Sei sulla pagina 1di 65

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION Companies today are forced to function in a world full of change and complexity, and it is more important than ever to have the right employees in order to survive the competitive surrounding. New companies and business are blossoming, new technologies are constantly are constantly developed and the knowledge and perception of how much your employees actually mean to your organization is greater for everyday. Most companies are looking for the right expertise in different areas, and human resources are therefore an important competitive factor that needs to be taken into consideration while managing business (Ljungberg & Larsson, 2005). Some implications of how important this is lies within the fact that all of the American companies listed in the stock market in 1999 valued human resources higher than the physical resources, and in 2001 those rankings were equal (Jacobsen and Thorsvik, 2002). Arthur (2001) describes that when the Saratoga Institute surveyed forty-five Fortune 1190 organizations across the United States, over 89% indicated that their organizations viewed employee retention as a strategic business issue. Today employees are more aware of their intrinsic value, not just as another person in the production row. Studies show that the focus is shifting from the financial perspective, and the individual well being is becoming more and more important (The Economist, 2006). From the leaders and managers point of view this could be a difficult dilemma, and organizations have to balance both production effectiveness as well as human needs to be successful (Jacobsen & Thorvisk, 2002). Even though a company has managed to find the right employees, this is not enough. A crucial factor is to make the employees stay and reduce the turnover rate. In some industries the high level of staff turnover is naturally high, but for most industries this could damage the company in terms of for example quality and customer service (Curtis & Wright, 2001). The process of replacing an employee is costly. According to two different sources it may cost as much as 150% of an annual salary for key staff (Curtis & Wright, 2001) or for one-third of a hires annual salary according to U.S Department of labour( Michaud, 2005), and this is just the financial loss. There are also great losses in areas such as for example skills, knowledge, temporary replacement costs and training time (Curtis & Wright, 2001). If a company suffers from too much turnover rate, potential employees may not consider this as a stable, secure and
2

successful organization. This could instead be an indication of that there may be some problems inside the workplace. Large amount of cost in turnover makes it important to have retention high on the agenda. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of induction and training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization. Therefore, managers at all costs must minimize employees turnover. Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the employees turnover process as whole, a wide range of factors have been found useful in interpreting employee turnover Kevin et al. (2004). Therefore, there is need to develop a fuller understanding of the employee turnover, more especially, the sources- what determines employee turnover, effects and strategies that managers can put in place minimize turnover. With globalization which is heightening competition, organizations must continue to develop tangible products and provide services which are based on strategies created by employees. These employees are extremely crucial to the organisation since their value to the organization is essentially intangible and not easily replicated Meaghan et al. (2002). Therefore, managers must recognize that employees as major contributors to the efficient achievement of the organizations success Abbasi et al. (2000). Managers should control employee turnover for the benefit of the organisation success. 1.1.1 EMPLOYEE RETENTION Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project. Employee retention is beneficial for the organization as well as the employee. Employees today are different. They are not the ones who dont have good opportunities in hand. As soon as they feel dissatisfied with the current employee or the job, they switch over to the next job. A good employer should know how to attract and retain its employees. Retention involves five major things:

Employee retention would require a lot of efforts, energy, and resources but the results are worth it. Now lets discuss each of the components in detailed. 1.1.1.1 Compensation: Compensation constitutes the largest part of the employee retention process. The employees always have high expectations regarding their compensation packages. Compensation packages play a critical role in retaining the employees. Compensation includes salary and wages, bonuses, benefits, perquisites. Stock options, bonuses, vacations, etc. while setting up the packages, the following components should be kept in mind: Salary and monthly wage: It is the biggest component of the compensation package. It is also the most common factor of comparison among employees. It includes Basic wage House rent allowance Dearness allowance City compensatory allowance

Salary and wages represent the level of skill and experience an individual has. Time to time increase in the salaries and wages of employees should be done. And this increase should be based on the employees performance and his contribution to the organization.

Bonus: Bonuses are usually given to the employees at the end of the year or on a festival. Economic benefits: It includes paid holidays, leave travel concession, etc. Long-term incentives: Long term incentives include stock options or stock grants. These incentives help retain employees in the organization's start-up stage. Health insurance: Health insurance is a great benefit to the employees. It saves employees money as well as gives them a peace of mind that they have somebody to take care of them in bad times. It also shows the employee that the organization cares about the employee and its family. After retirement: It includes payments that an Employee gets after he retires like EPF (Employee Provident Fund) etc. Miscellaneous compensation: It may include employee assistance programs (like psychological counselling, legal assistance etc), discounts on company products, use of a company cars, etc. 1.1.1.2 Organization environment: It is not about managing retention. It is about managing people. If an organization manages people well, employee retention will take care of itself. Organizations should focus on managing the work environment to make better use of the available human assets. People want to work for an organization which provide Appreciation for the work done Ample opportunities to grow A friendly and cooperative environment A feeling that the organization is second home to the employee

Organization environment includes


Culture Values Company reputation Quality of people in the organization Employee development and career growth Risk taking
5

Leading technologies Trust

Types of environment the employee needs in an organization

Learning environment: It includes continuous learning and improvement of the individual, certifications and provision for higher studies, etc. Support environment: Organization can provide support in the form of work-life balance. Work life balance includes:
o o o o o o

Flexible hours Telecommuting Dependent care Employee privacy Vacations Wellness

Work environment: It includes efficient managers, supportive co-workers, challenging work, involvement in decision-making, clarity of work and responsibilities, and recognition.

Lack or absence of such environment pushes employees to look for new opportunities. The environment should be such that the employee feels connected to the organization in every respect. 1.1.1.3 Growth and career: Growth and development are the integral part of every individuals career. If an employee can not foresee his path of career development in current organization, there are chances that he will leave the organization as soon s he gets an opportunity. The importance factors in employee growth that an employee looks for himself are: Work profile: The work profile on which the employer is working should be in matching with his capabilities. The profile should not be too low or too high. For the best results the profile should be always balanced.

Personal growth and dreams: Employees responsibilities in the organization should help him achieve his personal goals also. Organizations cannot keep aside the individual goals of employees and foster organizations goals. Employees priority is to work for them and later on comes the organization. If hes not satisfied with his growth, hell not be able to contribute in organization growth. Training and development: Employees should be trained and given chance to improve and enhance their skills. Many employers fear that if the employees are well rained, theyll leave the organization for better jobs. Organization should not limit the resources on which organizations success depends. These trainings can be given to improve many skills like:

Communications skills Technical skills Intrapersonal skills In-house processes and procedures improvement related skills Customer satisfaction related skills Special project related skills etc.,

Need for such trainings can be recognized from individual performance reviews, individual meetings, employee satisfaction surveys and by being in constant touch with the employees. 1.1.1.4 Importance of Relationship: Sometimes the relationship with the management and the peers becomes the reason for an employee to leave the organization. The management is sometimes not able to provide an employee a supportive work culture and environment in terms of personal or professional relationships. There are times when an employee starts feeling bitterness towards the management or peers. This bitterness could be due to many reasons. This decreases employees interest and he becomes de- motivated. It leads to less satisfaction and eventually attrition. A supportive work culture helps grow employee professionally and boosts employee satisfaction. To enhance good professional relationships at work, the management should keep the following points in mind Respect for the individual: Respect for the individual is must in the organization.

Relationship with the immediate manager: A manger plays the role of a mentor and a coach. He designs and plans work for each employee. It is his duty to involve the employee in the processes of the organization. So an organization should hire managers who can make and maintain good relations with their subordinates. Relationship with colleagues: Promote team work, not only among teams but in different departments as well. This will induce competition as well as improve the relationships among colleagues. Recruit whole heartedly: An employee should be recruited if there is a proper place and duties for him to perform. Otherwise hell feel useless and will be dissatisfied. Employees should know what the organization expects from them and what their expectation from the organization is. Promote an employee based culture: The employee should know that the organization is there to support him at the time of need. Show them that the organization cares and hell show the same for the organization. An employee based culture may include decision making authority, availability of resources, open door policy. Individual development: Taking proper care of employees includes acknowledgement to the employees dreams and personal goals. Create opportunities for their career growth by providing mentorship programs, certifications, educational courses, etc. Induce loyalty: Organizations should be loyal as well as they should promote loyalty in the employees too. Try to make the current employees stay instead of recruiting new ones. 1.1.1.5 Support: Lack of support from management can sometimes serve as a reason for employee retention. Supervisor should support his subordinates in a way so that each one of them is a success. Management should try to focus on its employees and support them in their difficult times at work. Management can support employees by providing them recognition and appreciation. Employers can also provide valuable feedback to employees and make them feel valued to the organization. The feedback from supervisor helps the employee to feel more responsible, confident and empowered. Top management can also support its employees in their personal
8

crisis by providing personal loans during emergencies, childcare services, employee assistance programs, counselling services, etc. Employers can also support their employees by creating an environment of trust and inculcating the organizational values into employees. Thus employers can support their employees in a number of ways as follows: By providing feedback By giving recognition and rewards By counseling employees By providing emotional support

Employee Retention Strategies: 1. Hire the right people in the first place 2. Empower the employees: give the employees the authority to get things done. 3. Make employees realize that they are the most valuable asset of the organization. 4. Have faith in them, trust them and respect them. 5. Provide them information and knowledge. 6. Keep providing them feedback on their performance. 7. Recognize and appreciate their achievements. 8. Keep their morale high. Create an environment where the employees want to work and have fun. These practices can be categorized in 3 levels: Low, medium and high level. Low Level Employee Retention Strategies Appreciating and recognizing a well done job Personalized well done and thank you cards from supervisors
9

Congratulations e- cards or cards sent to spouses / families Voicemails or messages from top management Periodic days off for good performance Rewards (gifts, certificates , monetary and non monetary rewards) Recognizing professional as well as personal significant events Wedding gifts Anniversary gifts New born baby gifts Scholarships for employee children Get well cards/ flowers Birthday cards, celebration and gifts

Providing benefits:
o o o o

Home insurance plans Legal insurance Travel insurance Disability programs

Providing perk: It includes coupons, discounts, rebates, etc


o o o

Discounts in cinema halls, museums, restaurants, etc. Retail store discounts Computer peripherals purchase discounts

Providing workplace conveniences


o o

On-site ATM On-site facilities for which cost is paid by employees

10

o o o o

laundry facility for bachelors Shipping services

Assistance with tax calculations and submission of forms Financial planning assistance Casual dress policies Facilities for expectant mothers

Parking Parenting guide Lactation rooms Flexi timing

Fun At Work
o o o o o o o

Celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, retirements, promotions, etc Holiday parties and holiday gift Occasional parties like diwali, holi, dushera, etc. Organize get together for watching football, hockey, cricket matches Organize picnics and trips for movies etc Sports outings like cricket match etc Indoor games

Occasional stress relievers:


o o o o o o o

Casual dress day Green is the colour day Handwriting analysis Tattoo, mehandi, hair braiding stalls on weekends Mini cricket in office Ice cream Fridays Holi-Day breakfast

Employee support in tough time or personal crisis


o

Personal loans for emergencies


11

o o o

Childcare and eldercare services Employee Assistance Programs ( Counselling sessions etc) Emergency childcare services

Medium Level Strategies for Employee Retention Special bonus for successfully completing firm sponsored certificates Benefit programs for family support Child adoption benefits Flexible benefits Dependents care assistance Medical care reimbursement Providing training and development and personal growth opportunities Professional skills development Individualized career guidance

High Level Strategies

Promoting Work / life Effectiveness Develop flexible schedules Part - time schedules Extended leaves of absence Develop support services On site day care facility Understand employee needs Listen to the employee and show interest in ideas Appreciate new ideas and reward risk-taking Show support for individual initiative Encourage creativity opportunities:

Encouraging professional training and development and/or personal growth

o o

Mentoring programs Performance feedback programs


12

Provide necessary tools to the employees to achieve their professional and personal goals Getting the most out of employee interests and talents Higher study opportunities for employees Vocational counselling Offer personalized career guidance to employees way to develop trust.

o o o o

Provide an environment of trust: Communication is the most important and effective

o o o

Suggestion committees can be created Open door communication policy can be followed Regular feedbacks on organizations goals and activities should be taken from the employees by:

Management communications Intranet and internet can be used as they provide 24X7 access to the information Newsletters, notice boards, etc.

Hire the right people from the beginning: employee retention is not a process that

begins at the end. The process of retention begins right from the start of the recruitment process.
o

The new joiners should fit with the organizations culture. The personality, leadership characteristics of the candidate should be in sync with the culture of the hiring organization. Referral bonus should be given to the employees for successful hires. They are the best source of networking. Proper training should be given to the managers on interview and management techniques. An internship program can be followed to recruit the fresh graduates.

13

1.1.2 NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY Employee retention is an integral part of every organization. This company felt the need for this study for many reasons. The need of the hour is to know the reasons for employee turnover and measures to be taken to reduce it and to review the existing retention strategies. Another important need is to check the level of satisfaction employees in terms of the benefits being provide to them by the company. The company needs to find if any deficiencies exist in the present system. The company needs to go for a change in the system if need to create trust in the minds of the employees. This study will make the employees feel that the organization will give value to their perception of suggestions. The organization validates their stand that they give best compensation, rewards system, career developing, training and development and has to show the employees the real fact in it. To motivate the employees to do their work at a better quality and give their best knowing the employees needs is one way of getting it done. So this study tries to motivate the employees to give their best to the organization. This organization feels this study would help them to get a feedback from the employees regarding the employee turnover and also this will make the employees feel that the organization is wants to fulfil their needs and requirements. 1.1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

14

The main purpose of this study is to find the reasons for employee turnover in all departments because as in 2010 the attrition rate was 57% compared to the previous years which was 26%, measures to be taken to reduce it and steps involved in retaining the employees. It will assess the strengths and weakness of the organizations current employee retention strategies and develop employee retention strategies that go beyond pay, benefits and recognition programs to create a culture of competency and commitment. This study will also make the employees feel that the organization wants to fulfil their needs and requirements.

1.1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To reduce the employees turn over in the organization.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVE:

To explore what types of compensations are most important for the employees at BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD.

To investigate what issues related to organizational environment contribute to the retention.

To know the various growth opportunities provided and relationship status maintained by the organization.

To assess the most important supportive measures provided by the organization that contributes to the retention.

1.1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology adopted for the study is given below: TYPE OF RESEARCH: DESCRIPTIVE METHOD:
15

Descriptive research is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how... Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. 1.1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN: Here the research design used is descriptive research, because the researcher tries to collect the entire information about all the characteristics of the population like age, group, gender etc. Hence the researcher tries to find out in what frequency the relationship exists and what is the relationship between the variables. Hence research design is not flexible. 1.1.5.2 SOURCES OF DATA: Primary data: The primary tool used in data collection is Questionnaire, which was distributed and data is collected from employees. It consists of original information gathered for specific purpose. Secondary data: The secondary data is collected through the websites, journals, magazines, etc. 1.1.5.3 SAMPLE DESIGN: 1.1.5.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: The study is based on Stratified Random Sampling Method, as only few employees are considered for collecting data at BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD in Chennai. 1.1.5.5 SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size is 119 respondents, who are the employees of different departments of BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD (Chennai) have been selected for collecting data. 1.1.5.6 LIMITATIONS: Due to time and resource constraints the data were collected from 119 respondents only.
16

The findings cannot be generalized to the entire universe. The study is conducted considering the prevailing conditions that are subjected to change in future. The findings of the study are subject to bias & prejudice of the respondents due to lack of time or interest.

1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Retention Managers want their employees to perform their best but to achieve this they also need to take the cause of job satisfaction into consideration. Business today is much about innovation and switching, which creates a requirement on the leader of being able to motivate the subordinates. Leaders of today have another function than in a couple of decades, and the demands on remuneration strategies have changed. In this section we will describe some of the classical theories regarding leadership style and ways to remunerate employees. At the same time we have tried to find some of the latest literature, articles and studies published, and compare these findings to each other similarities and differences. As described in the method section we have during the journey found indications that some elements are more important than others in order for employees to obtain job satisfaction. While combining these with our findings of remuneration and leadership style we hope to give an accurate picture of how employees are to be retained. In 1995, a meta-analysis of some 800 turnover studies were conducted by Hom and Griffeth, which was recently updated (Griffeth et al, 2000). Their analysis confirmed some well established findings on the causes of turnover. These include: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, comparison of alternatives and intention to quit. Griffeth et al also found that age and tenure have a negative relationship to turnover. Benefits Benefits were once the least glamorous of all aspects of reward management, but today many organizations consider benefits to be an important approach in order to gain a competitive advantage in labour markets. Both financial and non-financial benefits play an important role when it comes to attract, retain and motivate employees. As a supplement to base pay financial benefits may enhance an organizations ability to attract and retain employees, and non-benefits
17

allows organizations to meet the specific needs of the employees. The design of benefits offered may differ, but having a variety of benefits to choose from, a so called cafeteria menu may be the easiest and cheapest way for employers to satisfy the employees need (Shields, 2007; Curtis and Wright, 2001). Another type of benefit that has become more popular and widespread is the idea of employee share ownership, which is very popular in especially France and the UK, but also in the rest of the European Union. Employees may participate in the profits of the enterprise, and this type of remuneration has been an important component of remuneration packages for many employees, especially managers (Thrope and Homan, 2000). Also Sigler (1999) writes about stock ownership as a type of pay incentive, and describes it as a way to motivate employees and reduce retention problems. Pay and performance Griffeth et al (2000) noted pay and pay related variables have a modest effect on turnover. Their analysis also included studies that examined the relationship between pay , a persons performance and turnover. They concluded that when high performers are insufficiently rewarded, they leave. They cite findings from Milkovich and Newman (1999) that where collective reward programs replace individual incentives, their introduction may lead to higher turnover among high performers. Sources of employee turnover Job related factors Most researchers (Bluedorn, 1982; Kalliath and Beck, 2001; Kramer et al., 1995; Peters et al., 1981; Saks, 1996) have attempted to answer the question of what determines people's intention to quit by investigating possible antecedents of employees intentions to quit. To date, there has been little consistency in findings, which is partly due to the diversity of employed included by the researchers and the lack of consistency in their findings. Therefore, there are several reasons why people quit from one organisation to another or why people leave organisation. The experience of job related stress (job stress), the range factors that lead to job related stress(stressors), lack of commitment in the organisation; and job dissatisfaction make employees to quit Firth et al.(2004). This clearly indicates that these are individual decisions
18

which make one to quit. Locus control refers to the extent to which people believe that the external factors such as chance and powerful others are in control of the events which influence their lives Firth et al. (2004). Manu et al. (2004) argue that employees quit from organization due economic reasons. Large organizations can provide employees with better chances for advancement and higher wages and hence ensure organizational attachment (Idson and Feaster 1990). Trevor (2001) argues that local unemployment rates interact with job satisfaction to predict turnover in the market. Role ambiguity refers to the difference between what people expect of us on the job and what we feel we should do. This causes uncertainty about what our role should be. It can be a result of misunderstanding what is expected, how to meet the expectations, or the employee thinking the job should be different Kahn et al. Muchinsky, 1990. Insufficient information on how to perform the job adequately, unclear expectations of peers and supervisors, ambiguity of performance evaluation methods, extensive job pressures, and lack of consensus on job functions or duties may cause employees to feel less involved and less satisfied with their jobs and careers, less committed to their organizations, and eventually display a propensity to leave the organisation (Tor et al., 1997). If roles of employees are not clearly spelled out by management/ supervisors, this would accelerate the degree of employees quitting their jobs due to lack of role clarity. Organizational factors Organisational instability has been shown to have a high degree of high turnover. Indications are that employees are more likely to stay when there is a predictable work environment and vice versa (Zuber, 2001). In organizations where there was a high level of inefficiency there was also a high level of staff turnover (Alexander et al., 1994). Therefore, in situations where organizations are not stable employees tend to quit and look for stable organisations because with stable organisations they would be able to predict their career advancement. The imposition of a quantitative approach to managing the employees led to disenchantment of staff and hence it leads to labour turnover. Therefore management should not use quantitative approach in managing its employees. Adopting a cost oriented approach to employment costs increases labour turnover Simon et al. (2007).

19

All these approaches should be avoided if managers want to minimize employee turnover an increase organisational competitiveness in this environment of globalization. Employees have a strong need to be informed. Organisation with strong communication systems enjoyed lower turnover of staff (Labov, 1997). Employees feel comfort-able to stay longer, in positions where they are involved in some level of the decision-making process. That is employees should fully understand about issues that affect their working atmosphere (Magner et al. (1996). But in the absence openness in sharing information, employee empowerment the chances of continuity of employees are minimal. Costly et al. (1987) points out that a high labour turnover may mean poor personnel policies, poor recruitment policies, poor supervisory practices, poor grievance procedures, or lack of motivation. All these factors contribute to high employee turnover in the sense that there is no proper management practices and policies on personnel matters hence employees are not recruited scientifically, promotions of employees are not based on spelled out policies, no grievance procedures in place and thus employees decides to quit. Griffeth et al. (2000) noted that pay and pay-related variables have a modest effect on turnover. Their analysis also included studies that examined the relationship between pay, a persons performance and turnover. They concluded that when high performers are insufficiently rewarded, they quit. If jobs provide adequate financial incentives the more likely employees remain with organisation and vice versa. There are also other factors which make employees to quit from organisations and these are poor hiring practices, managerial style, lack of recognition, lack of competitive compensation system in the organisation and toxic workplace environment Abassi et al. (2000). Strategies to minimize employee turnover Strategies on how to minimize employee turnover, confronted with problems of employee turnover, management has several policy options viz. changing (or improving existing) policies towards recruitment, selection, induction, training, job design and wage payment. Policy choice, however, must be appropriate to the precise diagnosis of the problem. Employee turnover attributable to poor selection procedures, for example, is unlikely to improve were the policy modification to focus exclusively on the induction process. Equally, employee turnover attributable to wage rates which produce earnings that are not competitive with other firms in
20

the local labour market is unlikely to decrease were the policy adjustment merely to enhance the organizations provision of on-the job training opportunities. Given that there is increase indirect and indirect costs of labour turnover, therefore, management are frequently exhorted to identify the reasons why people leave organizations so that appropriate action is taken by the management. Extensive research has shown that the following categories of human capital management factors provides a core set of measures that senior management can use to increase the effectiveness of their investment in people and improve overall corporate performance of business: Employee engagement, the organizations capacity to engage, retain, and optimize the value of its employees hinges on how well jobs are designed, how employees time is used, and the commitment and support that is shown to employees by the management would motivate employees to stay in organizations. Knowledge accessibility, the extent of the organisations collaborativeness and its capacity for making knowledge and ideas widely available to employees, would make employees to stay in the organisation. Sharing of information should be made at all levels of management. This accessibility of information would lead to strong performance from the employees and creating strong corporate culture Meaghan et al. (2002). Therefore; information accessibility would make employees feel that they are appreciated for their effort and chances of leaving the organisation are minimal. Workforce optimization, the organisations success in optimizing the performance of the employees by establishing essential processes for getting work done, providing good working conditions, establishing accountability and making good hiring choices would retain employees in their organisation. The importance of gaining better understanding of the factors related to recruitment, motivation and retention of employees is further underscored by rising personnel costs and high rates of employee turnover (Badawy, 1988; Basta and Johnson, 1989; Garden, 1989; Parden, 1981; Sherman, 1986). With increased competitiveness on globalizations, managers in many organizations are experiencing greater pressure from top management to improve recruitment, selection, training, and retention of good employees and in the long run would encourage employees to stay in organisations. Job involvement describes an individuals ego involvement with work and indicates the extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his/her job (Kanungo, 1982).
21

Involvement in terms of internalizing values about the goodness or the importance of work made employees not to quit their jobs and these involvements are related to task characteristics. Workers who have a greater variety of tasks tend stay in the job. Task characteristics have been found to be potential determinants of turnover among employees (Couger, 1988; Couger and Kawasaki, 1980; Garden, 1989; Goldstein and Rockart, 1984). These include the five core job characteristics identified by Hackman and Oldham (1975, 1980): skill variety, which refers to the opportunity to utilize a variety of valued skills and talents on the job; task identity, or the extent to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work - that is, doing a job from beginning to end, with visible results; task significance, which reflects the extent to which the job has a substantial impaction the lives or work of other people, whether within or outside the organisation; job autonomy, or the extent to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and determining procedures that the job provides; and job feedback, which refers to the extent to which the job provides information about the effectiveness of ones performance (Tor et al., 1997).Involvement would influence job satisfaction and increase organizational commitment of the employees. Employees who are more involved in their jobs are more satisfied with their jobs and more committed to their organization (Blau and Boal, 1989; Brooke and Price, 1989; Brooke etal., 1988; Kanungo, 1982). Job involvement has also been found to be negatively related to turnover intentions (Blat and Boal, 1989). Job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organisational commitment reflect a positive attitude towards the organization, thus having a direct influence on employee turnover intentions. Job satisfaction, job involvement and organisational commitment are considered to be related but distinguishable attitudes (Brooke and Price, 1989). Satisfaction represents an effective response to specific aspects of the job or career and denotes the pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from an appraisal of ones job or career (Locke, 1976; Porter et al., 1974; Williams and Hazer, 1986). Organisational commitment is an effective response to the whole organisation and the degree of attachment or loyalty employees feel towards the organisation. Job involvement represents the extent to which employees are absorbed in or preoccupied with their jobs and the extent to which an individual identifies with his/her job (Brooke et al., 1988).The degree of commitment and loyalty can be achieved if management they enrich the jobs, empower and compensate employees properly. Empowerment of employees could help to enhance the continuity of employees in organisations. Empowered employees where managers supervise more people
22

than in a traditional hierarchy and delegate more decisions toothier subordinates (Malone, 1997). Managers act like coaches and help employees solve problems. Employees, he concludes, have increased responsibility. Superiors empowering subordinates by delegating responsibilities to them leads to subordinates who are more satisfied with their leaders and consider them to be fair and intern to perform up to the superiors expectations (Keller and Dansereau, 1995). All these makes employees to be committed to the organization and chances of quitting are minimal.

1.3 INDUSTRY PROFILE:


Poised to become a US$ 225 billion industry by 2020, the Indian information technology (IT) industry has played a key role in putting India on the global map. The IT-BPO sector has become one of the most significant growth catalysts for the Indian economy. In addition to fuelling Indias economy, this industry is also positively influencing the lives of its people through an active direct and indirect contribution to various socio-economic parameters such as employment, standard of living and diversity. The industry has played a significant role in transforming Indias image from a slow moving bureaucratic economy to a land of innovative entrepreneurs and a global player in providing world class technology solutions and business services, according to National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM). The sector is estimated to have grown by 19 per cent in the FY2011, clocking revenue of almost US$ 76 billion. Indias outsourcing industry has witnessed a rebound and registered better than expected growth according to NASSCOM. The export revenues are estimated to have aggregated to US$ 59 billion in FY2011 and contributed 26 per cent as its share in total Indian exports (merchandise plus services), according to a research report IT-BPO Sector in India: Strategic Review 2011, published by NASSCOM. The workforce in Indian IT industry will touch 30 million by 2020 and this sunrise industry is expected to continue its mammoth growth, expect various industry experts. Furthermore, NASSCOM said that the domestic IT-BPO revenues excluding hardware are expected to have grown at almost 16 per cent to reach US$ 17.35 billion in FY2011. Strong economic growth, rapid advancement in technology infrastructure, increasingly competitive
23

Indian organisations, enhanced focus by the government and emergence of business models that help provide IT to new customer segments are the key drivers for increased technology adoption in India. The data centre services market in the country is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22.7 per cent between 2009 and 2011, to touch close to US$ 2.2 billion by the end of 2011, according to research firm IDC India's report. The IDC India report stated that the overall India data centre services market in 2009 was estimated at US$ 1.39 billion. India will see its number of internet users triple to 237 million by 2015, from 81 million registered in September 2010, according to a report titled 'Internet's New bn', by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG). BCG said Internet penetration rate in India is expected to reach 19 per cent by 2015, up from the current seven per cent. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is targeting a 10-fold increase in broadband subscribers to 119 million by 2014. The country has 10.29 million subscribers now. "We will have 119 million broadband subscribers by 2014," J.S. Sarma, Chairman, TRAI said at the fifth India Digital Summit 2010 organised by the Internet and Mobile Association of India. The penetration of the internet in rural areas will see an all time high in 2011. In a survey conducted by IMRB for the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), the total number of active internet users in rural area will rise by 98 per cent to touch 24 million by the end of 2011 from 12.1 million in December 2010. The survey said that the claimed internet user category is also set to grow by 96 per cent to reach 29.9 million by December 2011 from 15.2 million in December 2010. (Active users are those, who have used the internet at least once in the past one month. Claimed internet users are those, who have used the internet sometime but not necessarily in the past one month.) The Growth Story India is a preferred destination for companies looking to offshore their IT and back-office functions. It also retains its low-cost advantage and is a financially attractive location when viewed in combination with the business environment it offers and the availability of skilled people.

24

The countrys domestic market for business process outsourcing (BPO) is projected to grow over 23 per cent to touch US$ 1.4 billion in 2011, says global research group Gartner. In 2010, the domestic BPO market was worth US$ 1.1 billion. The firm predicts that the domestic BPO market would reach US$ 1.69 billion in 2012 and increase to US$ 2.47 billion by 2014. With the first quarter of the new fiscal 2011-12 offering positive business outlook, hiring sentiments for sectors like IT, ITeS and telecom have risen by over 20 per cent, says a study by TeamLease Services Pvt. Ltd. As per the Employment Outlook Report for the period AprilJune 2011, released by TeamLease Services Pvt. Ltd., hiring intent from IT and ITeS was the highest in cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Pune. India's top technology firms like TCS, Infosys, Wipro and HCL are readying plans to gain a bigger share of their largest market, US, by aggressively chasing contracts being served by multinational rivals. Analysts expect the top IT firms to grow between 23-27 per cent in the FY2012 on the back of more number of discretionary projects, improved pricing, and robust business volumes. Investments Between April 2000 and February 2011, the computer software and hardware sector received cumulative foreign direct investment (FDI) of US$ 10,705 million, according to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. The total investments of EMC Corporation, a leading global player of information infrastructure solutions in India, will touch US$ 2 billion (over US$ 2.01 billion) by 2014. Russian IT security software provider, Kaspersky Lab, will be investing US$ 2 million in its India operations at Hyderabad during 2011. On the back of 40 per cent revenue growth, Cognizant will invest more than US$ 500 million till 2014 to expand its campuses to add over 8 million square feet to house over 55,000 employees. It will create additional software development and training facilities in regions designated as special economic zones in Chennai, Pune, Coimbatore and Kolkata.

25

In order to integrate the learning experience for the students, Globsyn Business School, would launch an online platform, e-Globsyn, by July 2011 that would work as a virtual classroom environment for its students, as well as facilitate them with other amenities. Chennai-based Polaris Software Lab has announced that it is buying an 85 per cent stake in San Francisco-based digital identity authentication services provider Iden-Trust for US$ 20 million. The acquisition will mark Polaris' entry into the cloud computing space for financial technology solutions, the company said in a filing to the Bombay Stock Exchange. Government Initiatives Government sector is a key catalyst for increased IT adoption- through sectors reforms that encourage IT acceptance, National eGovernanceProgrammes (NeGP) , and the Unique Identification Development Authority of India (UIDAI) programme that creates large scale IT infrastructure and promotes corporate participation. Certain crucial steps taken by the Indian government to propel the sector growth are:

Constitution of the Technical Advisory Group for Unique Projects (TAGUP) under the chairmanship of NandanNilekani. The Group would develop IT infrastructure in five key areas, which includes the New Pension System (NPS) and the Goods and Services Tax (GST)

Setting up the National Taskforce on Information Technology and Software Development with the objective of framing a long term National IT Policy for the country.

Enactment of the Information Technology Act, which provides a legal framework to facilitate electronic commerce and electronic transactions. Setting up of Software Technology Parks of India (STPIs) in 1991 for the promotion of software exports from the country.There are currently 51 STPI centres where apart from exemption from customs duty available for capital goods, there are also exemptions from service tax, excise duty, and rebate for payment of Central Sales Tax.

Plans to formulate Information Technology Investment Regions (ITIRs). These regions would be endowed with excellent infrastructure and would reap the benefits of cositing, networking and greater efficiency through use of common infrastructure and support services.
26

Road Ahead The Indian information technology sector continues to be one of the sunshine sectors of the Indian economy showing rapid growth and promise. According to a report prepared by McKinsey for NASSCOM called 'Perspective 2020: Transform Business, Transform India', the exports component of the Indian industry is expected to reach US$ 175 billion in revenue by 2020. The domestic component will contribute US$ 50 billion in revenue by 2020. Together, the export and domestic markets are likely to bring in US$ 225 billion in revenue, as new opportunities emerge in areas such as public sector and healthcare and as geographies including Brazil, Russia, China and Japan opt for greater outsourcing.

1.4 COMPANY PROFILE: Bahwan CyberTek, BCT established in 1999, is a global IT provider of innovative software products and services. As a CMMi Level-5 organization, BCT is committed to delivering world-class solutions for its customers. BCT's 1450 professionals excel in engineering and product development, middleware and integration solutions, business process management, business intelligence, business process outsourcing, and infrastructure management solutions. Our focus verticals include Banking, Government, Energy & Utilities and Logistics and SCM. BCT has delivered solutions in twenty countries across North America, Middle East, Far East, Africa and Asia. BCT's offerings span across Product Development, Systems Integration, Outsourced Application Development, Migration and Customization, Training and Consulting Services. BCT Group has been growing consistently for the last 3 years with a CAGR of 25.67%, despite the economic slow-down in global markets. This was primarily made possible due to our strategic distribution of services across multiple verticals and geographies and not being restricted to one vertical or geography for revenue growth.
27

Leveraging our state-of-the art Centre of Excellence (COE) in Chennai, and a global delivery model we provide our clients cost effective end-to-end solutions and a rapid time to market. Capitalizing on the vast implementation experience, industry expertise and a CUstomer Enterprise CENTric approach, BCT has developed CUECENT BPM a comprehensive Business Process Management Suite with an integrated middleware platform CUECENT ESB that leverages leading-edge technologies to automate and optimize complex business processes allowing organizations to focus on accelerating change rather than on technology limitations. Cuecent BPMS suite enables organization to manage the entire lifecycle of complex system, document and human-centric business processes engaging people, technology and processes and integrate seamlessly with various 3rd party and legacy systems. BCT has developed strategic solutions based on Cuecent BPM Platform to address critical vertical and crossvertical market requirements. BCT offers strategic solutions for Banks and Financial Services Institutions, Government, Energy & Utilities and SCM and Logistics. BCT is an Oracle Platinum Partner for Fusion Middleware and E-Business Suite and has been recognized as an SOA Pillar Partner in USA. With BCT's 10 year long association with Oracle as an Alliance Partner, BCT works with Oracle globally in providing high performance costeffective solutions and brings the experience of 350+ B2B & Middleware Engagements worldwide across multiple verticals for its customers. BCT has established a 'Centre of Excellence' at its Chennai Office as an integral component and as a support centre for its Managed IT Services. CoE is a single point of contact for technical solutions for various Operating Systems, RDBMS, and Middleware etc. The centre is manned by technical professionals having accredited certifications complemented by multiindustry experience and innovation in technologies.

28

ABOUT BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD HISTORY OF BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD Bahwan CyberTek (BCT) established in 1999, is a global IT provider of innovative software products and services. As a CMMi Level-5 organization, BCT is committed to delivering world-class solutions for its customers. BCT's 1450 professionals excel in engineering and product development, middleware and integration solutions, business process management, business intelligence, business process outsourcing, and infrastructure management solutions. Our focus verticals include Banking, Government, Energy & Utilities and Logistics and SCM. BCT has delivered solutions in twenty countries across North America, Middle East, Far East, Africa and Asia. BCT's offerings span across Product Development, Systems Integration, Outsourced Application Development, Migration and Customization, Training and Consulting Services.

BCTs offerings Leveraging our state-of-the art Centre of Excellence (COE) in Chennai, and a global delivery model we provide our clients cost effective end-to-end solutions and a rapid time to market. Capitalizing on the vast implementation experience, industry expertise and a CUstomer Enterprise CENTric approach, BCT has developed CUECENT BPM a comprehensive Business Process Management Suite with an integrated middleware platform CUECENT ESB that leverages leading-edge technologies to automate and optimize complex business processes allowing organizations to focus on accelerating change rather than on technology limitations. Cuecent BPMS suite enables organization to manage the entire lifecycle of complex system, document and human-centric business processes engaging people, technology and processes and integrate seamlessly with various 3rd party and legacy systems. BCT has developed strategic solutions based on Cuecent BPM Platform to address critical vertical and crossvertical market requirements.

29

BCTs Clients BCT has widespread experience in implementing products and building large-scale enterprise solutions across 330+ implementations. Some of our large recent implementations include Payment aggregator for Dubai e-Government National Payment Hub for e-Finance in Egypt Middleware Channel Management solution for Bank Muscat, Oman Worlds largest land based 4PL for PDO, Oman Oracle SOA based middleware solution for world leading defence contractor, USA Oracle SOA based solutions for a full-service regional commercial bank, USA Oracle ERP Implementation for power generation company Oracle ERP support for leading wireless transmission system provider BPM and ESB solution for TN Government, India Remittance solution for a leading Bank, India Real Time Control & Automation Solutions for the largest OEM BHEL, India Business Process consulting for Dubai based manufacturing organization

BCTs Industry Presence BCT offers strategic solutions for Banks and Financial Services Institutions to enable Process Agility, reduction in costs and improve employee productivity, regulatory compliance and increase in profits by extending additional financial services and products to their clients. BCT offers strong strategic products and solutions for the banking and financial Institutions such as Cuecent Integrated Channel Manager, Cuecent eREMIT, Cuecent ePAY, Cuecent Finflex. Some of BCTs clients in BFSI include Bank Muscat, Oman, Bank Sohar, Oman, First Gulf Bank, UAE, Rak Bank, UAE, a Fortune 500 diversifed bank, USA, one of the largest

30

insurance and investment companies, USA, a full-service regional commercial bank, USA, HDFC Bank, India and Canara Bank India.

BCT has a strong presence in e-Government services and helped many cities worldwide to make a space for themselves in the list of the best e-governed cities of the world. BCT has played a pivotal role in quite a few e-Government programs across multiple countries offering e-payment services, integrated payment hub, licensing application, pension application, and payment, utilities services. Some of the large eGovernment projects we have implemented globally include Dubai e-Government, UAE, e-finance, Egypts National Electronic Payment Hub, an integrated licensing and financial system for Sharjah Government and Sanad citizen services, which was built to bridge the digital divide in Oman.

BCTs Energy & Utilities Vertical focus on Oil &Gas (Upstream, Midstream, Downstream,) Fossil and Combined Cycle Power, Chemicals and Metal and other Process Industries. This group has industry Domain experts and offers a wide range of cutting edge high-end technology products, solutions, consultancy and Integration services in Plant Automation, Enterprise Asset Management (EAM), Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), Integration of Shop Floor/ Plant floor with Enterprise Applications. We also offer green initiatives and carbon climate change solutions to address environmental safety and regulatory norms emerging globally. Globally we have implemented Asset Management, Automation, and Production Systems for large Power plants, Water Utilities, Fertilizer Plants, Aluminum Manufactures and Oil Upstream Vendors.

BCT is an Oracle Platinum Partner for Fusion Middleware and E-Business Suite and has been recognized as an SOA Pillar Partner in USA. With BCT's 10 year long association with Oracle as an Alliance Partner, BCT works with Oracle globally in providing high performance cost-effective solutions and brings the experience of 350+ B2B & Middleware Engagements worldwide across multiple verticals for its customers. BCT has received the "Business Excellence" award from Oracle for Excellence and Innovation using Oracle Technology. Some significant Middleware and ERP implementations and Support projects that we have completed include a leading provider of Intelligent Money Movement services in the USA, a global
31

provider of end-to-end wireless solutions for mobility and fixed network applications in the USA, a full-service regional commercial bank in the USA, Dhofar Power Company, ICARDA, Omniyat Properties, Darvesh Group in the Middle East.

BCTs Managed IT Services help customers identify and establish an effective IT management system based on their business requirements. Our teams work closely with key business and IT stakeholders to understand business drivers. This allows us to get an accurate accounting of the current state of operations and the expectations of business leaders to develop a roadmap to improve service and alignment with the business. BCT has established 'Centre of Excellence' at its Chennai Office as an integral component and as a support centre for its Managed IT Services. CoE is a single point of contact for technical solutions for various Operating Systems, RDBMS, and Middleware etc. The centre is manned by technical professionals having accredited certifications complemented by multi-industry experience and innovation in technologies.

As part of its Training Vertical, BCT provides Education Resource Management and Consultancy Services and Competency Building and Consultancy Service.

BCT has been working very closely with the Government in the creation of knowledge workforce in Oman. BCT is contracted to recruit, support and manage teachers of various subjects in vocational and technical institutions, in support of the Ministry's vision of preparing the national labor force to meet the requirements of the comprehensive development in the country. The diverse communities of teachers are helping Oman Government to further the technical and vocational education to that of international standards.

Our services in competency building are broadly focused towards national initiatives of the Government of Oman in the areas of Omanisation among public and private organizations, enhancing ICT skills capability and increasing ICT awareness within the government and the community. We have partnered with many reputed, world-class organizations and through
32

them bring the best of competency building services that helps to build knowledge workforce that fuel the economic growth of the nations.

Group Companies

Infoline Infoline is an Outsourcing Service Provider based at Knowledge Oasis Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman. Infoline is established as an end-to-end ITES organization, covering an entire gamut of operations, which exploits Information technology for providing successful business solutions. Its state-of-the-art outsourcing center caters to the contact center and other Back office processing needs of organizations across various verticals.

We are one of the largest contact centers in the Middle East and have strategic presence in USA, India and UAE through our Joint venture partners. Infolines robust infrastructure facilities and strong technological partnerships across the globe enables it to bring to the platform some of latest state-of-the-art technological solutions, which are a definitive option towards operational digitization for organizations spanning across all verticals.

Ingenuity Ingenuity is an Oman-based company specialized in providing Information security solutions focusing on Security, Safety and Identity Solutions. Ingenuity is a excellent grade registered company in Sultanate of Oman since 2003. Ingenuity partners with many leading organizations across the world to strengthen its portfolio of offerings. Some companies with whom Ingenuity has formed alliances are Cybergenetics, JusticeTrax, Mobile Medical International Corporation, true Cam, Crown Agents, Muhlbauer, HP, Omnix International and Deloitte.

33

Awards and Recognition

BCT continues to receive recognition and awards from industry groups such as:

Deloitte Technology Fast 500 Asia Pacific Ranking list, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Deloitte Technology Fast 50 companies in India, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NASSCOM Innovation Awards 2008. Received a Silver Award in this category Partner in winning Best eGovernment Program from Dubai eGovernment, 2008 Top 119 Asian Private companies by Red Herring, 2005 We have been featured by NASSCOM in its Research and Intelligence Report on Enabling Governments Worldwide featuring select Indian IT companies who have enabled greater efficiency in governments across the world. We are the only company to be highlighted in the payment solutions space.

Facts at a glance

Founded 1999 Employees 1450+ Revenues US$ 119 m CEO Mr. S. Durgaprasad Website www.bahwancybertek.com

Quality Policy Quality is an ever-extending goal - the better you are, the better you need to be. The management of the quality process is infinite, and marked only by milestones, never by completion!. Bahwan CyberTek (BCT) recognizes that it needs to constantly improve the quality of its deliverables to match the increasing expectations of customers to fulfill the goal of self-evident quality. Our journey to "Quality-Service-Timeliness-Reliability", have crossed
34

numerous milestones like - achievement of ISO 9001-2000 in July 2001, CMM Level 4 assessment in Jan 2002, and CMMi Maturity Level 5 assessment in September, 2005.

Quality Management System BCT has an elaborate Quality Management System (QMS) for managing software development. BCT's QMS ensures that the overall system is under control and effectively managed with best practices followed in projects. It also sets the framework for support teams of Systems, Human Resource and Finance. The strength of the QMS is the centrally managed processes owned by a group called Process Management Office (PMO), with their inputs to maintain and continuously improve the process. QMS helps to identify various systems to be controlled. It also ensures that they are run by the right people using clear procedures which meet international norms. Using CMMI Model, We

Link management and engineering activities to business objectives Ensure visibility in the product life cycle and engineering activities to ensure that the process or service meets customer expectations Help organizations to incorporate lessons learnt from additional areas of best practice (e.g., measurement, risk management, and supplier management) Aid in implementation of most robust high-maturity practices

How does CMMi Maturity Level 5 benefit our Customers


More predictable projects Lower and falling variances on schedules Reduced defect leakage Lower costs and shorter schedules with vendor improving productivity Stable and mature vendors with world-class processes Opportunity to learn process improvement from vendors

How does CMMi Maturity Level 5 help us serve you better

Marketing o Gain access to more opportunities o Differentiate ourselves Financial o Improve Productivity o Optimize cost o Reduce cycle time/Increase throughput o Build Quality; Reduce re-work/ wastage Management & Control o Work on defined processes & controls
35

Bring out exceptions early Project Management o Become predictable o Meet Delivery commitments o Manage Risks HR o Retain & Attract talent o Provide better work environment
o

CHAPTER II
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

36

2.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRATATIONS


2.1.1 DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: The sample of 119 represents the sample taken from BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD The following figures & table represent the demographic factors. TABLE 1: DEMOGRAGHIC FACTORS DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS Under 25 years 26-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-60 years Above 60 years TOTAL GENDER Male Female TOTAL MARITAL Married STATUS Unmarried TOTAL DEPARTMENT Operations Technical Finance TOTAL INCOME Below 3 lakhs 3 5 lakhs Above 5 lakhs TOTAL EXPERIENCE 0 3 years 4 7 years 8 10 years Above 11 years TOTAL AGE Frequency 10 54 30 22 3 0 119 95 24 119 85 34 119 37 72 10 119 29 53 37 119 18 38 32 22 119 Percentage 8.40 45.38 25.21 18.49 2.52 0 79.83 20.17 71.43 28.57 31.09 60.50 8.40 24.37 44.54 31.09 15.13 31.93 26.89 26.05

37

FIGURE 1.1: AGE

AGE
Above 60 years 51 - 60 years 41 - 50 years 31 - 40 years 26 - 30 years Under 25 years 0 Under 25 years AGE 10 26 - 30 years 54 20 31 - 40 years 30 41 - 50 years 22 40 51 - 60 years 3 60 Above 60 years 0

The results show that most of the employees are in the age group of 26 30 years. This is the age group in which they tend to perform well in their work and look out for various opportunities for their career growth. FIGURE 1.2: GENDER

38

As for the gender of the respondents, maximum numbers of the employees working in the organization are male. As the job requires more of the intellectual capacity, thus the organization preferably goes for more male employees than female employees. Female employees can be appointed for administrative work in the organization.

FIGURE 1.3: MARITAL STATUS

As for the marital status of the respondents, several people are unmarried and over half of the total are married. Being single they tend to search for many career opportunities thus they tend to leave the organization looking for career growth but in this case as the maximum number of respondents are married, they think twice before quitting their job. FIGURE 1.4: INCOME

39

INCOME

31%

24% Below 3 lakhs 3 - 5 lakhs Above 5 lakhs 45%

As for the income level of the respondents, most of them earn between 3 5 lakhs per annum. But the higher the pay scale provided to the employees, the higher is the tendency of retaining them. FIGURE 1.5: EXPERIENCE

As for the experience of the respondents, it is a well balanced structure. Freshers and those with up to 3 years of experience are small in number compared with the other employees who possess a larger level of experience. 2.1.2 COMPENSATION: The sample of 119 represents the sample taken from BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD. The following figures & table represent the compensation.

40

TABLE 2: COMPENSATION COMPENSATION Salary Leave Benefits (including sick, vacation, personal, paid holidays). Deferred Compensation Health & Related Benefits (health insurance, vision, dental, prescription). Retirement Plan. Not At All Important 0 0% 0 0% 1 0.84% 0 0% 1 0.84% Not Very Important 0 0% 0 0% 5 4.20% 2 1.68% 0 0% Neutral 2 1.68% 13 10.92% 29 24.37% 12 10.08% 5 4.20% Somewhat Important 12 10.08% 20 16.81% 33 27.73% 21 17.65% 20 16.81% Very Important 105 88.24% 86 72.27% 51 42.86% 84 70.59% 93 78.15% 119 119 119 119 Total 119

The design of compensation offered may differ, but having a variety of compensations to choose from, a so called cafeteria menu may be the easiest and cheapest way for employers to satisfy the employees need (Shields, 2007; Curtis and Wright, 2001). The employees strongly agree that compensations are essential for employee retention. This can be inferred that maximum number of respondents strongly agreed that the compensations provided by the organization plays an important role in retaining the employees.

FIGRE 2: COMPENSATION

41

Effective and sound remuneration policy can be constructed to attract, maintain and retain talented employees in the organization. Compensation should be according to one's qualification, potential, skills present, in use and potential to use in future, experience, other achievements. Reward on Knowledge acquisition, storing, sharing and utilizing. Increments and incentives can be regular and based on performance rather than biasness. Consistently reward outstanding performance. Growth can be awarded and encouraged in order to make an organization a LEARNING ORGANIZATION.

2.1.3 ENVIRONMENT: TABLE 3.1: EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION ARE TREATED WITH FAIRNESS AND RESPECT. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral No. Of respondents 9 16 17 Percentage ( % ) 7.56 13.44 14.28
42

Agree Strongly Agree Total

61 16 119

51.26 13.44 119

As per the response from the respondents, half of the total respondents agreed that employees in the organization have to be treated with fairness and respect. Companies must be committed to invest in morale boosting initiatives to reflect both their sincerity towards the issue and their serious approach to retaining employees. They dont have to be plied with treats to make them want to come to work and do their best. All they need is to be respected, valued and appreciated.

FIGURE 3.1: EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION ARE TREATED WITH FAIRNESS AND RESPECT.

The organization can avoid biasness and discrimination towards the employees in order for the employees to feel respected. Each any every employee can be treated equally without given anyone a special privilege in order a sense of fairness among the employees.
43

TABLE 3.2: THERE IS AN ENVIRONMENT OF OPENNESS AND TRUST IN THE COMPANY. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 9 19 22 52 17 119 Percentage ( % ) 7.56 15.96 18.48 43.69 14.28 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 44 % of the respondents agreed that there is an environment of openness and trust in the organization.

Ensure that there is more than one way for employees to express their opinions on any of the issues relating to the organization. An employee should be aware of business context, and work with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. FIGURE 3.2: THERE IS AN ENVIRONMENT OF OPENNESS AND TRUST IN THE COMPANY.

The organization can create an environment in which the employees can voice out their opinions. Employees should feel a sense of belonging to the organization.
44

The organization can provide a guaranteed job security for the employees so that the employees can develop a trust on the organization.

TABLE 3.3: THE ORGANIZATION HAS A CULTURE THAT RECOGNIZES AND VALUES DIVERSITY. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 9 19 39 36 16 119 Percentage ( % ) 7.56 15.96 32.77 30.25 13.44 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 53 % of the respondents agreed that the organization has a culture that recognizes and values diversity. Many employees are from various part of India. During the recruitment process itself the selected candidates are placed in their convenient location as per their choice. Different festivals are celebrated given importance to each and every employee of various religion and race. FIGURE 3.3: THE ORGANIZATION HAS A CULTURE THAT RECOGNIZES AND VALUES DIVERSITY.

The organization can take initiatives of organizing festival celebrating within the organization and this can be left to the employees in conducting these celebrations.

45

2.1.4 GROWTH: TABLE 4.1: EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 6 25 30 32 20 119 Percentage ( % ) 5.04 21.01 25.21 26.89 16.81 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 46 % of the respondents disagreed that the employee assistance program is important for retaining the employees. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are employee benefit programs offered by many employers, typically in conjunction with a health insurance plan. EAPs are intended to help employees deal with personal problems that might adversely impact their work performance, health, and well-being. EAPs generally include assessment, short-term counselling and referral services for employees and their household members. FIGURE 4.1: EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The organization can make it clear in the minds of the employees the importance of the employee assistance programs. Employers can also provide other services to employers, such as supervisory consultations, support to troubled work teams, training and education programs, and critical incident services.
46

TABLE 4.2: WORKING ON A NEW PROJECT ASSIGNMENT IS AN OPEN PROCESS WITH FEW BARRIERS. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 10 12 33 49 16 119 Percentage ( % ) 8.4 10.08 27.73 41.17 13.44 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 42 % of the respondents agreed that the organization provides opportunities for working on a new project assignment is an open process with few barriers. Every employee is given chance for working on new and challenging projects. This gives the employees the opportunities of bringing out and efficiently and effectively using their skills and knowledge in the new work areas in order to prove themselves of their capabilities. FIGURE 4.2: WORKING ON A NEW PROJECT ASSIGNMENT IS AN OPEN PROCESS WITH FEW BARRIERS

16

10 12 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 33

49

Strongly Agree

Highly challenging tasks can be given to the employees based on their capabilities and through their performance they can be provided benefits and incentives. Employees who have excelled well in their tasks can be recognized by giving them awards.
47

TABLE 4.3: SUPERIORS SIT AND DISCUSS DEVELOPMENT PLANS AT LEAST EVERY 6 MONTHS. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 9 19 26 47 18 119 Percentage ( % ) 7.56 15.96 21.84 39.49 15.12 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 40 % of the respondents agreed that superiors in the organization sit down with employees and discuss their development plans at least every 6 months. Career development is important for both the organization and individual (Hall, 2002). Its a mutual benefit process because career development provides the important outcomes for both parties (Hall, 1996; Kyriakidou and Ozbilgin, 2004). Organizations need talented employees for maintaining the sustainable competitive advantage and individuals require career opportunities to develop and grow their competencies (Prince, 2005). FIGURE 4.3: SUPERIORS SIT AND DISCUSS DEVELOPMENT PLANS AT LEAST EVERY 6 MONTHS.

The employers can sit with the employees can help them to phase out their career development, ask them if any extra facilities are to be provided. The employer can find out the problems in the employees inefficiencies and can provide solutions.
48

TABLE 4.4: TASK GROUPS AND ASSIGNMENTS OUTSIDE THEIR CORE JOB RESPONSIBILITIES. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 14 16 18 50 21 119 Percentage ( % ) 11.76 13.44 15.12 42.01 17.64 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 60 % of the respondents agreed that employees are often given the opportunity to be part of task groups and assignments outside their core job responsibilities. This gives the employees to learn and gain outside knowledge of other work areas other than the work assigned to them. This in turn gives the employees to know what is going around them.

FIGURE 4.4: TASK GROUPS AND ASSIGNMENTS OUTSIDE THEIR CORE JOB RESPONSIBILITIES.

The employer can continue the present strategy in which employees are often given the opportunity to be part of task groups and assignments outside their core job responsibilities. TABLE 4.5: CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

49

Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

No. Of respondents 13 19 20 46 21 119

Percentage ( % ) 10.92 15.96 16.80 38.65 17.64 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 39 % of the respondents agreed that the organization has a career development program that help people become more aware of and responsible for their own career development. Understanding how to motivate employees, and knowledge workers in particular, is likely to be a critical factor for organisational success. Paying attention to the career development of individuals will be vital not only for skill development but also to help motivate superior performance at work by giving people a clearer sense of direction and purpose.

FIGURE 4.5: CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

The employer can conduct individual sessions with the employees to find out how the employee wants to proceed with his career and provide career development programs accordingly.

50

2.1.5 RELATIONSHIP: TABLE 5.1: SUPERVISORS COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY WITH EMPLOYEES. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 7 18 13 60 21 119 Percentage ( % ) 5.8 15.12 10.92 50.42 17.64 119

As per the response from the respondents, half of the total respondents agreed that supervisors communicate effectively with employees. Proper, clear, friendly and open communication is the best foundation for employees. The active listener appreciates the employees feelings, input and concerns which can be the most cost-effective way to acknowledge people. Being heard builds self-esteem and employees with high self-esteem feel trusted and valued. People work for people, not companies, and people need to communicate effectively to ensure that their voices are being heard and their concerns addressed. FIGURE 5.1: SUPERVISORS COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY WITH EMPLOYEES.

Through the internet, employees can learn about employment benefits, job openings and the latest product initiatives. Use web conferencing tools to facilitate companywide meetings. This will let the audience and meeting hosts intermix in real time regardless of location. Issues and questions can be resolved immediately rather than elapsed time filled with confusion and frustration which can often result in departing employees.
51

TABLE 5.2: SUPERIORS HAVE A STYLE THAT EMPOWERS PEOPLE TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 10 13 25 57 14 119 Percentage ( % ) 8.4 10.92 21 47.89 11.76 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 48 % of the respondents agreed that superiors have a style that empowers people to take responsibility and authority. Employees want to be involved in decisions that affect their work. The leaders of high engagement workplaces create a trustful and challenging environment, in which employees are encouraged to dissent from the prevailing orthodoxy and to input and innovate to move the organization forward. FIGURE 5.2: SUPERIORS HAVE A STYLE THAT EMPOWERS PEOPLE TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY.

The employers can delegate more their authorities to their employees to test the employees capabilities. The employer cannot increase the work load of an individual employee so that the employee does not feel stressed.

52

TABLE 5.3: SUPERIORS SPEND A GOOD DEAL OF TIME LISTENING TO EMPLOYEES IDEAS. Options Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total No. Of respondents 11 10 34 48 16 119 Percentage ( % ) 9.2 8.4 28.57 40.33 13.44 119

As per the response from the respondents, nearly 53 % of the respondents agreed that superiors spend a good deal of time listening to employees ideas. The employer must listen to his employees and remember that this is a continuous process. The information employees supply will provide direction. This is the only way to identify their specific concerns. When leaders listen, employees respond by becoming more engaged. This results in increased productivity and employee retention. Engaged employees are much more likely to be satisfied in their positions, remain with the company, be promoted, and strive for higher levels of performance. FIGURE 5.3: SUPERIORS SPEND A GOOD DEAL OF TIME LISTENING TO EMPLOYEES IDEAS.

The employer can show keen interest in listening to employees problems, opinion, etc in order to create a sense of belonging to organization by the employee. The organization can allow the employees to voice out their ideas and best idea can be awarded too and organization can take the idea to another level by implementing it.
53

2.1.6 SUPPORT: TABLE 6: SUPPORT PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION


SUPPORT Rewards and recognition (e.g., service awards, employee of the year) Annual Performance Appraisal Training opportunities job related Not At All Important
1 0.84% 0 0% 0 0%

Not Very Important


2 1.68% 1 0.84% 3 2.52% 4 3.36% 0 0% 0 0% 27 22.69% 12 10.08% 21 17.65% 13 10.92% 24 20.17% 31 26.05%

Neutral
10 8.40% 13 10.92% 18 15.13% 11 9.24% 19 15.97% 8 6.72% 41 34.45% 40 33.61% 41 34.45% 52 43.70% 39 32.77% 35 29.41%

Somewhat Important
20 16.81% 20 16.81% 24 20.17% 34 28.57% 25 21% 23 19.33% 26 21.85% 31 26.05% 35 29.41% 44 36.97% 35 29.41% 26 21.85%

Very Important
86 72.27% 85 71.4% 74 62.18% 70 58.82% 79 66.39% 88 73.95% 22 18.49% 35 29.41% 20 16.81% 10 8.40% 17 14.29% 22 18.49%

Total
119

119

119

Education opportunities

0 0%

119

Employee Suggestion Program

0 0%

119

Help with career planning Job Rotation and New Assignments Mentoring/Coaching

0 0% 3 2.52% 1 0.84%

119

119

119

Wellness Programs

2 1.68%

119

Alternative Work Schedule Voluntary Reduction in Work Schedule Telecommuting/Work Home at

0 0% 4 3.36% 5 4.20%

119

119

119

54

This section is to indicate what supportive measures are being provided in their organization, and how important each support given by the organization was to them, whether it was available. By referring to the literature review on this topic, many items in the retention strategies sections of the survey were adapted from Griffeth and Horn (1983). The aim is to explore the supportive factors that affect their work place. The six supportive measures rated most important are rewards and recognition (e.g., service awards, employee of the year), annual performance appraisal, training opportunities - job related, education opportunities, employee suggestion program and help with career planning. Job rotation and new assignments, mentoring/coaching, were considered somewhat important by the employees , alternative work schedule, voluntary reduction in work schedule, telecommuting/work at home were considered important as well as not important but wellness programs was rated as least important. The importance of education and training benefits is not surprising, since the organization emphasis on growth and development through a variety of training. Another reason this benefit may be important is because the employees are generally younger and in an early phase of their career. FIGURE 6: SUPPORT PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

S P T UP OR
Voluntary Reduction in Work Schedule WellnessProgram s Job Rotation and New Assignm ents Em ployee Suggestion Program Training opportunities - job related Rewards and recognition 0 Not At All Im portant 20 40 Neutral 60 80 100 120 140 160

Not Very Im portant

Som ewhat Im portant

VeryIm portant

A day off, every four weeks for education. These programs create opportunities for the employees to develop their skills and to bring new ideas and concepts back to the department that can be used to improve their workplace. Frequent Job rotation and new assignments can be provided to the employees in order to provide the opportunities for them to learn about all the work profile available in the organization.
55

In case of mentoring/coaching, the managers should maintain a good relationship with the employees in order to help and guide them through their work. Telecommuting/work at home can be promoted among the employees in order to reduce their long working hours in the organization. Wellness programs can be conducted periodically in order for the employees to realize the importance of these programs Organization can encourage the employees to fix their own schedule that fits their needs. Both flexible and self-scheduling are significant ways to increase worker satisfaction. These methods go beyond simply letting an employee pick the schedule that is best for him from existing options; they allow employees to self-determine their schedule by providing the freedom to individually tailor their work hours.

CHAPTER III
56

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

3.1 FINDINGS

The main respondents are software developers & team leaders from BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD. The results show that most of the employees are in the age group of 26 30 years. As for the gender of the respondents, maximum numbers of the employees working in the organization are male. As for the marital status of the respondents, several people are unmarried and over half of the total are married. As for the income level of the respondents, most of them earn between 3 5 lakhs per annum. As for the experience of the respondents, it is a well balanced structure. Freshers and those with up to 3 years of experience are small in number compared with the other employees who possess a larger level of experience.

3.1.1 COMPENSATION:

Maximum number of respondents strongly agreed that the compensation provided by the organization plays an important role in retaining the employees but as for Employee assistance program, they feel is not as important when considered with other benefits.

3.1.2 ENVIRONMENT:

Half of the total respondents agreed that employees in the organization have to be treated with fairness and respect.

57

Nearly 44 % of the respondents agreed that there is an environment of openness and trust in the organization.

Nearly 53 % of the respondents agreed that the organization has a culture that recognizes and values diversity.

3.1.3 GROWTH:

Nearly 42 % of the respondents agreed that the organization provides opportunities for working on a new project assignment is an open process with few barriers. Nearly 40 % of the respondents agreed that team leaders and project managers in the organization sit down with employees and discuss their development plans at least every 6 months. Nearly 60 % of the respondents agreed that employees are often given the opportunity to be part of task groups and assignments outside their core job responsibilities. Nearly 39 % of the respondents agreed that the organization has a career development program that help people become more aware of and responsible for their own career development.

3.1.4 REALTIONSHIP: Half of the total respondents agreed that supervisors communicate effectively with employees.

Nearly 48 % of the respondents agreed that superiors have a style that empowers people to take responsibility and authority. Nearly 53 % of the respondents agreed that superiors spend a good deal of time listening to employees ideas.

3.1.5 SUPPORT:

Six supportive efforts are rated most important are rewards and recognition (e.g., service awards, employee of the year), annual performance appraisal, training opportunities - job related, education opportunities, employee suggestion program and help with career planning.

58

Job rotation and new assignments, mentoring/coaching, were considered somewhat important by the employees , alternative work schedule, voluntary reduction in work schedule, telecommuting/work at home were considered important as well as not important.

3.2 SUGGESTIONS

3.2.1 COMPENSATION:

Effective and sound remuneration policy can be constructed to attract, maintain and retain talented employees in the organization. Compensation can be according to one's qualification, potential, skills present, in use and potential to use in future, experience, other achievements. Reward on Knowledge acquisition, storing, sharing and utilizing. Increments and incentives can be regular and based on performance rather than biasness. Consistently reward outstanding performance. Growth can be awarded and encouraged in order to make an organization a LEARNING ORGANIZATION.

3.2.2 ENVIRONMENT:

The organization can avoid biasness and discrimination towards the employees in order for the employees to feel respected. Each any every employee can be treated equally without given anyone a special privilege in order a sense of fairness among the employees. The organization can create an environment in which the employees can voice out their
59

opinions. Employees should feel a sense of belonging to the organization.

The organization can provide a guaranteed job security for the employees so that the employees can develop a trust on the organization. The organization can take initiatives of organizing festival celebrating within the organization and this can be left to the employees in conducting these celebrations.

3.2.3 GROWTH:

The organization can create awareness and help the employees realize that the employee assistance plan is as important as the other benefits. Highly challenging tasks can be given to the employees based on their capabilities and through their performance they can be provided benefits and incentives.

Employees who have excelled well in their tasks can be recognized by giving them awards. The employers can sit with the employees can help them to phase out their career development, ask them if any extra facilities are to be provided. The employer can find out the problems in the employees inefficiencies and can provide solutions. The employer can continue the present strategy in which employees are often given the opportunity to be part of task groups and assignments outside their core job responsibilities. The employer can conduct individual sessions with the employees to find out how the employee wants to proceed with his career and provide career development programs accordingly.

3.2.4 RELATIONSHIP:

Through the internet, employees can learn about employment benefits, job openings and the latest product initiatives. Use web conferencing tools to facilitate companywide meetings. This will let the audience and meeting hosts intermix in real time regardless of location. Issues and questions can be resolved immediately rather than elapsed time filled with confusion and frustration which can often result in departing employees. The employers can delegate more their authorities to their employees to test the employees capabilities.
60

The employer cannot increase the work load of an individual employee so that the employee does not feel stressed. The employer can show keen interest in listening to employees problems, opinion, etc in order to create a sense of belonging to organization by the employee. The organization can allow the employees to voice out their ideas and best idea can be awarded too and organization can take the idea to another level by implementing it.

3.2.5 SUPPORT: A day off, every four weeks for education. These programs create opportunities for the employees to develop their skills and to bring new ideas and concepts back to the department that can be used to improve their workplace. Frequent Job rotation and new assignments can be provided to the employees in order to provide the opportunities for them to learn about all the work profile available in the organization. In case of mentoring/coaching, the managers should maintain a good relationship with the employees in order to help and guide them through their work. Telecommuting/work at home can be promoted among the employees in order to reduce their long working hours in the organization. Wellness programs can be conducted periodically in order for the employees to realize the importance of these programs Organization can encourage the employees to fix their own schedule that fits their needs. Both flexible and self-scheduling are significant ways to increase worker satisfaction. These methods go beyond simply letting an employee pick the schedule that is best for him from existing options; they allow employees to self-determine their schedule by providing the freedom to individually tailor their work hours.

61

3.3 CONCLUSION The study was conducted in the title A Study On Employee Retention In BAHWAN CYBERTEK PVT LTD. It is found that the employees leave the organization due to less job rotation, new assignments, mentoring/coaching, alternative work schedule; voluntary reduction in work schedule, telecommuting/work at home opportunities and the importance of wellness programs was not recognized by the employees. Maximum number of respondents strongly agreed that the compensation provided by the organization plays an important role in retaining the employees but as for employee assistance program, they feel is not as important when considered with other benefits. Most of the respondents agreed that employees in the organization have to be treated with fairness and respect, there is an environment of openness and trust in the organization, the organization has a culture that recognizes and values diversity, the organization provides opportunities for working on a new project assignment is an open process with few barriers, superiors in the organization sit down with employees and discuss their development plans at least every 6 months, employees are often given the opportunity to be part of task groups and assignments outside their core job responsibilities, the organization has a career development program that help people become more aware of and responsible for their own career development, supervisors communicate effectively with employees, superiors have a style that empowers
62

people to take responsibility and authority, superiors spend a good deal of time listening to employees ideas and the supportive measures provided were of beneficial to the employees. Thus the organization can take efforts to retain employees at the beginning of employment, make the employees feel valued and that what they do and what they are offered should outweigh what they could gain from other employment and finally HR department must have up to date, extensive data on employees turnover in order to make effective policies. The employees need to be taken care in an organization and provide them the best, make them feel that they belong to the organization and thus they will work with full satisfaction.

REFERENCE

63

REFERENCE
1) Griffeth R. W., Hom P. W. & Gaertner S. (2000), A Meta-analysis of antecedents and

correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research Implications for the next millennium, Journal of Management
2) Henry Ongori, (2007), A review of the literature on employee turnover, Department of

Management, University of Botswana, Botswana.


3) Horn, P.W and Griffeth, R.W. (1995). Employee turnover. Cincinnati, OH: South-

Western. 4) Huselid M. A., (1995), The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 38(3), pp.635-672. 5) Jeffrey P. Slattery, T.T. Rajan Selvarajan (2005). Antecedents to Temporary Employees Turnover Intentions. 6) Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Cunningham, P.G., (2002), Principles of Marketing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 7) Steel, R. P., Griffeth, R. W., & Hom, P. W. (2002). Practical retention policy for the practical manager. Academy of Management Executive, 18(2), 149-169. 8) Woodruffe, C. (1999). Winning the talent war: A strategic approach to attracting, developing and retaining the best people. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
9) http://www.siescoms.edu/images/pdf/reserch/working_papers/employee_engagement.p

df
64

10)http://www.cs.state.ny.us/successionplanning/workgroups/Retention/employeeretention

report.pdf
11)http://www.slideshare.net/guesta4bb5b/worklife-balance-and-organizational-

commitment-of-generation-y-employees
12)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employee_retention 13)http://www.columbia.edu/~ww2040/churn5.pdf 14)http://www.ideographic.net/images/uploads/B2Eweb.pdf 15)http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm/pdf/pdf2010/18July/Gberevbie.pdf 16)http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm/pdf/Pdf2007/Jun/Ongori.pdf 17)http://www.hytechpro.com/newsletters/pdf/whitepaper-nov2007.pdf

18) http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM/pdf/pdf2007/jun/ongori.pdf

APPENDIX

65