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Alexandra Javier Borja. Frein Jarane Peliglorio Castaeda. Pia Vianca Nikka Quizon Garing. Gelyn Garduo Menorca.

Dana Rosella Dela Cruz Tolentino.

The Religious Schism

The Second Phase of Revolution It was not only political in nature but also religious. It commenced with Aguinaldos return from Hong Kong. It has Philippine Independent Church as the only living and tangible result of the Revolution.

CAUSE: Conflict of races: Filipino civil and clerical groups against the Spanish civil and clerical segment
Majority if the Philippine Catholic Church belonged to oppressors. They aided the policy of repressions of colonial government. Mabini wrote a letter to General Otis, Accusing the Spanish friars of supporting the colonial government Taking up arms against revolutionists Because of this, he also refused to free friar prisoners. Father Aglipay was sympathetic to Spain but hostile to the United States. Aglipay was used by Gov. Gen. Basilio Augustin and Archbishop Nozaleda as pawn and oreded to confer with revolutionary leaders, unfortunately ,he failed. Aguinaldo sent Colonel Luciano San Miguel to Aglipay tto go to the north to persuade the latter to work for the Filipino cause.

Nozaleda comissioned Aglipay to win over Aguinaldo to the Spanish cause. Aglipay Went to north to investigate the state of the diocese of Nueva Segovia Secured the release of two Jesuit priests Went to Cavite and joined Aguinaldos movement The Revolutionary Government recognized the validity of civil marriage. It refused to recognize Nozaledas authority and prohibited Filipino priests from accepting responsibility or occupying vacant parishes without their approval. These conditions made it propitious for the rebel government to win the full support of the Filipino clergy. Aguinaldo made Aglipay Militar Vicar General ( religious leader of the revolutionary movement)

Gregorio Aglipay As a Filipino, supports revolutionists As a Catholic priest, backs the head of the Church (a Spaniard) Chose to be Filipino first then Catholic second Issued a letter to the Filipino clergy Urging them to take charge of all vacant parishes Urged the priests under his jurisdiction to rally to the revolutionary cause and support all favorable to the cause of the Filipino clergy

Nozaleda charged Aglipay usurpation of power and made him excommunicated, however, it did not work and didnt caryy its usual weight with the people. Aglipay, in return, excommunicated Nozaleda and charged him with collaborating with the Spaniards and the Americans in the latters policy of repression.

Apolinario Mabini

Asked the Filipino clergy to organize a Filipino National Church Argued for the preservation of the Church but must be based upon the appointment of the Filipino clergy of all positions

The national church must cooperate with the Republic, uniting the Filipinos.

The Filipino Clergy Believed for the assertion of their rights to direct Philippine Catholicism at the top An ecclesiastical assembly according to Aglipay. He discussed the Filipinization of the Catholic Church and the prevention of anarchy in religious matters and fought side by side with Filipino guerrillas.

Provisional Constitution of the Filipino Church Outlined the composition of the Filipino Church. Recognition of foreign bishops was forbidden. Declared independence of Filipino clergy from Spanish control and allowed negotiation with Rome. However, the Filipino Church didnt develop fully even the Filipino Government was on the verge of collapse.

Mons. Placido Chapelle Pro-friar; Popes delegate; American He drive Filipinos away from Rome and Americans. He intends to dominate Filipino clergy, the incompetent and capable of holding only menial positions in the Church, by force. Possibly caused the Filipino clergy to join the religious movement for a Church independent of Rome. THE SCHISM Causes: Chapelles undiplomatic language and reaction to Filipino reactions Filipino clergy agitated for a Filipino Church. Fr. Salustiano Araullo and Fr. Jose Chanco had an audience with the Pope in Rome; however, the Pope was more inclined to the Spaniards and promised nothing to the Filipinos.

Isabelo de los Reyes Radical propagandist and scholar Wrote in the newspaper Filipinas Ante Europa that a Filipino Church must be formed, conserving all good in the Roman Church and eliminating the evil of Roman corruption Campaigned for the establishment of Filipino Church Founded the Union Obrere Democratica (Democratic Labor Union) Delivered an anti-friar speech and proposed the establishment of a Filipino Church independent of Rome with Aglipay as Supreme Bishop in a meeting of Democratic Labor Union His proposal was approved and the new church was called Iglesia Filipina Independiente. This marked the commencement of schism with Rome.

Aglipay and the Jesuits Jesuit priest, Fr. Francisco Foradada tried to persuade Aglipay to the Catholic fold for four days. He promised Aglipay an appointment as bishop/archbishop and bribed him with money.

Aglipay wanted an assurancew that the Filipino Catholic priest problem will be solved, but Fordada replied with insults. With this, Aglipay directly turned down Fordadas offer and defend his fellow Filipinos. The break with Rome was complete. The Jesuits tried to repair the damage done by Fordada. Fr. Joaquin Villalonga was accompanied by Fr. Santiago Fonacier to ofer Aglipay again, however, Aglipay still resisted. Jesuit stopped trying to make Aglipay return to the catholic fold.

American Protestants Persuaded by Aglipay to join him in dividing the ranks of the Catholics to join his church, but he failed. They felt superior to the Filipino. They thought the Filipino church was too Roman and too rationalistic.

Aglipay then accepted the post of Supreme Bishop of the Independent Church officially. He was consecrated Supreme Bishop by the bishops of Isabela, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Abra, Nueva Ecija, Cavite, and Manila. The convertion in the country was on its way without any other influence from the Pope or his representatives.

Filipino National Church Reaction of the nationalistic priests to centuries of prejudice and belittlement.

Bases of Spanish Prejudice: Feeling of Racial Superiority Alleged Incompetence of the Filipino Clergy
Spanish friars Handled Mausers and Remingtongs when the colonial government was losing the battle Fought for the continuance of their power and authority in the Philippine society Results of the Revolution: Liquidation of the Spanish empire in the Orient Alienation of a Segment of the Population from the Catholic Church

The continuing resistance (1901-1913)

The resistance continued and can be seen in three sectoral perspectives: Christian community Muslim community Tribal community The Katipunan Inertia Bonifacio initiated struggle continued to sustain the struggle for independence. Despite Aguinaldos capture, the remaining leaders of the army, Gen. Miguel Malvar in Batangas and Gen Vicente Lukban in Samar continued the war. Macario Sakay attempted to keep alive the struggle fo independence even after the surrender of Lukban and Malvar through putting up his own Tagalog Republic with its own constitution.

In Luzon, 1905 Disturbances were reported in Cavite and Batangas Outbreaks were noted at San Pedro Tunasan, Paraaque, Taal, and San Francisco Malabon by Gov. Shanks of Cavite

By 1907, a strong mass movement was led by Salvador Felipe, Apo Ipe, whose cause was Santa Iglesia, literally means crusade of the Holy Church. This movement was spread ti Bulacan, Pamapanga Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. The Republican administration became Democratic during 1912. By 1913, Filipinization, a policy by Gov. Gen. Francis Burton Harrison was initiated. In Bicol, 1902, a movement which Simeon Ola led with 1,500 insurrectors worried the Americans. The American answer to Olas movement was a Reconcentration System. This wa from March to October 1903. The authorities persude Ola and his men to surrender. On September 22, 1903, Col. Bandholtz and Simeon Ola signed an agreement promising Olas immunity and other things. Later, the authorities denied promising Ola anything.

In the trial during November that year: Ola obtained executive clemency. Some of his men were freed, some were sentenced under Vagrancy Law, and others were tried under Sedition Law of 1901.

In Visayas, 1902 The surrender of Gen. Lukban in Samar during 1902 caused outbreaks until 1906. The Tauiran Affair took place on July 10, 1904 where hundred houses were burned and 21 people were killed. Cantaguic Affair was led by Juliano Caducoy Outbreaks by the Pulahan movement in Negros, Panay, Cebu, and Leyte in 1905 Disturbances in Leyte, which were encouraged by its governor, Gov. Jaime De Veyra, began in June 1907 In Mindanao, 1903 Armed disturbances in Surigao by a group of outlaws took place on March 23, 1903. This inciident was reported by Civil Gov. William Howard Taft. In May 1903, an Attack in Misamis was led by real insurrectors.

The Muslim Struggle The Lanao Resistance, 1902- 1912 The Moro resistance was led by traditional leaders like Sajiduciman, Ampuanagus, and Datu Datu Grande. Datu Tungul of Onayan attacked Cam Vicars in June 1902. Sultan Ganduli and Sultan Tanagan, with 150 to 200 Muslims, fought against the American soldiers in Maciu

The Sulu Struggle, 1899 1913 The Bates Treaty, 1899 An agreement between the American government and the Sulu Sultanate Datu Julkanain and Datu Kalbi of Patikul were the ones who refused to join the Sultan and chose to continue the movement against the Americans. Panglima Hassan, 1903 Hassans band was a threat to the American forces so Governor Wood decided to eliminate him and his followers. After his death, Pala, a rebel who had just returned from Borneo and was associated with several crimes, organized his own band but was also eliminated and his band was destroyed. Besides Pala, there were also local leaders from Jolo where Tausug resistance was concentrated. Its leaders were Datu Usap, Paruka Utik, Salip Masdal, Maharaja Untung, Jikiri, and Nakib Amir.

Bud Dajo, 1906 Rumors about the American intention of wiping out the Jolo Muslims triggered Bud Dajo to form a movement against the American forces

Jikiri, 1907 Jikiris revolt was one of the most significant ones. He became known to media as a result of his piratical attacks on trading vessels or villages early in the American period. Bud Bagsak, 1913 Sabilallah attacks on American troops became the source of colonial horror. The entire population practically joined the rebellion. The American authorities appealed of non-combatants and combatanats to retun to their abandoned farms and homes. Part of the compromise was the withdrawal of American troops from Jolo Island. The Bud Bagsak affair ended with pax Americana dawning in Sulu as over 500 rifles were gathered from the island. The Cotobato Resistance, 1903 - 1912 Datu Ali, 1903 Datu Ali began to defy American offer of peace and to persuade the Maranaos to join the anti-colonial movement. Ali changed tactics from the traditional method of confronting the enemy to the guerrilla- type of engagement.

They also used sabilallahs to harass the Americans during the day while Alis warriors attacked American troop encampments in the evening. The prospect of success was neutralized by the collaboration of Datu Piang with the American authorities. On October 31, Alis followers were killed, including him and three of his sons.

Datu Alamada, 1912 Datu Almada and 300 followers rose in rebellion, supported by thousands of sympathizers who vowed not to accept American sovereignty. The movements were concerntrated in Buldon and Upper Cotobato. There were other Muslim disturbances in the Muslim south but these were either isolated, personal or small group encounters staged by recalcitrants from the Muslim masses.

A Glimpse of Philippine Culture and Past Governance

The Highlanders Reaction Back to Tradition

The tribal groups had joined the revolutionary movement against colonialism. However, they did integrate into the Aguinaldo government and the armed forces. In Luzon the Igorot armed struggle until the end of the Spanish rule However, the tribal communities were won over by American Episcopal missionaries, medical missions and schools In Visayas, particularly Negros and Iloilo, were Presbyterian missions contributed to health and sanitation and education at grassroots level. In Mindanao the Manobos resisted against the Spaniards by providing support and assistance to political leaders the work of pacification was undertaken by American laymen, entrepreneurs, and teachers particularly during the period of the Moro Province from 1903 to 1906.

The Subanun Affair, 1909 In Mindanao

Americans make use of local datus and leaders to promote the need for social services A campaign against unsanitary living conditions and diseases like cholera, dysentery, smallpox and malarialocal leaders helped by setting personal examples of hygiene and proper sanitation. Education for children was very much emphasized.

In the Cordillera Americans encountered many problems of the Filipino-American War, which forced the retreating groups of 20 Filipinos under Aguinaldo to the traditionally hostile Ifugao country. Americans demonstrated their firepower when the Ifugaos took the head of an American soldier.

By the beginning of 1906, upon the arrival of Lt. Jeff. D. Gallman in Ifugao, the province saw the beginning of an era of peace among the Ifugaos and American rule set pace and patterns for the rest of the Cordillera.

Literature of Resistance Dramas were effectively used in attacking American colonialism. American rule and predicated the outbreak of violent Filipino resistance to further American intrusion.

Compromise with colonialism

Involvement During The Military Phase, 1899 1913 The Christian Filipinos In the Local Level In the case of Negros Island, the landowning class and the ilustrados cooperated with the American colonists. The Negrense provincial junta became the Americans useful comrade in fighting against the Malolos government In the Central Government The few who occupied top executive, legislative and judicial positions exercised vast powers and influence in national affairs Why the elite The natural fear of losing the security of their interests because of the growing demand of the masses for the redistribution of economic benefits and resources. The elites desired to preserve their privileges.

The Cultural Communities American teachers and missionaries led the natives to understand the American benevolent policy through schools, religious missions and especially medical work.

In the Cordillera Americans demonstrated three traits which helped them win over native support in the Cordillera region

Treaties The southern region of Sulu and other areas governed by the Sultanate system partly accepted American presence.
The Bates Treaty Carpenter-Kiram Agreement, 1915

Increase in Filipino Participation At the turn of the century there came a change in the landscape of American politics. The rise of the Democratic Party prompted a change in the United States motivations for colonialism. The first Democratic Governor General, Francis Burton Harrison, was appointed. He provided a realistic implementation of American policies, and made a point to increase the presence of Filipinos in position. His policies led to a rapid Filipinization of government.

Limits to Filipinization Elitism was present in the system which was increasingly becoming populated by Filipinos. Positions were given to citizens who met certain criteria for election: they had to be able to read and write, owned property, and/or were government employees during the Spanish period. The American market dominated the nation and was replete with American goods, while Philippine exports were given quotas and limited only to raw materials needed by American business. TheUnderwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913 abolished quotas, but this was rendered ineffective with the implementation of the Tydings-McDuffie Law of 1934 which restored quotas.

Social Effects System of government was identical to the American form, except for the federal aspect. The elite, many members of which held position in government, became more than collaborators with the Americans, but were now partners. The political landscape of the Philippines became American in form, but still held Filipino traditions and influences. These local values and decisions were maintained in the operating of the government. The Americans saw this as detrimental to the governments development. There were reports of corruption, bribery, and some shady deals. These were associated with traditional Filipino ideals such as pakikisama, utang na loob, and tendency to maintain kinship.