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BOILING AND CONDENSATION

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Boiling and condensation are also heat transfer process like conduction, convection and

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radiation but main difference is that Boiling and condensation involves a phase change of the

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substance.

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In boiling, liquid phase of the substance changes into vapour phase while in

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condensation, vapour phase changes into liquid phase.

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These process takes place at CONSTANT TEMPERATURE. The heat transfer rate in

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Boiling and condensation is very high as compared to other modes of heat transfer due to

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latent heat associated with phase change of the substance.

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A vapour is condensed when it reaches the saturation temperature at its existing pressure

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and the vapour phase of the substance changes into liquid phase by releasing its latent heat

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of vapourization (when the vapour comes into contact with any solid surface having

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temperature lower than saturation temperature corresponding to the vapour pressure).

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During condensation temperature does not change as the vapour is converting into

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liquid by releasing its latent heat of vapourization.

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During the process of condensation, the condensate formed on the surface flows

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down the surface under the action of gravity.

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If the liquid wets the surface, a smooth liquid film is formed which flows down along

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the surface. This process is called filmwise condensation.

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If the liquid does not wet the surface, droplets are formed which falls down the

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surface in some random fashion. The process is called dropwise condensation.

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In filmwise condensation, the vapour condensation takes place on the cold surface.

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The condensation wets the surface and tries to spread out due to gravitational force.

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Ultimately the condensate falls down from the surface on increasing thickness of the liquid

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film due to gravity.

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Filmwise condensation is not preffred as layer of liquid is deposited on the cold

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surface having high resistance to heat flow which hinders the transfer of heat from the

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vapour to cold surface. The filmwise condensation leads to low transfer of heat from the

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vapour to the cold surface and hence formation of filmwise condensation is less effective

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but preffred in most of applications as it can be easily achieved in application.

Filmwise condensation takes place on clean surface and when vapour having no

impurity (i.e. impurities like organic substance or fatty acid).

In dropwise condensation, condensate does not spread on the cold surface to form

liquid film. Instead condensate forms a liquid droplet which grows in size and ultimately

they break away from the cold surface. The condensation of vapour takes place most

effectively as the condensate does not form liquid film on the cold surface. The cold surface

remains continuously exposed to the vapour to facilitate effective condensation.

exposed to the vapour to facilitate effective condensation. Such type of condensation takes place when cold

Such type of condensation takes place when cold surface is highly polished or has

coating of taflon or zink. Impurities (like organic substance or fatty acid) in vapour are also

helpful for dropwise condensation.

Although heat transfer rate in case of dropwise condensation is much higher than

what is possible in case of filmwise condensation, but it is difficult to achieve dropwise

condensation. Therefore, in spite of low heat transfer possible in filmwise condensation,

filmwise condensation is assumed for designing condensers.

LAMINAR FILMWISE CONDENSATION OVER A VERTICAL PLATE

Nusselt’s theory of film condensation is applied for vapour condensation occurring

on a vertical plate. Nusselt’s analysis of film condensation is based on following simplifying

assumptions:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Vapour is pure, dry and saturated

The flow of condensate is due to action of gravity and is laminar

The liquid film has attained surface temperature at contact with the cold surface and

saturation temperature exist at liquid-vapour interface.

Viscous, shear and gravitational forces act on the fluid in the film along the surface.

Normal viscous and inertia forces are neglected.

(e) No velocity gradient at liquid-vapour interface i.e.

  u

y

y

0

,

where u

is the

(f)

velocity, y is the distance from surface and is film thickness.

Heat transfer in the film is by conduction and temperature distribution in the film is

linear.

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(g) Heat transfer is taking place under steady state.

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Consider condensation of vapour on a vertical plate as shown in the figure. Take

origin ‘o’ at upper end of the plate, x – axis along vertical surface and y axis

perpendicular to it.

Take heigheat transfer of plate = L

Breadth of plate = b

Thickness of film = at a distance ‘x’ from the origin.

The fil thickness is zero at upper end of the plate and it increases gradually till

lower end of the plate where film thickness is maximum.

Consider an element having dimensions x , y and b at a distance x from the

plate surface.

x ,  y and b at a distance x from the plate surface. Various forces

Various forces acting the element are:

Body force acting in downward direction mL g L bxy g L g bxy

Buoyancy force acting in upward direction mL g v bxy g v g bx y

Let

Shear stress

Force

F

Area on which forceis acting up on A

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Fy acting inupward direction y Area y b x

F

y

 y

  

acting in downward direction  

y

At equilibrium

d

dy

3

y

y    Area

  

y

d

dy

y

y

  

b



x

1

2

3

4

5

6

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m g m g F

L

v

F

at y at y 

y

L

g b x y

  

v

g b x y

  

y

b

  

x



 

y

 

L

v

 

L

v

L

v

g b

g b

g b

  

x

y

y

 

y

      

x

y

d

dy

y

d

dy

y

  

b

y

y



x

d

  

x

y

dy

y

b

 

x

y

d

g

 dy

v

L

y

Now

y

du

dy

d

2

d u

du

dy   dy

 

L

v

g





L

v

g

dy

2

2

d u

 

 

L

v

g

dy

2

  

Integrating

du dy   

v

g    y C

1

 

L

Integrating once again

u



 

L

v

g   y

2

2

C y C

1

2

Applying boundary conditions

At

y 0,

u 0

4

d

dy

  

b

y

y



x

b



x

1

2

3

4

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At y

,

du dy

0

We get

C

1

 

L

v

g

C 0

2

Therefore, velocity profile is given by

 

L

v

g

  y

2

  

  

L

v

 

2

 

g

  y

2

 

L

v

 

y

 



2

 

2

2

 

 

L

v

g

y

 

  

1   y
2

 

 

u



u 

u

g   y

The mean velocity in the liquid film at a distance y from the plate is given by

u

u

u

mean

mean

mean

1

0

udy

 

2

 

1

 

L

v

g

y

y

0

 

L

v

g

2

 

  

1 2   

 

3

  

2



   dy

To find out change in mass flow rate

The mass flow through a section at distance ‘x’ is given by

mass flow through a section at distance ‘x’ is given by m  Density  Flow

m Density Flow area Mean flowvelocity b u

x

L

Mean flowvelocity    b   u x L   m x 

m

x

 

  

 

 

2

 

b

 

 

L

v

g

 

 

L

 

 

L

L

v

gb

3

3

 
 

3

  L L   v gb  3 3      3 

m

x

  

5

mean

1

As the flow proceeds from x to x x , the film thickness grows from

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to because of additional condensation of the vapour on the cold surface.

additional condensation of the vapour on the cold surface. m  at x  x 

m

at x  x

m

x

dx d     

m

x

x

Therefore, increases in mass flow due to travel of condensate from x to x x , is

given by

   m m    m   m  m 
 
m
m
m
m
m
    
x
m
m
is always m
x  x
x
x
x
x
x  x
x
dx d   
  
  
  

d   m  m   x x dx    
d
m
m
 
x
x
dx
 
 

dx d   

L

v

gb  

3

 

x

 

L

3

As f x and the function is linear



  

 

L

L

v

gb 3 d

2

 

dx

m

   x

3



 

 

L

L

v

gb

 

dx

2

d    x

m

Since the film thickness is small and the motion of the fluid is slow, it is expected

that the mode of heat transfer through the film will be mainly the conduction. Therefore,

we can assume linear temperature profile with y within the liquid and we can write for the

local heat transfer rate as

dQ KA

Since

T

sat

   dT dy   

is T ,

s

KA

   T

T   

low

high

K b



x

   T

sat

T   

s

the value of dQ is always negative, which shows that the heat is

flowing in a direction opposite to the positive direction of y.

Also, dQ = LH of vaporization x Change of mass flow rate

dQ h

fg

  m  h       fg   
m
h
  
  
fg
  

 

L

L

v

gb

d  

 

 

2

x

dx

K b



x

  

T T

sat

s

 

h

fg

   

 

L

L

v

gb

d  

 

 

2

dx

x

6

1 K   

2

3

T

sat

T

s

 h  

fg

K T

sat

3

 

d

T

s

K

h

fg

   

T

sat

L

L

 

L

v

g

 

dx

d  

 

 

2

d   

 

L

v

g

3

T dx

s

dx

 

L

L

v

gh

fg

4 Integrating by considering '' with x

5

4

4

K T T

sat

s

 

L

L

v

gh

fg

x C

1

6 gAt x = 0,

0

7

8

Therefore C

1

=0

4

4

K T

sat

T x

s

 

L

L

v

gh

fg

9

  4 K T

 

L

L

sat

T x

 

s

 

v

gh

fg

1 4
1 4

10 Therefore, film thickness increases as 4

th

root of distance from the top of the plate.

11 The increase is rather rapid at the upper end of the vertical surface and slows

12 thereafter.

13 FILM HEAT TRANSFER

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The heat flow from the vapour to the surface is assumed to be taking

15 place by conduction only through the condensate film. Hence

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dQ K b



x

   T

sat

T  

s

(i)

Now heat transfer at the surface due to only convection is

18 dQ hx b x Tsat Ts

19

Equating (i) and (ii)

7

(ii)

1

K b



x

   T

sat

T   

s

h b

x



x T

sat



T

s

K h  2 x  K 3 h x 1 4   4
K
h 
2
x
K
3
h
x
1 4
  4 K T
T x 
sat
s
 
 
gh
L
L
v
fg
 
1
 
 
K gh 
3
4
h 
L
L
v
fg
4
x
4
 T
T x
 
sat
s
  
1
 
 
K gh 
3
4
h

L
L
v
fg
5
L
at x  L
4
 
T
T L
 
sat
s
  
6
Now
 1
L
 
h
h dx
7
h mean
L
x
0
1
1
L
 
 
K gh  
3
4
h
L
L
v
fg
 
dx
8
L
 
4
T
T x
0
sat
s
 
1
1
 
K
3
gh  
4
L
1
h
L
L
v
fg
 
x dx
4
9
L
4
T  T
 
sat
s
 
0
L
1
h 
10
L
0
1
 4
 
K
3
gh  
4
h 
L
L
v
fg
11
3
4
L
T  T
sat
s
 
1
 4
 
K
3
gh  
4
h 
L
L
v
fg
12
3
4
L
T  T
sat
s
 
 4
h
h
 1.13
h
13
3
L
L

1

If the surface is inclined at an angle with the horizontal, then

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4

h

3

 

 

L

L

v

3

K gh

fg

4

L

T T

sat

s

1  4 Sin    
1
4
Sin
  

The value of

  T T

 

2

sat

s

h

fg

is evaluated at

T

sat

The total heat transfer to the surface is

Q hAs Tsat Ts

The total condensation rate is

T s a t  T s  The total condensation rate is m  Q

m

Q hA T T

s

sat

s

h

fg

h

fg

TURBULENT FILM CONDENSATION

and all liquid properties are evaluated at

When the plate on which condensation occurs is quite long or when the liquid film

is vigorous enough, the condensate may become turbulent.

The

turbulence

results

in

higher

heat

transfer

rates

because

heat

is

now

transferred not only by condensation but also by eddy diffusion.

The transition criterion may be expressed in terms of Reynold’s number defined by

Re

u D

L m

h

L

Where D Hydraulic diameter

h

Re

u D L m h  L Where D Hydraulic diameter h   Re 

u

L m

4

A 4 m

L

P

P

L

 

4

 

Cross

sectional

area of flowing fluid

Wetted perimeter

 

4

A

P

Reynold’s number may also be related to heat transfer coefficient as

19

20

Q

h A T

s

sat

T

s

m has 19 20 Q    h A T s sat  T s 

fg

Q
Q

m

h A T T

s

sat

s

h

fg

h

fg

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

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23

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Re



4 m

4 h A T T

s

sat

s

P

L

P h

L fg

BOILING HEAT TRANSFER

Boiling is a convective heat transfer process and it differs from other modes of heat transfer

as it involves a change from liquid to vapour. As the phase change from liquid to vapour

requires a large quantity of heat as latent heat of vaporization, possible heat transfer by

boiling is large as compared to what can be transferred by other modes of Heat transfer.

Boling

occurs

when

a

liquid

comes

into

contact

with

a

hot

surface

whose

temperature is higher than the saturation temperature of the liquid.

Heat transferred to the liquid is

Q hA Ts Tsat

The boiling heat transfer phenomenon may occurs in the following terms

1. POOL BOILING : Pool boiling Occurs when the liquid above the hot surface is stagnant

and liquid motion above the hot surface occurs due to free convention currents resulting

from density variations on the heating of the liquid. The liquid particles in contract with hot

surface evaporate and form bubbles.

On detachment, these bubbles tend to move up to the free surface. The hot surface

is now exposed to fresh particles of the liquid which get heated and form bubbles on

transfer of heat from the hot surface. Pool boiling occurs in steam boilers which are

designed on natural convention.

FORCED CONVECTION BOILING

Forced convection boiling occurs when the liquid is made to flow over the hot

surface by external means. The liquid is pumped and forced to flow over the hot surface,

thereby creating forced convective currents. This type of boiling takes place in water tube

boilers involving forced convection.

SUB-COOLED ON LOACAL BOILING

Local boiling occurs when the liquid is below saturatiioy temprature and boiling

takes place only near the hot surface. The vapour bubbles formed on hot surface can travel

a short distance in the liquid before collapsing and Vanishing. The energy gained by the

bubbles is insufficient to take them to the free surface.

SATURATED BOILING

10

1

In saturated boiling, the temperature of the liquid exceeds the saturation

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temperature. Vapour bubbles are formed at hot surface and these bubbles have sufficient

energy to move to the surface and finally leave the free surface (Liquid-vapour interface).

BOILING REGIMES

The process of boiling depends upon the nature of surface, thermophysical

properties of the fluid and vapour bubble dynamics. Due to involvement of large number of

variables, general equations describing the boiling process are not available. Nonetheless,

considerable progress has been made in arriving at physical understanding of the boiling

mechanism.

There is a sharp decline in the liquid temperature close to the solid surface, but

temperature through most of the liquid remains slightly above saturation temperature.

Consequently, bubbles generated at liquid-solid interface rises to and are transported across

the liquid-vapour interface.

Whether the boiling phenomenon corresponds to pool boiling or forced circulation

boiling, there are three definite regimes of boiling (Interface evaporation, Nuclear boiling

and film boiling) associated with progressively increasing heat flux, as shown in the

following figure.

increasing heat flux, as shown in the following figure. 1. Interface evaporation or free convective boiling

1.

Interface evaporation or free convective boiling (O to A):

When the excess temperatureTe is very less   , the formation of vapour is

insufficient to cause a real boiling process. Free convection currents are responsible for the

fluid motion near the surface where the liquid is in a slight superheated metastable state

and subsequently evaporates when it rises to the surface.

5 C

0

11

1

2

3

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5

6

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Nuclear Boiling: When the excess temperature Te exceeds 5°C, the process of

boiling starts with the generation of considerable vapour and is referred to as nucleate

boiling.

resulting into formation of

isolated bubbles at few nucleation sites. These bubbles are detached with insufficient

energy, thereby collapsing and disappearing in the liquid With out reaching free surface.

Regime II is called unstable nucleate boiling (Curve A-B).

In regime II, temperature is not so high

0

T C

e

10

On further increase of excess temperature, the bubble formation is rapid and

bubbles have sufficient energy to reach to the free surface. Bubbles formation and motion

results into liquid agitation and mixing. The agitation and mixing promotes considerable

heat transfer from source to liquid resulting into high boiling heat transfer coefficient.

The maximum heat flux at point “C” is called critical heat flux or burnt out point.

The trend of increase of heat flux with increase in excess temperature observed up

to region III is reversed in region IV (Called film boiling region). This is due to the fact that

the bubble formation is very rapid and the bubbles blanket the heating surface and prevent

the incoming fresh liquid from taking their place. Eventually, the bubbles coalesce and

found a vapour film which covers the surface completely. Since the thermal conductivities of

the vapour film is much less than that of the liquid the heat flux drops with the growth of

Te .

C conditions oscillates between

Nucleate and film boiling and the phase is referred to as Transition boiling, unstable boiling

or partial film boiling (region IV).

Within the temperature range

50

0

T

e

150

0

With further increase in Te , the vapour film is stabilized and the heating surface

is completely covered by a vapour blanket and the heat flux is lowest as shown is region V.

FILM BOILING WITH RADIATION (Curve D-E)

In regime VI, film boiling continues but heat transfer increases due to a large amount

of heat lost by the heat source due to radiation. The temperature of the heat source

becomes very high at point “E” which may result into melting of the heat source (Surface).

The surface temperatures required to maintain a stable film are high and under

these conditions a sizeable amount of heat is lost by the surface due to radiation, as

indicated in the region VI.

Therefore Nucleate boiling is preferred instead of stable film boiling with radiation in

pool boiling.

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1

2

CRITICAL HEAT FLUX

3

The critical heat flux or burn out point is the point of maximum heat flux on the boiling

4

curve at which transition from nucleate to film boiling initiates. This point is also called the

5

boiling crisis because the boiling process beyond that point is unstable unless of course,

6

point E is reached. The temperature at E is extremely high and normally above the melting

7

point of the solid. So, if the heating of the metallic surface is not limited to point C, it is

8

possible that the metal may get damaged or it may even melt. Thus we may be interested to

9

operate the equipment close to this value and is not beyond it.

10

BUBBLE SHAPE AND SIZE

11

The heat transfer rate in nucleate boiling is greatly influenced by

12

The nature and condition of the heating surface and

13

Surface tension at the solid-liquid interface

14

The surface tension signifies wetting capability of the surface with the liquid (i.e. low

15

surface tension, highly wetted surface) and that influences the angle of contact between the

16

bubble and the solid surface. F the surface is contaminated; its wetting characteristics are

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affected which eventually influence the size and shape of the vapour bubbles.

18

If the surface tension of the liquid is low, it tends to wet the surface, so that the

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bubble is readily pushed by the liquid and rises.

20

20

21

22

Addition of agents for reducing the surface tension was found to have the same effect

23

as providing of wetted surface and to give increased rates of heat transfer.

24

25

BUBBLE GROWTH AND COLLAPSE

26

It has been observed that the bubbles are not always in thermodynamic equilibrium

27

with surrounding liquid.

13

1

1 2 The vapour inside the bubble is not necessarily at the same temperature as the

2 The vapour inside the bubble is not necessarily at the same temperature as the liquid.

3 Consider the forces acting on a spherical vapour bubble.

4 The pressure forces on the bubble must be balanced by the surface tension at vapour-

5 liquid interface. Thus

6

7

r p

v

2

p p

v

L

p

L

2

r

2

r

(1)

8 Where

p

v is the vapour pressure inside the bubble

9

p

L is the liquid pressure over the surface of bubble

10 is the surface tension of vapour-liquid interface

11 The vapour may be considered as a perfect gas for which the Clayperon equation may

12 be used.

13

14

dp

h

fg

p

R T

g

2

dT

dp ph

dT R T

fg

g

2

(2)

15 From perfect gas law

16

17

pV mR T

g

p

   V m   

R T

g

v

R T

g

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19

20

21

22

23

p

R T

g

Density of vapour formed

v

 

dp ph

fg

becomes

 

 

dT R T

g

2

 

dp h

fg v

 

dT

p p

v

L

T

h

fg v

ph

fg

(3)

T T

T

 

R T

2

v

sat

sat

g

Where

T

is the vapour temperature inside the bubble

 

v

T

sat

is the saturation temperature of vapour inside the bubble at

14

p

v

1

From (1) and (3)

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

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28

2

ph

fg

r T

v

T

sat

2

R T

g sat

T

v

T

sat

r

2

2

R T

g sat

ph

fg

  

The above equation suggests that if

TL Tsat Tv Tsat

The bubble of radius r will grow otherwise it will collapse.

Here

T

L

is the temperature surrounding the bubble

CRITICAL DIAMETER OF BUBBLE

surrounding the bubble CRITICAL DIAMETER OF BUBBLE The maximum diameter of the bubble formed on the

The maximum diameter of the bubble formed on the heating surface depends on the

following parameters

 

Lv

Ls

= Tension between liquid and vapour

= Tension between liquid and solid surface

vs

= Tension between vapour and solid surface

= Angle formed by the bubble

g L v Bouyancy force

d

c = Maximum or critical diameter of the bubble

d

c

f

 



,

Lv

, g

 

L

v

,

Lv

Ls

 

By using Dimensional analysis techniques (Buchinghm pie theorem), we get

d

c

C

    Lv Lv      g   
Lv
Lv
 
 
g
 
Ls
L
v

Where C is constant which is generally calculated by experimental results.

C = 0.0148 for water bubble

BOILING CORRELATIONS

In boiling heat transfer, a driving force is the excess temperature, which is given by

T T T

e

s

sat

And for boiling process, the governing equation is

15

1

Q hATe hA Ts Tsat

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Where h is the boiling film coefficient. No analytical solution is available for boiling heat transfer due to difficult fluid behaviour, empirical relations are used for engineering calculations.

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