If the same materials were retrieved from the web; the retrieval information would be included in the reference as needed. Court decisions (Bluebook rule 10) Case entry (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:1, p. 217)
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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE Example. Lassard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)

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Explanation. This decision was rendered by the federal district court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin in 1972. It appears in volume 349 of the Federal Supplement and starts on page 1078 of that volume. The in text citation would be (Lassard v. Schmidt, 1972).

Appealed Case (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:2 p. 218) Example. Durfinger v. Artiles, 563 F. Supp. 322 (D Kan. 1981) affd 727 F 2d 888 (10th Cir 1984). Explanation. This decision was rendered by the federal district court for the District of Kansas in 1981. On appeal, the decision was affirmed by the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in 1984. Therefore, both dates would be used in the citation like this: In an in-text citation: Durlssinger v. Artiles (1981/1984), or a parenthetical citation (Durlssinger v. Artiles, 1981, 1984). State trial court opinion (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:4 pp. 218, 219) Example. Casey v. Pennsylvania-American Water Co. 12 Pa. D. & C.4 th 168 (C.P. Washington County 1981). Explanation.

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The decision was rendered by the Court of Common Pleas in Washington County, Pennsylvania, in 1991. (The court of Common Pleas is the name of the trial-level courts in Pennsylvania. In other states, the trial-level courts are called superior courts or supreme courts). The citation would be (Casey v. Pennsylvania-American Water Co., 1981). Federal district court opinion (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A 7.03:5 p. 219) Example. Davis v. Monsanto Co., 627 F Supp. 418 (D.S. W. Va. 1986). Explanation. The opinion was rendered in the federal district court for the Southern District of West Virginia and was decided in 1986. It appears in volume 627 of the Federal Supplement and starts on page 418 of the volume. The in text citation would be (Davis v. Monsanto Co., 1986). Case appeal to state supreme court (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:6 p. 219) Example. Compton v. Commonwealth, 239 Va. 3122 389 S.E.2nd 460 (1990). Explanation. This opinion was written by the Virginia Supreme Court in 1990. It can be found in volume 239 of the Virginia Reports, which publishes the states Supreme Court decisions, starting on page 312. There is a parallel citation to volume 389 of the South Eastern Reporter, Second Series, starting on page 460. A reporter prints cases; the South Eastern Reporter is a regional reporter containing cases from several states in the

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southeastern section of the country. The citation would be (Compton v. Commonwealth, 1990). Case appealed to state court of appeals (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:7 p. 219) Example. Texas v. Morales, 826 S.W.2d 201 (Tex. Ct. App. 1992). Explanation. This opinion was rendered by the Texas Court of Appeals in 1992 and can be found in volume 826 of the South Western Reporter, Second Series, starting on page 201. The citation would be (Texas v. Morales, 1992). Case decided by U.S. Supreme Court (Bluebook rule 10). (APA, A7.03:8 p. 219) Example. Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Maryland v. Craig, 110 S. Ct. 3160 (1990). Explanation. Each of these cases was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. The first reference (in law schools these are called citations) is to the United States Reports. Such a reference is given when the appropriate volume of the United States Reports is available. The second reference is to the Supreme Court Reporter. Use this source when the volume of the United States Reports in which the case will appear has not yet been published. The APA citations used in the paper would be (Brown v. Board of Educa., 1954) and (Maryland v. Craig, 1990).

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Statutes (Bluebook rule 12) Statute in a state code (Bluebook rule 12). (APA, A7.04:10, p. 220) Example. Mental Care and Treatment Act, 4 Kan. Stat. Ann 59-2901-29410(1983 & Supp. 1992). Explanation. This Kansas act can be found in codified version between sections 2901 and 2941 in Chapter 59 of volume 4 of the 1983 edition of Kansas Statutes Annotated. Two amendments in the act and additional references are provided in the 1992 supplement for the Kansas Statutes Annotated. If you are discussing a particular provision of the law, cite the particular section in which the provision appeared (e.g., 59-2903). Ann. stands for Annotated, which refers to the version of the Kansas statutory compilation containing summarized cases interpreting particular sections of the statute (American Psychological Association, 2010, p.220; Association of Legal Writing Directors (ALWD), 2005; Bouchoux, 2005). The citation would be (Mental Care and Treatment Act, 1992). Statute in a federal code (Bluebook rule 12) (APA, A7.04:11, pp. 220, 221) Example. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. 12101 et seq. (West 1993). Explanation. This act can be located beginning at section 12101 of title 42 of the United States Code Annotated, which is the unofficial version of the United States Code. Et Seq. is a Latin phrase meaning and following and is a shorthand way of showing that the act
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covers not just the initial sections cited, but also others that follow the initial section. The text in parentheses indicates that the United States Code Annotated is published by West Publishing and that 1993 is the publication date of the volume in which the cited sections can be found. The in text citation for this would be (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 1993). Legislative Materials (Bluebook rule 13) Full Federal Hearing (Bluebook rule 13). (APA, A 7.05:13, pp. 221, 222) Example. Urban Americas need for social services to strengthen families: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, 102d Cong. 1 (1992). Explanation. The hearing was held in 1992 in the U.S. House of Representatives during the 102nd Congress. The hearing begins on page 1 of the official pamphlet that was prepared after the hearing. The in text citation uses a shortened version of the title. (Urban Americas need for, 1992). Enacted federal bills and resolution (Bluebook rule 13). (APA, A7.05, pp.222) Example. S. Res. 107, 103d Cong. Rec. 5826 (1993) (enacted). Explanation. This resolution by the Senate is numbered 107 and is reported in volume 139 of the Congressional Record on page 5826. This citation would be (Senate
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Administrative and Executive Materials (Bluebook rule 14) Federal Regulations (Bluebook rule 14). (APA, A7.06, p.223) Example. FDA Prescription Drug Advertising Rule, 21 C.F.R 202.1 (2006). Explanation. This rule was codified in 2006 in volume 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations as section 202.01. The citation in APA would be (FDA Prescription Drug Advertising Rule, 2006). Executive Order (Bluebook rule 14). (APA, A7.06, pp. 223,224) Example. Exec. Order No. 11,609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971-1975) reprinted in 3 U.S.C. 301 app. At 404-07 (1994). Explanation. Executive orders are reported in Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations; this one appears on page 586. Provide a parallel citation to the United States Code (U.S.C.) or, if U.S.C. in unavailable, to the United States Code Services (U.S.C.S.). The citation would be (Executive Order No. 11,609, 1994).

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Running head: AIU APA STYLE GUIDE References American Psychological Association [APA]. (2009a). What is APA style? Can you send it to

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me? My paper is due, and it must be in APA style, especially references. Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-apa-style.aspx American Psychological Association [APA]. (2009b). When are numbers expressed in words? Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/numbers-as-words.aspx American Psychological Association [APA]. (2010) Publication manual of the American Psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Association of Legal Writing Directors (ALWD) (2005). ALWD citation manual: A professional system of citation (3rd ed.). New York: Aspen Publishers. Bouchoux, D. E. (2005). Aspen handbook for legal writers: A practical reference. New York: Aspen Publishers.

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