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# Object 1 5 4 3 2

## Sets Intersection: Intersection Of Two Sets

Object 6

The intersection of two sets X and Y is the set of elements that are common to both set X and set Y. It is denoted by X Y and is read X intersection Y. Example: Draw a Venn diagram to represent the relationship between the sets X = {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10} and Y = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} Solution: We find that X Y = {1, 5, 6, 10} in both X and Y For the Venn diagram, Step 1 : Draw two overlapping circles to represent the two sets. Step 2 : Write down the elements in the intersection. Step 3 : Write down the remaining elements in the respective sets. Notice that you start filling the Venn diagram from the elements in the intersection first.

Draw a Venn diagram to represent the relationship between the sets X = {1, 6, 9} and Y = {1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9} Solution: We find that X Y = {1, 6, 9} which is equal to the set X For the Venn diagram, Step 1 : Draw one circle within another circle Step 2 : Write down the elements in the inner circle. Step 3 : Write down the remaining elements in the outer circle.

## Sets Intersection: Intersection Of Three Sets

The intersection of three sets X, Y and Z is the set of elements that are common to sets X, Y and Z. It is denoted by X Y Z Example: Draw a Venn diagram to represent the relationship between the sets X = {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9}, Y = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8} and Z = {3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} Solution: We find that X Y Z = {5, 6}, X Y = {1, 5, 6}, Y Z = {3, 5, 6, 8} and X Z = {5, 6, 7} For the Venn diagram: Step 1 : Draw three overlapping circles to represent the three sets. Step 2 : Write down the elements in the intersection X Y Z Step 3 : Write down the remaining elements in the intersections: X Y, Y Z and X Z Step 4 : Write down the remaining elements in the respective sets. Again, notice that you start filling the Venn diagram from the elements in the intersection first.

## Set Theory: Union Of Sets

The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements, which are in A or in B or in both. It is denoted by A B and is read A union B Example : Given U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} X = {1, 2, 6, 7} and Y = {1, 3, 4, 5, 8} Find X Y and draw a Venn diagram to illustrate X Y. Solution:

## X Y = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} 1 is written only once.

<!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> If X Y then X Y = Y. We will illustrate this relationship in the following example. Example: Given U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} X = {1, 6, 9} and Y = {1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9} Find X Y and draw a Venn diagram to illustrate X Y. Solution: X Y = {1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9}

## Complement Of The Intersection Of Sets

<!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> The complement of the set X Y is the set of elements that are members of the universal set U but are not in X Y. It is denoted by (X Y )

Example: Given: U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} X = {1, 2, 6, 7} and Y = {1, 3, 4, 5, 8} a) Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate ( X Y ) b) Find ( X Y ) Solution: a) First, fill in the elements for X Y = {1} Fill in the other elements for X and Y and for U Shade the region outside X Y to indicate (X Y )

b) We can see from the Venn diagram that (X Y ) = {9} Or we find that X Y = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and so (X Y ) = {9} <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> Example: Given U = {x : 1 x 10, x is an integer}, A = The set of odd numbers, B = The set of factors of 24 and C = {3, 10}. a) Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship. b) Using the Venn diagram or otherwise, find: i) (A B ) ii) (A C ) iii) (A B C ) Solution: A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8} and C = {3, 10} a) First, fill in the elements for A B C = {3}, A B {1, 3}, A C = {3}, B C = {3} and then the other elements.

b) We can see from the Venn diagram that i) (A B ) = {10} ii) (A C ) = {2, 4, 6, 8} iii) (A B C ) = { }

The complement of the set X Y is the set of elements that are members of the universal set U but not members of X Y. It is denoted by (X Y) <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> Example: Suppose U = set of positive integers less than 10, X = {1, 2, 5, 6, 7} and Y = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8} . a) Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate ( X Y ) b) Find ( X Y ) Solution: a) First, fill in the elements for X Y = {1, 5, 6} Fill in the other elements for X and Y and for U Shade the region outside X Y to indicate (X Y )

b) We can see from the Venn diagram that (X Y ) = {2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9} Or we find that X Y = {1, 5, 6} and so (X Y ) = {2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9}

## Set Theory: Combined Operations

Combined operations involve the intersection, union and complement of sets. Perform the operations within brackets first. Other operations are performed from left to right. <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> Example: Given that U = {x : 1 x 10, x is an integer}, G = {x : x is a prime number}, H = {x : x is an even number}, P = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. List the elements of: a) G H P b) (G P) H c) H (G P ) d) (P H G) (G H) Solution: G = {2, 3, 5, 7}, H = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} a) G H P = {2} P G H = {2} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} b) (G P) H = {2, 3, 5} H = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} c) H (G P ) = H {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7} = {1, 3, 5, 7} d) (P H G) (G H) = {9} (G H) = {9} {2} = { }

## Set Theory: Drawing Venn Diagrams

Sometimes you may be given the description of some sets and you are asked to draw a Venn diagram to illustrate the sets. <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 300x250 */ google_ad_slot = "3160211176"; google_ad_width = 300; google_ad_height = 250; //--> First, we need to determine the relationships between the sets such as subsets and intersections. There could be several ways to describe the relationships. We would draw A within B if we know that:

All members of A belongs to B or A B or A B = B or A B = A or n(A B) = n(A) <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */ google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> We would draw A overlap B if we know that:

Some members of A belongs to B or A B or n(A B ) 0 We would draw disjoint sets A and B if we know that

## No members of A belongs to B or A B = or n(A B ) = 0 <!-google_ad_client = "pub-9460199170054827"; /* sets math 468x15 */

google_ad_slot = "3070577796"; google_ad_width = 468; google_ad_height = 15; //--> Example: U = the set of triangles, I = the set of isosceles triangles, Q = the set of equilateral triangles and R = the set of right-angled triangles. Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate these sets. Solution: First, we determine the relationships between the sets. All equilateral triangles are isosceles, so Q I. (within) Some right-angled triangles may be isosceles. R I (overlap) Right-angled triangles can never be equilateral. R Q = (disjoint) Then we draw the Venn diagram: