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REFERENCE EXCERSICES 1.

Germany After World War 2: In 1939, Germany started World War 2; It1 was confident that it1 could conquer and control all of Europe. it1 spread death and destruction over much of the continent2. But after several years of war, Germany itself3 began to suffer severe losses4: Allied bombing raids destroyed German cities, farms, industries, and transportation systems. Food, water, and fuel began to disappear. And without these essentials5, people could not care forthemselves6 and their families. Berlin, the capital city, incurred even worse damage7: Bombing raids destroyed seventy percent of its8 buildings. The city9 was left in ruins. People there10 lived in squalor: Vermin11 spread disease, with rats infesting peoples homes and fleas and cockroaches contaminating their12 food. Conditions13 worsened daily.

solution 1. It: refers to Germany three times. 2. Example 2, the continent, refers to the word Europe. 3. Example 3 itself refers to Germany. 4. Example 4, losses, refers to Allied bombing raids and the destruction of German cities, farms, industries, and transportation systems. 5. Example 5, these essentials, refers to the words food, water, and fuel. 6. Example 6, themselves refers, people 7. Example 7, damage, refers to bombing raids destroying 70% of Berlin and leaving it in ruins. 8. Example 8, the possessive adjective its refers to the word Berlin, or more accurately its possessive form (Berlins). 9. Example 9, the city, refers to the word Berlin. 10.Example 10, the short locational adverb there, stands for the phrase in Berlin. 11.Example 11, vermin, refers to the words rats, fleas, and roaches 12.Example 12, the possessive adjective their stands for the possessive form of the word people (peoples). 13.Example 13, conditions, refers to the information in the whole bottom half of the paragraph

Indentify the type of references. 2. Germany Surrenders: Finally on 7 May 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allied Forces1 and the war in Europe2 was over. By June of 1945, Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union had occupied the whole country3. Immediately, they4 devised a system5 for controlling Germany: They divided Germany into four sectorsthree6 in the west and one6 in the east. They also divided the capital city7 into four sectors with Great Britain, The United States, France, and the Soviet Union each administering one sector of the city8. All four countries9 agreed to help rebuild German cities, farms, industries, and transportation 10 systems. They also promised to promote the establishment of a democratic form of government in Germany. Solution. 1. The noun phrase the Allied Forces is exophoric, referring loosely to certain members of the fifty nations that opposed the Axis countries during World War 2. Note the use of the definite article the, indicating that only one example of this item exists in the time and place being focused on and that the reader most likely knows about it. 2. The noun phrase the war in Europe is anaphoric, referring to World War 2, mentioned in the first paragraph. 3. The noun phrase the whole country is anaphoric, referring upward to the word Germany. Note the anaphoric use of the definite article the, informing the reader that this item has been mentioned previously in the text. 4. The pronoun they is anaphoric, referring upward to Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union. 5. The noun phrase a system is cataphoric, referring downward to the description of the division of Germany and Berlin into sectors with Great Britain, the United States, France, and Soviet Union each administering one sector of Germany and one sector of Berlin. 6. The numerical pronouns three and one are anaphoric, referring back upward to the word sectors.

7. The noun phrase the capital city is anaphoric, referring all the way up to the word Berlin, in the previous paragraph. 8. The noun phrase the city is anaphoric, referring back up to the capital city, which in turn refers to Berlin in the previous paragraph. 9. The noun phrase All four countries is anaphoric, referring upward to Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union. 10.The pronoun They is anaphoric, referring back up to All four countries, which, in turn, refers to Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union.

3. The Second Exodus: For many years, East German people devised creative ways1 to sneak out of East Germany. Some people dug tunnels; others2 tried crashing through checkpoints with cars, trucks, or busses; still others3 flew out in small airplanes or balloons. One woman tied herself to the bottom of a car and passed through a checkpoint unnoticed. And one family made fake Russian uniforms for themselves4; then, they pretended to be Russian soldiers and simply drove through a checkpoint. Some desperate people tried scrambling over a barbed-wire fence or a wall. These people5 were often shot. 1. creative ways is cataphoricreferring downward to digging tunnels, crashing through checkpoints, flying out, tying oneself to the bottom of a car, sewing fake Russian uniforms, and scrambling over a fence or a wall. 2. others is anaphoricreferring upward to people 3. still others is anaphoricreferring upward to people. 4. themselves is anaphoricreferring upward to family. 5. these people is anaphoricreferring upward to desperate people

4.The Massive Exodus from East Germany: After the Soviet Union established communism in East Germany, they1 took over banks, farms, and industries and forced people to work for low wages. In response to these difficult conditions2, hundreds of thousands of East German citizens fled to the West3 to live. Soon, fewer people were working in East German factories, banks, farms, and industries. Then on 26 May 1952, in order to stop this exodus4, East Germany established a tight security system5 along

its frontier with West Germany: Starting at the Baltic Sea in the north and extending to the western tip of Czechoslovakia in the south, they6 constructed minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards. These measures7 effectively prevented most East Germans from crossing the frontier to the West. 1. they refers to the Soviet Union. 2. these difficult conditions refers to the sentence they [the Soviet Union] took over banks, farms, and industries and forced people to work for low wages. 3. the West refers to West Germany. 4. this exodus refers to the sentence ...hundreds of thousands of East German citizens fled to the West to live. 5. security system refers to minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards. 6. they refers to the East German Government. 7. These measures refers to minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards

4. The Berlin Wall: However, within the city of Berlin, there was no such security system1. People were still able to pass freely from East to West2and they did3. Many East Germans made their way to Berlin; then, they crossed over to the West, and never returned. Finally, on 13 August 1961, the East German Government built a huge 27-mile wall of concrete and barbed wire through the center of the city4, dividing the Soviet sector from the other three5. Now nobody could escape to the West; East Germans were truly prisoners of their own country6.The Berlin Wall7 separated families and ruined peoples8 lives. 1. no such security system refers to a security system like the minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards along the East-GermanWestGerman frontier. Note that the words no such do not refer directly to the East-West German frontier security system; rather, they refer to a hypothetical security system that would resemble the one on the EastWest German frontier. 2. from East to West refers to from East Germany to West Germany. 3. did refers to the phrase pass(ed) freely from East to West. 4. the city refers to Berlin. 5. the other three refers to the word sectors 6. their own country refers to East Germany

7. The Berlin Wall refers to the huge 27-mile wall of concrete and barbed wire right through the middle of the city. 8. peoples refers to both East Germans and West Germans