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Heat Transfer & Metrology Lab

Name : Anil Chejara Roll No. : 9003022 Group : 5

INTRODUCTION: Fin-and-tube heat exchangers are widely used in several domains such as heating, ventilating, refrigeration and air conditioning systems. In practical application of air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, the dominant resistance is on the air-side and improving the accuracy of the analysis of the air-side heat transfer is required by the growing demand of high performance heat transfer surfaces. The fin performance is commonly expressed in terms of heat transfer coefficient and fin efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of the actual fin heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate that would exist if the entire fin surface was at the base temperature. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: Heat exchanger has metal wall which separates the two fluids hot and cold. The rate of heat transfer will depend on the overall resistance to heat transfer given by the equation:

Where, Ui Uo hi,ho Ai,Ao

= Overall heat transfer coefficient based on inner area = Overall heat transfer coefficient based on outer area = Inside and outside _lm heat transfer coefficients =Inside and outside surface area

When viscous liquids are heated in a double pipe heat, the film heat transfer coefficient of the viscous liquid will be much smaller than that on the hot fluid side and will therefore, become controlling resistance for heat transfer. This condition is also present in case of air or gas heaters where the gas side film heat transfer coefficient will be very low (typically of the order of 0.01 to 0.005 times) compared to that for the liquid or condensing vapour on the other side. Since, the heat transfer coefficient of viscous fluid or gas cannot be improved much, the only alternative is to increase the area available for heat transfer on that side so that its resistance to heat transfer can be reduced. To conserve space and to reduce the cost of equipment in these cases, certain type of heat exchange surfaces, called extended surfaces, have been developed in which outside area of tube is increased many fold by fins and other appendages. Two types of fins are in common use via Longitudinal fins Transverse fins. Longitudinal fins are used when the direction of flow of the fluids parallel to the axis of tube and transverse fins are used when the direction of the flow of the fluids across the tube. Spikes, pins, studs or spines are also used for either direction of flow. The outside are of a finned tube consists of two parts: the area of fins and the area of bare tube not covered by the bases of fins. A unit area of fin surface is not as efficient as a unit area of bare tube surface because of the added resistance to the heat flow by conduction through the fin at its base. The expression for fin efficiencies can be derived by solving the general differential equation of heat conduction with suitable boundary conditions. Longitudinal fin efficiency is given by the expression:

h C K A

= film heat transfer coefficient from the fin surface] = circumference of the fin = thermal conductivity of fin material = cross-sectional area of fin

AIM: To determine the efficiency of given longitudinal/pin fin and compare it with the theoretical value for the given fin. APPARATUS: Longitudinal fin heat exchanger. Pin fin heat exchanger. Bare pipe without fins. Steam generator to generate steam at constant pressure. The steam generator is also provided with temperature indicator and a dead weight safety valve. Stop Watch

Finned Heat Exchanger DIMENSIONS:

1. Finned Tube: Height of fin (L): 7 cm. Width of fin (W): 50 cm. Thickness of fin (b): 3 mm. Number of fins (N) : 4 O.D. of fin tube: 2.2 cm. Thermal conductivity of fin material (K) : 13.76 Kcal/hr mC

2. Bare Tube:

Length of tube (l): O.D. of tube: Tambient:

50 cm. 2.2 cm. 28 C

PROCEDURE: First of all make sure empty steam generator and closed rain valves. Fill the steam generator with water to a mentioned level by the steam generator. Now start the electric supply and set desired temperature to 120C and wait until enough steam is produced. During this period, keep open the valves to the test sections. Also keep the needle valve at the end of test section open. Once the steam generation starts, the finned tube heat exchanger will start getting heated up and condensate will start coming out of the needle valve provided at the bottom of condensate collector. When the test section is fully heated up, steam will start coming out of the needle valve. Now regulate the needle valve in such a way that only condensate comes out of it. At this point of time also regulate the voltage supplied to the electrical heater so as to keep the pressure in the steam generator constant. The pressure can be regulated between 0-1 atm. gauges as per the requirement. Once the test section (finned tube heat exchanger along with bare pipe without fins) is fully heated, drain out completely the condensate. Close the needle valve on condensate drain line simultaneously starting the stop-watch. Collect the condensate accumulated at an interval of 15 min. for finned tube heat exchanger and 30 min. for bare pipe. Note down the volume of condensate collected and time interval. Take readings for an hour.


Sr. No. 1 2 3 4

Time (min) With fins 15 15 15 15 66 65 63

Water collected (ml) bare 48 44

CALCULATIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Circumference of fin (C): C = 2(w+b) = 2(50 +0.3) cm= 2* 50.3 = 100.6 cm Cross- sectional Area of fin (A): A= w*b= 50*0.3 cm2 = 15 cm2 Fin area available for heat transfer (Af) = C*L*N= 100.6*7*4 cm2 = 2816.8 cm2 Tube area available for heat transfer in finned heat exchanger:

Ab = (D-Nb)*w= (3.14*2.2-4*0.3)*50= 285.4 cm2 5. Total area of finned tube heat exchanger: At = Af +Ab= 3102.2 cm2 6. Heat given out by steam through finned tube heat exchanger (Q1): Q1 = m1* = 140.43 kcal / hr 7. Heat given out by steam through bare tube (Q2): Q2 = (m2) =49.74 Kcal /hr Where = latent heat of vaporization of water at steam pressure (540.67 Kcal/Kg) Film heat transfer coefficient from bare tube (h): h = Q2/ (A*T) = 19.72 Kcal/hrm2 K A = DL = 0.03454 m2; T = (Tsteam Tambient) = 73 k; m = (hC/KA)1/2 = 30.90 mL =2.16 8. fin (Theoretical) = (tanhmL)/mL = 0.45 9. Amount of heat actually dissipated by fin: Qfin = Q1 (Ab h delT) = 99.34 Kcal/hr 10. Amount of heat that can be dissipated by ideal fin: Qideal = Af h delT = 405.5 Kcal/hr 11. Observed value of fin efficiency: (Observed) = Qfin/Qideal = 0.24

RESULT: Observed efficiency of the fin is equal to .24 while theoretical efficiency is .45

ASSUMPTIONS: We assumed Fin of infinite length so that there is no heat dissipation from its tip. Heat dissipated from tip can be neglected and hence, dt/dx is assumed to be zero at the tip. Heat transfer rate is assumed to be constant.