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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Power System Dynamics and Stability


Dr. Federico Milano
E-mail: Federico.Milano@uclm.es Tel.: +34 926 295 219

Departamento de Ingeniera Electrica, Electronica, Automatica y Comunicaciones

Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Introduction - 1

Power System Dynamics and Stability

Programa de Doctorado

Technical and Economical Management of Generation, Transmission and Distribution Electric Energy Systems
Area de Ingeniera Electrica de la E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de la Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Note

This course is partly based on the course ECE664 hold by Prof. Dr. C.
Canizares at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. I wish to sincerely thank Prof. Dr. C. Canizares for his courtesy in sharing this material.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Objectives

Understand the modeling and simulation of power systems from phasor


analysis to electromagnetic transients.

Discuss the basic denitions, concepts and tools for stability studies of
power systems.

Familiarize with basic concepts of computer modelling of electrical power


systems.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Outlines: System Modeling

Synchronous machine. Transformer. Transmission line. Cable. Loads.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Outlines: System Analysis

Basic stability concepts: Nonlinear systems. Equilibrium points. Stability regions. Power Flow: System model. Equations and solution techniques. Contingency analysis.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Introduction - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

Outlines: Voltage Stability

Denitions. Basic concepts: Saddle-node bifurcation. Limit-induced bifurcation. Continuation Power Flow (CPF). Direct methods. Indices. Protections and controls. Real case example: August 2003 North American blackout.
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Outlines: Angle Stability

Denitions. Small-disturbance: Hopf Bifurcations. Control and mitigation. Practical applications. Transient Stability (large-disturbance): Time domain. Direct Methods: Equal Area Criterion. Energy Functions. Real case example: May 1997 Chilean blackout.
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

Outlines: Frequency Stability

Denitions. Basic concepts. Protections and controls. Real case example: October 2003 Italian blackout. Real case example: November 2006 European blackout.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Outlines: Software Tools

Outlines. UWPFLOW. Matlab. PSAT.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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References

P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, Mc Graw Hill, 1994. P. Sauer and M. Pai, Power system dynamics and stability, Prentice Hall,
1998.

A. R. Bergen and V. Vittal, Power systems analysis, Second Edition,


Prentice-Hall, 2000.

C. A. Caizares, Editor, Voltage stability assessment: concepts, practices


and tools, IEEE-PES Power System Stability Subcommittee Special Publication, SP101PSS, May 2003.

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References

P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, Power system control and stability, IEEE


Press, 1994.

J. Arrillaga and C. P. Arnold, Computer analysis of power systems, John


Wiley, 1990.

I. S. Duff, A. M. Erisman and J. K. Reid, Direct Methods for Sparse


Matrices, Oxford Science Publications, 1986.

J. Stoer and R. Bulirsch, Introduction to Numerical Analysis, Second


Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1993.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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References

M. Ili and J. Zaborszky, Dynamics and Control of Large Electric Power c


Systems, Wiley, New York, 2000. C. A. Canizares, UWPFLOW, available at www.power.uwaterloo.ca

F. Milano, PSAT, Power System Analysis Toolbox, available at


www.power.uwaterloo.ca

Journal papers and technical reports. Course notes available on line.

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Evaluation

Two projects are required. The projects concentrates in the various topics discussed in class. These will require the use of MATLAB, PSAT and UWPFLOW (the last
two are free software for stability studies co-developed at the University of Waterloo, Canada).

Reproducing examples presented in the slides using UWPFLOW and


MATLAB.

Stability analysis of the IEEE 14-bus test system using PSAT.

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Evaluation

Alternatively, the students can develop a user dened model in PSAT. Interested students are invited to contact Dr. Federico Milano.

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Contents

Introduction Generator Modeling Transmission System Modeling Load Modeling Power Flow Outlines Stability Concepts Voltage Stability Angle Stability Frequency Stability Software Tools Projects
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Generator Modeling

Generator overview. Synchronous machine. Dynamic models of generators for stability analysis:  Subtransient model  Transient model  Basic control models Steady-state model.

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Generator Overview

Generator components:
Steam at pressure, P Fuel Boiler Enthalpy, h Turbine Torque at speed, Generator Power at voltage, V Current, I

Firing

control

Governor

Excitation

system

Power set-point

Ref

Ref V

Generator:  Synchronous machine: AC stator and DC rotor.  Excitation system: DC generator or static converter plus voltage
regulator and stabilizer

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Generator Overview

Generator with DC exciter and associated controls:


Commutator Amplidyne field dc Exc slip rings Regulator transfer PTs Field breaker ac Gen CT

Exciter field rheostat (manual control)

Magnetic amplifier Transistor amplifier

Stabilizer

Reference and voltage sensing Limiter sensing

Compensator

Magnetic amplifier

Other sensing MG set PMG Regulator power M 9052

Other inputs

Station auxiliary power

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Generator Overview

Generator with static exciter and associated controls:


Auxiliary power input start up

Voltage buildup element

FDR

Syn machine

Excitation power current transformer

CT

slip rings

Power rectifier Excitation power Excitation breaker

Excitation power potential transformer

PTs Linear reactor Trinistat power amplifier

Gate circuitry

Base adjuster manual control Regulator transfer Stabilizer Reference & voltage sensing Limiter sensing Other inputs Compensator Voltage adjuster

Signal mixing amplifier Rectifier current limit

Other sensing

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Synchronous Machine
a
Damper windings

r dr

c
Effects of induced currents in the rotor core

b
F D D Q1 Q2

r ar

Q 2 Q 1

DC eld

c qr

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Synchronous Machine

Electrical (inductor) equations: v d = ri + dt

d = L(r )i + dt 1 T dL(r ) Te = i i 2 dr Mechanical (Newtons) equations: J dr + Dr dt dr dt = Tm Te = r

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Synchronous Machine

Stator equations: v0s rs vds = vqs

rs

Rotor equations: vF rF 0 = 0 0

ids r qs d ds dt qs rs iqs ds rQ1 rQ2 iF F

i0s

0s

rD

i D iQ1 iQ2

d D + dt Q1 Q2

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Synchronous Machine

Magnetic ux equations:

0s ds qs F D Q1 Q2

L0 Ld Lq Md Md Mq Mq LF Md Md LD LQ1 Mq Mq LQ2 Md Md Mq Mq

i0s ids iqs iF iD iQ1 iQ2

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Synchronous Machine

Transformation equations: v0s vas vbs = P T vds vqs vcs P = 2 cos r 3 sin r 1/ 2

ias

1/ 2 cos(r sin(r
2 3 ) 2 3 )

ibs = P T ids iqs ics 1/ 2 cos(r + sin(r +


2 3 ) 2 3 )

i0s

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Synchronous Machine

Mechanical equations: 2 d 2 J r + Dr p dt p d r dt Te = Tm Te = r = p (iqs ds ids qs ) 2

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Synchronous Machine

3-phase short circuit at generator terminals:


ia (t)
2|Ea (0)| x d

Subtransient component Transient component Steady state

2|Ea (0)| x d

2|Ea (0)| xd

Ea (0) is the open-circuit RMS phase voltage.

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Synchronous Machine

Assuming balanced operation (null zero sequence), the detailed machine


model can be reduced to phasor models useful for stability and steady-state analysis.

Phasor models are based on the following assumptions: The rotor does not deviate much from the synchronous speed, i.e. r s = (2/p)2f0 . The rate of change in rotor speed is small, i.e. |dr /dt| 0

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Synchronous Machine

Subtransient models capture the full machine electrical dynamics,


including the few initial cycles (ms) associated with the damper windings.

Transient models capture the machine electrical dynamics starting with


the eld and induced rotor core current transient response.

Damper windings transients are neglected. Steady-state models capture


the machine electrical response when all transients have disappeared after a few seconds.

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Subtransient Model

External phase voltages and currents:


2 vas 2 2 = vqs + vds

vas i2 as ias

tan1

vds vqs ids iqs

= i2 + i2 qs ds = tan
1

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Subtransient Model

Subtransient internal voltages associated with the damper windings (D and Q1 ): d eq dt d e dt d e vds d e vqs q = = 1 [eq + (x x )ids e ] q d d Td0 1 [ed (x x )iqs e ] q q d Tq0

= rs iqs x ids d

= rs ids + x iqs q

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Subtransient Model

Transient internal voltages associated with the eld (F ) and rotor-core induced current windings (Q2 ): d eq dt d e dt d e vds d e vqs q = = 1 [ef + (xd x )ids e ] q d Td0 1 [(x x )iqs e ] q q d Tq0

= rs iqs x ids d = rs ids + x iqs q

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Subtransient Model

Steady-state equations: ea vqs vds Mechanical equations: d r dt d dt = 1 [Pm vas ias cos(vas ias ) Dr ] M = rs iqs xd ids = rs ids + xq iqs

= r = r s

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Subtransient Model

The subtransient reactances (x , x ) and open circuit time constants q d (Tq0 , Td0 ), as well as the transient reactances (x , x ) and open circuit q d time constants (Tq0 , Td0 ) are directly associated with the machine
resistances and inductances:

xd xq x d x q x d x q

= 0 Ld = x + xM d = 0 Lq = x + xM q xM d xLF = x + xLF + xM d xM q xLQ2 = x + xLQ2 + xM q xM d xLF xLD = x + xM d xLF + xM d xLD + xLF xLD xM q xLQ1 xLQ2 = x + xM q xLQ1 + xM q xLQ2 + xLQ1 xLQ2
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

June 26, 2008

Generator Modeling - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Subtransient Model

Some denitions: xF xD xQ1 xQ2 = xLF + xM d = xLD + xM d = xLQ1 + xM q = xLQ2 + xM q

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Subtransient Model

Time constants:
Td0 Tq0 Td0 Tq0

= = = =

xF 0 rF xQ2 0 rQ2 xM d xLD 1 xLD + 0 rD xD 1 xM q xLQ1 xLQ1 + 0 rQ1 xQ1

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Subtransient Model

Typical machine parameters:


2-pole Conventional Cooled Conductor Cooled 1.7-2.17 .264-.387 .23-.323 1.71-2.16 .245-1.12 .116-.332 4.8-5.36 .032-.059 .3-1.5 .042-.218 .27-.42 .00145-.00229 5-7 Conventional Cooled 1.21-1.55 .25-.27 .184-.197 1.17-1.52 .47-1.27 .12-.308 5.4-8.43 .031-.055 .38-1.5 .055-.152 .16-.27 .00146-00147 6-8 4-pole Conductor Cooled 1.6-2.13 .35-.467 .269-.32 1.56-2.07 .47-1.27 .12-.308 4.81-7.73 .031-.055 .36-1.5 .055-.152 .29-41 .00167-00235 6-8

xd x d x d xq x q x q Td0 Td0 Tq0 Tq0 x rs M

1.7-1.82 .18-.23 .11-.16 1.63-1.69 .245-1.12 .116-.332 7.1-9.6 .032-.059 .3-1.5 .042-.218 .118-.21 .00081-.00119 5-7

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Subtransient Model

Typical machine parameters:


Salient-pole Dampers No dampers .6-1.5 .25-.5 .2-.5 .4-.8 Combustion Turbines 1.64-1.85 .159-.225 .102-.155 1.58-1.74 .306 .1 4.61-7.5 .054 1.5 .107 .113 .034 18-24 Synchronous Compensator 1.08-2.48 .244-.385 .141-.257 .72-1.18 .57-1.18 .17-.261 6-16 .039-.058 .15 .188-.235 .0987-.146 .0017-006 2-4

xd x d x d xq x q x q Td0 Td0 Tq0 Tq0 x rs M

.6-1.5 .25-.5 .13-.32 .4-.8

= x q
.135-.402 4-10 .029-.051

= x q
.135-.402 8-10 .029-.051

.033-.08 .17-.4 .003-.015 6-14

.033-.08 .17-.4 .003-.015 6-14

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Subtransient Model

In practice most of these constants are determined from short-circuit


tests.

All the e voltages are internal machine voltages directly assocated with the internal phase angle . The internal eld voltage ef is directly proportional to the actual eld dc voltage vF , and is typically controlled by the voltage regulator. The mechanical power Pm is controlled through the governor.

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Subtransient Model

A simple voltage regulator model (IEEE type 1):


Se vr max vref + vm 1 Tr s + 1 V + Ka Ta s + 1 vr min Kf s Tf s + 1 vr + 1 Te s + 1 vf

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Subtransient Model

A static voltage regulator model:


Vc = |Vt | + (Rc + jXc )It VT 1 1+sTR IT Vuxl + + VS Vmin Vmax 1+sTC 1+sTB VC VA max 1+sTC1 1+sTB1 VA min sKF 1+sTF KA 1+sTA + Vef l vref + KIR 0 + |VT |VR max KC If Ef HV
Gate

If ref + If

|VT |VR min

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Subtransient Model

A simple governor model (hydraulic valve plus turbine):


Torder ref + + 1/R + Tmin
Tin

Tmax Tin 1 Ts s + 1
Governor

T3 s + 1 Tc s + 1
Servo

T4 s + 1 T5 s + 1
Reheat

Tmech

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Subtransient Model

A governor-steam turbine model:


w_ref K1 1.0 1 1+ sT_R 1 + sT_1 1 + sT_2 0.0 + 1 T_C1 1 1 + sT_C2 1 sT_C3 + P_ref

P_GV K_HP

+ +

1 1 + sT_HP + + F_IP + F_HP + P_MAX

P_mech

1 1 K_RH sT_RH

1 1+sT_IP

1 1 + st_LP F_LP

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Example

For a 200 MVA, 13.8 kV, 60 Hz generator with the following p.u. data:
rs x xd xd xd

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

0.001096 0.15 1.7 Ld = 0.00451 Md = 0.00411 LF = 0.00438 LD = 0.00426

0.238324 0.184690 1.64 xq

xq xq xq

Lq = 0.00435 Mq = 0.00395 LQ2 = 0 LQ1 = 0.00405 rF = 0.000742 rD = 0.0131

0.185151 6.194876 0.028716 0

Td0 Td0 Tq0 Tq0 p

rQ2 = 0 rQ1 = 0.0540

0.074960

2 M = 10 D = 0

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Example

A three-phase fault from open circuit conditions, i.e. before the fault vas = 13.8/ 3 kV and ias = 0, and after the fault vas = 0, is
simulated using the detailed machine equations:

vas , vbs ,vcs [kV]

1 0 1 2

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

t [s]

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Example
10 9 8 7

iF [p.u.]

6 5 4 3 2 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

t [s]

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Example
20

ia [p.u.]

0 20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 t [s]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

ib [p.u.]

0 20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 t [s]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

ic [p.u.]

20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

t [s]
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Transient Model

Obtained by eliminating electromagnetic differential equations and the


damper winding dynamic equations.

For this reason, the damping D in the mechanical equations, which is


typically a small value, is assumed to be large to indirectly model the signicant damping effect of these windings on r .

It is the typical model used in stability studies.

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Transient Model

Neglecting the induced currents in the rotor (winding Q2 ):


x = xq Tq0 = 0 q

e = 0 d

This leads to the transient equations: d e dt a = = e a ea 1 [ef + (xd x )ids e ] d a Td0 1 [ef ea ] Td0 +jx ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs d = vas vas + rs ias ias +jxd ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs
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= vas vas + rs ias ias

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Transient Model

The phasor diagram in this case is: e a ea e a iqs vas jxd ids rs ias = vas + rs ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d = vas + rs ias + jxd ids + jxq iqs ea jxq iqs j(xd x )ids d

ids

ias

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Transient Model

For faults near the generator terminals, the q axis has little effect on the system response, i.e. iqs 0. This results in the classical voltage source and transient reactance
generator model used in simple stability studies:

rs

jx d

ias ias +

e a

Pm

vas vas

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Transient Model

A further approximation in some cases is used by neglecting the eld dynamics, i.e. Td0 = 0. In this case, e is a xed variable controlled directly through the voltage a regulator via ef . The limits in the voltage regulator are used to represent limits in the eld
and armature currents.

These limits can be soft, i.e. allowed to temporarily exceed the hard
steady-state limits, to represent under- and over-excitation.

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Steady-state model

When all transient are neglected, the generator model becomes: ea ea ias ias = vas vas + rs ias ias +jxd ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs = ef = ids + jiqs

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Steady-state model

For a round rotor machine (xd = x ), the steady-state model leads to d


the classical short circuit generator model:

rs

jxd

ias ias +

ea

Pm

vas vas

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Steady-state model

Based on this simple model, the eld and armature current limits can be
used to dene the generator capability curves (for a given terminal voltage vas

= vt ):
Q ef limit Qmax

vt ea x

ia limit vt i a P Qmin Pmin


2 vt x

Pmax

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Steady-state model

Considering the voltage regulator effect, the generator can be modeled


as a constant terminal voltage within the generator reactive power capability, delivering constant power (Pm ).

This yields the PV generator model for power ow studies:


P

where P

Qmin

change.

= Pm = constant, and V = vt = constant for Q Qmax ; otherwise, Q = Qmax,min and V is allowed to

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Example

The generator data are:


va PG v = 10 j0.1

r (t) = 0 t + /2 + xd
Td0

= xq = 0.9, = 2s

x = 0.2 d

= large = constant = 0.5 at

The generator is operating in steady-state delivering PG

ea = 1.5. At t = 0 there is a fault and the line is disconnected. Find va (t) for t > 0.
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Example

Steady-state conditions: ea = vas vas + (rs + jxd )ias ias = v + j(xd + xL )ias 1.5 1 = j(0.9 + 0.1) = 1.5 sin j(1.5 cos 1) = {v i } = {i } as as 1.5 sin sin1 (PG /1.5) = 19.47 0.65 39.64 = ias = =

ias PG

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Example

iqs ids ea

= ias cos(ias ) = 0.33419.47

= ias sin(ias )( + /2) = 0.558 70.53 = vas + rs ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d = v + j(xd + xL )ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d j0.9(0.33419.47 ) = 1 + j0.1(0.65 39.64 ) + j0.2(0.558 70.53 )

d ea dt

= 1.11019.47 1 = [ea + (xd x )ids e ] d a Td0

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Example

Transient: d 1 ea (t) = [ef + (xd x )ids e (t)] d a dt Td0 ef = ea steady-state = ids = e (0) = a d ea (t) = dt 1.5 0 open line 1.110 1 [1.5 e (t)] a 2

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Example

Solution: d ea (t) = 0.5e (t) + 0.75 a dt e (t) = Ae0.5t + B a e (0) = A + B = 1.110 a e () = B = 0.75/0.5 = 1.5 a e (t) = 0.390e0.5t + 1.5 a
e a

va (t) = e (t) since ias = ids = iqs = 0 a


1.5 1.11 0 t

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Transmission System Modeling

Transformers:  Single phase: Detailed model Phasor model  Three phase: Phase shifts Models

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Transmission System Modeling

Transmission Lines:  Single phase: Distributed parameter model Phasor lumped model  Three phase: Distributed parameter model Reduced models Underground cables

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Single-phase Transformers

The basic characteristics of this device are: Flux leakage around the transformer windings is represented by a leakage inductance L . The core is made of magnetic material and is represented by a magnetization inductance (Lm L ), but saturates.

Losses in the windings (Cu wires) and core (hysteresis and induced currents) are represented with lumped resistances (r and Gm ). Steps up or down the voltage/current depending on the turn ratio a = N1 /N2 = V1 /V2 .

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Single-phase Transformers
leakage core

i1 + v1 N1 N2

i2 + v2

2 m

magnetizing

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

66

Single-phase Transformers

The equivalent circuit is: d di v = ri + = ri + L dt dt i r v 1 1 = 1 i2 r2 v2 i L + Lm Lm /a 1 d 1 + dt i2 Lm /a L2 + Lm /a2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 5

Power System Dynamics and Stability

67

Single-phase Transformers

Equivalent circuit:
i1 + v1 Lm r1 L1 im Gm i + e N1 : N2 a:1 ai + e/a L2 r2 i2 + v2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

68

Single-phase Transformers

The phasor equivalent circuit is:

1 V1 = (Z1 + Zm )I1 + Zm I2 a 1 aV2 = Zm I1 + (a2 Z1 + Zm ) I2 a V Z + Zm Zm /a I 1 = 1 1 V2 Zm /a Z2 + Zm /a2 I2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 7

Power System Dynamics and Stability

69

Single-phase Transformers

Phasor equivalent circuit:


I1 + V1 Z1 Im Ym aV2 a:1 a2 Z2 I2 /a + I2 + V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

70

Single-phase Transformers

This can also be readily transformed into a ABCD input-output form based on the following approximation, since Zm Z1 (Z1 a2 Z2 ): V1 I1 = a(1 + Z Ym ) Z /a V2 I2

aYm 1/a A B V2 = C C I2

= r1 + jX1 + a2 (r2 + jX2 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 9

Power System Dynamics and Stability

71

Single-phase Transformers

Phasor equivalent circuit with the approximation Zm Z1 :


I1 + V1 Z Im Ym aV2 a:1 I2 /a + I2 + V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 10

Power System Dynamics and Stability

72

Single-phase Transformers

Or form: Z = Y1 Y2 = = Z a (1 a) 1 Z 1 Z

(a2 Z Ym + a2 + a)
2

1 for Ym 0 (a a) Z

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 11

Power System Dynamics and Stability

73

Single-phase Transformers

equivalent circuit:
I1 Z I2

+ V1 Y1 Y2

+ V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 12

Power System Dynamics and Stability

74

Single-phase Transformers

Neglecting Zm (Ym is small given the core magnetic properties):


1. Time domain:

v1 i2
2. Phasor domain:

di1 + av2 = ri1 + L dt = ai1

V1 I2

= Z I1 + aV2 = aI1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 13

Power System Dynamics and Stability

75

Single-phase Transformers

Equivalent circuit neglecting Zm :


I1 + V1 aV2 a:1 Z + I2 = I1 /a + V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 14

Power System Dynamics and Stability

76

Single-phase Transformers

Certain transformers have built-in Under-Load Tap Changers (ULTC). This is either operated manually (locally or remote controlled) or
automatically with a voltage regulator; the voltage control range is limited (

10%) and on discrete steps ( 1%).

The time response is in the order of minutes, with 1-2 min. delays, due to
ULTCs being implemented using electromechanical systems.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 15

Power System Dynamics and Stability

77

Single-phase Transformers

These are typically used to control the load voltage side, and hence are
used at subtransmission substations.

Nowadays, power electronic switches are used, leading to Thyristor


Controller Voltage Regulators (TCVR), which are faster voltage controllers and are considered Flexible AC Transmission systems (FACTS).

These types of transformers are modelled using the same transformer models, but a may be assumed to be a discrete controlled variable
through a voltage regulator with a dead-band.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 16

Power System Dynamics and Stability

78

Single-phase Transformers

Transformers with special connections and under-load tap changers can


also be used for phase shift control and are known as Phase Shifters.

These control the phase shift difference between the two terminal voltages within approximately 30 , thus increasing the power capacity
of a transmission line (e.g. interconnection between Ontario and Michigan).

Phase shifters are modeled using a similar model but the tap ratio is a
phasor as opposed to a scalar:

a = a A equivalent cannot be used in this case.


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 17

Power System Dynamics and Stability

79

Single-phase Transformers

Phasor equivalent circuit with complex tap ratio a:


I1 + V1 Z Im Ym aV2 a:1 I2 /a + I2 + V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

80

Single-phase Transformers (Example)

Single phase 8/80 kV, 30 MVA transformer with X = 10% and Xm 10X . Detailed model parameters: a = L1 = = L2 Lm = = 8/80 = 0.1 X1 X 0 20 0.1 (8 kV)2 = 0.283 mH 2 377 30 MVA L1 = 28.3 mH 2 a X 0.1 (8 kV)2 10 = 10 = 5.66 mH 0 377 30 MVA
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 19

Power System Dynamics and Stability

81

Single-phase Transformers (Example)

Per unit parameters: Z Zm Ym = j0.1 = = 10Z = j1 1 = j1 Zm 8/8 kV =1 80/80 kV

a =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 20

Power System Dynamics and Stability

82

Single-phase Transformers (Example)

Per unit parameters:

A B

= =

C = D =

1(1 + j0.1(j1)) = 1.1 j0.1 = j0.1 1 1(j1) = j1 1 =1 1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 21

Power System Dynamics and Stability

83

Single-phase Transformers (Example)

Per unit parameters: j0.1 = j0.1 1 1 =0 (1 1) j0.1 1 = j1 (1 (j0.1)(j1) + 1 1) j0.1


2 2

Z = Y1 Y2 = =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 22

Power System Dynamics and Stability

84

Three-phase Transformers
a1

+ aVa2

T1 + Va2 a:1 T2 + Vb2 a:1 T3 + Vc2 a:1

a2

b1

+ aVb2

b2

c1

+ aVc2

c2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 23

Power System Dynamics and Stability

85

Three-phase Transformers

The 3 single-phase transformers form a 3-phase bank that induces a


phase shift, depending on the connection:

Vab1 Vab2 Vab1 a apu

= aVa2 330 Va2 = 3a30 Vab2 = 3a30 = 3apu 30 =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 24

Power System Dynamics and Stability

86

Three-phase Transformers

Y:
Y YY

a= apu =

3a30

: :

3apu 30 a = 3a 30 apu = 3apu 30 a=a a=a

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 25

Power System Dynamics and Stability

87

Three-phase Transformers

In balanced, normal systems, the net phase shift between the


generation and load sides is zero, and hence is neglected during system analyses:
Generator side Load side

In these systems, the p.u. per-phase models of the transformers are


identical to the equivalent single-phase transformer models.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 26

Power System Dynamics and Stability

88

Three-phase Transformers

For smaller transformers (e.g. load transformers), integral designs are


preferred to transformers banks:
a b c
core

3 windows

vabc1 vabc2

r133 r233 L1133 L2133

iabc1

L1233

L2233

iabc2 i d abc1 dt iabc 2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 27

Power System Dynamics and Stability

89

Saturation

The magnetization inductance Lm changes with the magnetization


current due to saturation of the magnetic core.

Saturation occurs due to a reduction on the number of free magnetic


dipoles in the enriched core.

This results in the core behaving more like air than a magnet, i.e.
magnetic conductivity decreases.

It is typically represented using a piece-wise linear model.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 28

Power System Dynamics and Stability

90

Saturation

The magnetization inductance Lm changes with the magnetization


current due to saturation of the magnetic core:
m Lm1 Lm2

ims

im

Lm (im ) =

m1

for

Lm2 for im > ims

im ims

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 29

Power System Dynamics and Stability

91

Single-phase Transmission Line

Alossless line can be represented using a series of lumped elements: l = D 0 ln 2 R 20 ln(D/R)

c = D R R 0 0 = =

distance between wires wire GMR wire radius

4 107 [H/m]

8.854 1012 [F/m]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 30

Power System Dynamics and Stability

92

Single-phase Transmission Line

i1
+

l [H/m]
+ +

i2
+

dv

di v

v1

c [F/m]

v2

dx

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 31

Power System Dynamics and Stability

93

Single-phase Transmission Line

The equations for this line are: dv di = ldx di v i = l dt x t i v dv = c = cdx dt x t

These are DAlambert equations with solution: i1 (t) = 1 1 v1 (t) i2 (t ) + v2 (t ) Zc Zc


I2 (t )

i2 (t)

1 1 v2 (t) i1 (t ) + v1 (t ) Zc Zc
I1 (t )
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

June 26, 2008

Transmission System Modeling - 32

Power System Dynamics and Stability

94

Single-phase Transmission Line

where: Zc = l/c chracteristic impedance 1 wave speed lc d travelling time for line length s
r/2 i2 + Zc v2
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 33

s = =

Distributed parameter equivalent circuit:


i1 + v1 Zc r/2

I2 (t )

I1 (t )

Power System Dynamics and Stability

95

Single-phase Transmission Line

Example: t=0
+ +

i1
Trans. Line

i2 = 0
+

v1

v2

v1 (t) = E i2 (t) = 0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

96

Single-phase Transmission Line

Example: t 0 2 3 4 5 I1 (t ) 0 2E/Zc 2E/Zc 0 0 2E/Zc I2 (t ) 0 0 2E/Zc 2E/Zc 0 0 i1 E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc i2 0 2E 2E 0 0 2E

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 35

Power System Dynamics and Stability

97

Single-phase Transmission Line

Example: i1 E/Zc
2 3 4 5 6

E/Zc v2 2E

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 36

Power System Dynamics and Stability

98

Single-phase Transmission Line

Phasor model from the distributed line model: d V = (r + jl)I = zI dx d I = (jc)V = yI dx 0 z V d V = dx I y 0 I

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 37

Power System Dynamics and Stability

99

Single-phase Transmission Line

The solution to this set of linear dynamical equations is: cosh d Zc sinh d V2 d V1 = dx I2 1/Zc sinh d cosh d I1
where

ed + ed cosh d = 2 ed ed sinh d = 2 = zy propagation constant Zc = z/y


characteristic impedance

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 38

Power System Dynamics and Stability

100

Single-phase Transmission Line

This can be converted into the equivalent circuit:


I1 Z I2

+ V1
Y1 /2 Y2 /2

+ V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 39

Power System Dynamics and Stability

101

Single-phase Transmission Line

equivalent circuit: Z Y

= =

sinh d zd d
Z

tanh d yd d
Y

for for

d < 250 km d < 100 km

Z Z

Z Z

Y Y Y 0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 40

Power System Dynamics and Stability

102

Three-phase Transmission Line


d n d n

2R a b d d c

dd 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 41

Power System Dynamics and Stability

103

Three-phase Transmission Line

Typically the phase wires are bundled (e.g. 4 wires/phase) and the guard
wires are grounded at every tower, i.e. correspond to the neutral.

For a total of N wires, the per unit length equations are:


v1 6 7 6 7 6 v2 7 6 7 x 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 vN 2 3 = 2 r11 6 6r 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . rN 1 2 l11 6 6l 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . lN 1 r12 r22
. . .

rN 2 l12 l22
. . .

lN 2

i1 76 7 . . . r2N 7 6 i2 7 76 7 76 7 . 76 . 7 .. . 76 . 7 . . 54 . 5 . . . rN N iN 3 2 3 i1 . . . l1N 7 6 7 . . . l2N 7 6 i2 7 7 6 7 7 6 7 . 7 . .. . 7 t 6 . 7 6 . 7 . . 5 4 5 . . . lN N iN ... r1N

32

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 42

Power System Dynamics and Stability

104

Three-phase Transmission Line


i1 6 7 6 7 6 i2 7 6 7 x 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 iN 2 3 = 2 g11 6 6g 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . gN 1 2 p11 6 6p 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . pN 1 p1 N N g12 g22
. . .

... ...
.. .

gN 2 p12 p22
. . .

... ... ...


.. .

pN 2

...

v1 76 7 g2N 7 6 v2 7 76 7 76 7 . 76 . 7 . 76 . 7 . 54 . 5 vN gN N 31 2 3 p1N v1 7 6 7 6 7 p2N 7 7 6 v2 7 7 6 7 . 7 t 6 . 7 . 7 6 . 7 . 5 4 . 5 pN N vN g1N

32

cN N

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 43

Power System Dynamics and Stability

105

Three-phase Transmission Line

In phasor form, these equations are:


V1 6 7 6V 7 d 6 27 6 7 6 . 7 dx 6 . 7 4 . 5 VN 2 3 I1 6 7 6 7 d 6 I2 7 6 7 dx 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 IN 2 3 = z11 6 6z 6 21 6 . 6 . 6 . 4 zN 1 2 y11 6 6y 6 21 6 . 6 . 6 . 4 yN 1 2 z12 z22
. . .

... ...
.. .

zN 2 y12 y22
. . .

... ... ...


.. .

yN 2

...

I1 76 7 z2N 7 6 I2 7 76 7 76 7 . 76 . 7 . 76 . 7 . 54 . 5 zN N IN 32 3 y1N V1 76 7 7 6V 7 y2N 7 6 2 7 76 7 . 76 . 7 . 76 . 7 . 54 . 5 yN N vN z1N

32

d V = [z]I dx

d I = [y]V dx

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 44

Power System Dynamics and Stability

106

Three-phase Transmission Line

The image method is useful for computing line parameters:


11 2Ri 00 11 00 11 00

dij
111 000 2Rj 111 000 111 000 111 000

hi

ij

Dij

hj [m]
Earth

hj hi j
image

i
image

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 45

Power System Dynamics and Stability

107

Three-phase Transmission Line

The line parameters zij and yij can be computed using Carsons
formulas:

rii rij rij

= riint + rii = = rij

riint from tables

+b2 [(c2 ln a)a2 cos 2 + a2 sin 2]

4104 {/8 b1 a cos

+b6 [(c6 ln a)a6 cos 6 + a6 sin 6] a =

+b3 a3 cos 3 d4 a4 cos 4 b5 a5 cos 5 +b7 a7 cos 7 d8 a8 cos 8 b9 a9 cos 9 + . . .} 4 5104 D f /


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

June 26, 2008

Transmission System Modeling - 46

Power System Dynamics and Stability

108

Three-phase Transmission Line

Dij for i = j 2 b1 = 6 s bk = bk2 k(k + 2) c2 = 1.3659315 +1 k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . s= 1 k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, . . .


June 26, 2008

D=

2h

for i

=j

1 b2 = 16 d k = bk 4

0 for i = j = ij for i = j

1 1 ck = ck2 + + k k+2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Transmission System Modeling - 47

Power System Dynamics and Stability

109

Three-phase Transmission Line

xii xij xij

0 2hi = ln + xiint + xii 2 Ri 0 Dij = ln + xij 2 dij =

xiint from tables( 0)

+b3 a3 cos 3 b4 [(c4 ln a)a4 cos 4 + a4 sin 4] +b5 a5 cos 5 d6 a6 cos 6 + b7 a7 cos 7 b8 [(c8 ln a)a8 cos 6 + a8 sin 8] + . . .} 1 2Dij pij = ln 20 dij

4104 {1/2(0.6159315 ln a) b1 a cos d2 a2 cos 2

gij pii

= gij 0 2hi 1 ln = 20 Ri

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 48

Power System Dynamics and Stability

110

Three-phase Transmission Line


f (Hz)
2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000
Rac /Rdc

L /L ac dc
0.99992 0.99970 0.99932 0.99879 0.99812 0.99254 0.97125 0.93898 0.89946 0.85639 0.66232 0.47004 0.38503 0.33418 0.29924 0.21204

f (Hz)
4000 6000 8000 10000 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 2000000 4000000

Rac /Rdc

L /L ac dc
0.15008 0.12258 0.10617 0.09497 0.06717 0.04750 0.03879 0.03359 0.03004 0.02124 0.01502 0.01227 0.01062 0.00950 0.00672 0.00475

1.0002 1.0007 1.0015 1.0026 1.0041 1.0164 1.0632 1.1347 1.2233 1.3213 1.7983 2.4554 2.9421 3.3559 3.7213 5.1561

7.1876 8.7471 10.0622 11.2209 15.7678 22.1988 27.1337 31.2942 34.9597 49.3413 69.6802 85.2870 98.4441 110.0357 155.5154 219.8336

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 49

Power System Dynamics and Stability

111

Three-phase Transmission Line

The [z] parameters depend on the line frequqnecy , i.e. this is a


frequency dependent model.

These number of conductors, and hence equations, can be reduced


based on the following observations:

The voltage of all Nb conductors in a phase bundled are at the same voltage (e.g. v1 = v2 = = vN b = va ). The current in each phase is shared approximately equally by each conductor in the bundle (e.g. i1 = i2 = = iN b = ia /Nb ). The voltage in the guard wires is zero (e.g. vg = 0).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 50

Power System Dynamics and Stability

112

Three-phase Transmission Line

This reduces the matrices to: zaa zab zac yaa yab yac zab zbb zbc yab ybb ybc zac

[z]N N

[y]N N

zbc zcc yac ybc ycc

d Vabc dt d Iabc dt

= [zabc ]Iabc = [yabc ]Vabc

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 51

Power System Dynamics and Stability

113

Three-phase Transmission Line

A line is transposed to balance the phases. The length of the barrel B must be much less than the wavelength (s/f 5000 km @ 60 Hz). B 50 km.
B a b c 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1

B/3

B/3

B/3

zaa [[zabc ] = zab zac


June 26, 2008

zab zbb zbc

zac

zbc zcc

yaa [yabc ] = yab yac

yab ybb ybc

yac

ybc ycc

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Transmission System Modeling - 52

Power System Dynamics and Stability

114

Three-phase Transmission Line

The phasor equations can be diagonalized using eigenvalue (modal)


analysis techniques:
T = TI [z]N N TI (diagonal matrix)

[zm ] [ym ] Vm Im

1 T = TV V = TI V 1 T = TI I = TV I

T = TV [z]N N TV

(diagonal matrix)

There are N modes of propogation, one for each eigenvalue.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 53

Power System Dynamics and Stability

115

Three-phase Transmission Line

Diagonalization of a 3-phase transposed line through sequence


transformation:
1 = TS Vabc 1 = TS Iabc

V0pn I0pn 1 1 1 3 1 1 a
2

TS

a =

1120

a a2

1 TS

1 1 = 1 3 1

1 a a2

a a
2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 54

Power System Dynamics and Stability

116

Three-phase Transmission Line

Transformation of zabc into z0pn :


1 [z0pn ] = TS [zabc ]TS zs + 2zm 0 = 0 zs zm 0 0

zp = zn

z0 3zp

0 z0 0 =0 zs zm 0

0 zp 0

0 zn

1 Similar for [y0pn ] = TS [yabc ]TS .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 55

Power System Dynamics and Stability

117

Three-phase Transmission Line

Diagonalization of a 3-phase transposed line through 0


transformation:

V0 I0

= T 1 Vabc

= T 1 Iabc 2 0 1 1 1 1/2 T = 3/2 3 1 1/ 2 3/2

T 1 = T T

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 56

Power System Dynamics and Stability

118

Three-phase Transmission Line

Transformation of zabc into z0 : [z0 ] = T T [zabc ]T zs + 2zm = 0 0 0 z0 0 =0 zs zm 0

0 zs zm 0

0 z 0

z = z = zp

z0 3z

0 z

Similar for [y0 ] = T T [yabc ]T .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 57

Power System Dynamics and Stability

119

Three-phase Transmission Line

These simplications lead to the following per-phase (positive sequence),


per-unit length formulas:

r l

= =

c =

rtables Nb 0 Dm ln 2 Rb 20 ln Dm Rb

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 58

Power System Dynamics and Stability

120

Three-phase Transmission Line

where: Dm is the GMD of the 3 phases: Dm =


3

dab dac dbc

Rb is the GMR of the bundled and wires: Rb =


Nb

R d12 d13 d1Nb

Rb is the GMR of the bundled: Rb =


Nb

Rd12 d13 d1Nb

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 59

Power System Dynamics and Stability

121

Example 1

24.14 km transposed distributed line:


70.68 mH
Bus 1

15 miles

Bus 2

Bus 3

0.741 325/ 3 kV

1 ms

70.16 mH 219.1 mH 251.2

R0 = 0.3167 /km

R1 = 0.0243 /km

L = 3.222 mH/km 0
C0 = 0.00787 F/km

L = 0.9238 mH/km 1
C1 = 0.0126 F/km

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 60

Power System Dynamics and Stability

122

Example 1
2 187.79 cos(377t) 6 7 6187.79 cos(377t 2/3)7 4 5 187.79 cos(377t + 2/3) 3 = 2 3 2 32 3 vBU S1a 0.714 0 0 i1 6 7 6 7 6 a7 6 vBU S1 7 + 6 0 0.714 0 7 6 i1b 7 4 4 54 5 b5 vBU S1c 0 0 0.714 i1c 2 32 3 0.07068 0 0 i1 7 6 a7 d 6 6 7 6 i1 7 0 0.07068 0 4 54 b5 dt 0 0 0.07068 i1c 32 3 2 vBU S1a 1 1 1 7 76 1 6 7 6 vBU S1 7 6 2 1/ 2 4 1/ 2 5 4 b5 p p 3 0 3/2 3/2 vBU S1c | {z }
T 1

+ 2 3 =

vBU S10 6 7 6vBU S1 7 5 4 vBU S1 2 3

i1 6 07 6i1 7 4 5 i1

3 2 i1 6 a7 1 6 7 T 4 i1b 5 i1c

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 61

Power System Dynamics and Stability

123

Example 1

i10 (t) = i20 (t) = r0 ZC0 0 = = =

r0 1 vBU S10 i10 (t) I20 (t 0 ) Zc0 2 1 r0 vBU S20 i20 (t) I10 (t 0 ) Zc0 2 0.3167 24.14 = 7.6451 3.222 103 = 639.85 0.00787 106

24.14 3.222 103 0.00787 106 = 0.12156 ms

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 62

Power System Dynamics and Stability

124

Example 1

i1 (t) = i2 (t) = r ZC = = =

r 1 vBU S1 i1 (t) I2 (t ) Zc 2 1 r vBU S2 i2 (t) I1 (t ) Zc 2 0.0243 24.14 = 0.5866 0.9238 103 = 270.77 0.0126 106

24.14 0.9238 103 0.0126 106 = 0.08236 ms

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 63

Power System Dynamics and Stability

125

Example 1

i1 (t) i2 (t) r ZC

1 r vBU S1 i1 (t) I2 (t ) Zc 2 r 1 vBU S2 i2 (t) I1 (t ) = Zc 2 = r = = ZC =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 64

Power System Dynamics and Stability

126

Example 1
2 3 vBU S2a 6 7 6 vBU S2 7 4 b5 vBU S2c 2 3 i1 6 a7 6 i1 7 4 b5 i1c 3 2 1 1 6 61 34 1 | 2 2 1/ 2 1/ 2 {z
T

2 vBU S2a 6 7 6 vBU S2 7 4 b5 vBU S2c

i2 6 07 T 6i2 7 4 5 i2 2 32 3 251.2 0 0 i2 6 7 6 a7 6 0 251.2 0 7 6 i2b 7 4 54 5 0 0 251.2 i2c 2 3 32 0.28926 0 0 i2 7 6 a7 d 6 6 7 6 i2 7 0 0.28926 0 4 54 b5 dt 0 0 0.28926 i2c

vBU S20 76 7 7 6vBU S2 7 3/2 5 4 5 p vBU S2 3/2 } 0 p

32

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 65

Power System Dynamics and Stability

127

Example 1
300

vaBUS2 vasource

200

100

[kV]

100

200

300

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

0.01

0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

0.02

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 66

Power System Dynamics and Stability

128

Example 1
300

200

100

[kV]
100 200

300

vaBUS2 vbBUS2 vcBUS2


0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

400

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 67

Power System Dynamics and Stability

129

Example 2
50 n 28 8 n

1 a b 45 110 c

11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 68

40 40

Power System Dynamics and Stability

130

Example 2

Line data: 4 Drake wires per phase (Nb = 4) 927 kcmil = 469.8 mm2 ACSR, 24 Al/13 steel, 3 layers R = 0.554 in = 1.407 cm R = 0.425 in = 1.080 cm rdc = 0.1032 /mile = 0.0645 /km rac@25 C = 0.1061 /mile = 0.0663 /km rac@100 C = 0.1361 /mile = 0.0851 /km d = 200 km f = 60 Hz = 377 rad/s
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 69

Power System Dynamics and Stability

131

Example 2

r Dm
Rb

= = = = = =

Rb l c

rac@100 C = 0.02134 /km Nb 3 45 45 90 = 17.27 m 4 1.080 30.48 30.48 43.11 cm = 0.1442 m 4 1.407 30.48 30.48 43.11 cm = 0.1541 m 17.27 7 = 0.9573 103 H/m 2 10 ln 0.1442 28.854 1012 = 0.01179 H/m 17.27 ln 0.1541

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 70

Power System Dynamics and Stability

132

Example 2

z = r + jl = y = = = Zc = = 0.361586.62 /km 4.444 106 90 S/km zy 0.0021788.31 km1 z y 285.21 1.69 = jc

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 71

Power System Dynamics and Stability

133

Example 2

= D = cosh d ed + ed = 2 = 0.96860.11

= Zc sinh d = = ed ed Zc 2 71.4686.65 1 sinh d Zc 8.787 104 90.03 S

C = =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 72

Power System Dynamics and Stability

134

Example 2

Z = zd = Y = 72.3086.62 = yd 8.89 104 90 S sinh d = Z d = 71.3386.65 Z tanh d/2 = Y d/2 = 9.032 104 89.95 S Y

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 73

Power System Dynamics and Stability

135

Cables

Steel pipe (lled with insulating oil) Skid wires Metallic tapes Paper/oil insulation Screen Conductor (stranded copper)

11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 74

Power System Dynamics and Stability

136

Cables

Single-phase and three-phase cables:

111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

conductor

sheath

SF6 gas

111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 75

Power System Dynamics and Stability

137

Cables

Model for a single-phase cable:

VC

VS

11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000
A

1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1 0 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1 0 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 V

I1 I2 I3

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 76

Power System Dynamics and Stability

138

Cables

Model for a single-phase cable: V1 V2 V3 IC IS IA = Vcore Vsheath = VC VS = Vsheath Varmour = VS VA = VA = I1 = I1 I2 = I2 I3

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 77

Power System Dynamics and Stability

139

Cables

Loop equations: V1 z11 z12 0 I1

d V2 = z12 z22 z23 I2 dx V3 I3 0 z23 z33 V1 y1 0 0 I1 d I2 = 0 y2 0 V2 dx V3 I3 0 0 y3

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 78

Power System Dynamics and Stability

140

Cables

The elements of the impedance matrix z arecomputed as follows: z11 z12 z22 z23 z33 = zC ext + zCS + zS int = zS mut = zS ext + zSA + zAint = zAmut = zAext + zAE + zE

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 79

Power System Dynamics and Stability

141

Cables

These impedances are calculated using the formulas:


11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 q 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 r 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000

zext zint zmut zins

m [I0 (mr)K1 (mq) + K0 (mr)I1 (mq)] 2rD m [I0 (mq)K1 (mr) + K0 (mq)I1 (mr)] = 2qD = 2qrD 0 r 1 = y = j 2 q =
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

June 26, 2008

Transmission System Modeling - 80

Power System Dynamics and Stability

142

Cables

= I1 (mr)K1 (mq) + K1 (mr)I1 (mq) j

m =

Where In and Kn are modied Bessel functions, as follows: In (x) Kn (x) = =


k=0

1 k!(n + k + 1)

x 2

n+2k

In (x) In (x) 2 sin(n)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 81

Power System Dynamics and Stability

143

Cables

The Gamma function (n) is dened as follows: (n) =


0

ex xn1 dx

(n + 1) = n(n) (n + 1) = n! for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . For asymmetric cables a nite element method is needed to compute
these impedances.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 82

Power System Dynamics and Stability

144

Cables

From the relations between loop voltages/currents and node


voltage/currents, the node equations are:

d VS = zCS dx VA zCA
e.g.

VC

zCC

zCS zSS zSA

zCA zSA zAA

IC

d dx

zCC = z11 + 2z12 + z22 + 2z23 + z33 IC y1 y1 0 VC = y1 y1 + y2 IS y2 VS IA 0 y2 y2 + y3 VA


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

IS IA

June 26, 2008

Transmission System Modeling - 83

Power System Dynamics and Stability

145

Cables

For a three-phase cable made of 3 single-phase cables: d [V] = [z]99 [I] dx d [I] = [y]99 [V] dx [zaa ]33 [z] = [zab ]33 [zac ]33 [yaa ]33 [y] = 0 0
June 26, 2008

[zab ]33 [zbb ]33 [zbc ]33 0 [ybb ]33 0

[zac ]33 [zbc ]33 [zcc ]33 0 0 [ycc ]33

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Transmission System Modeling - 84

Power System Dynamics and Stability

146

Load Modeling

RLC models. Induction motors. Detailed models. Phasor models. Aggregated models: Impedance models. Power models. Induction motor power models.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 1

Power System Dynamics and Stability

147

Load Classication

By demand level: Residential: lighting and heating (RL + controls); AC (motor + controls); appliances (small motors + controls). Commercial: similar types of devices as residential. Industrial: motor drives (induction and dc motor-based mostly); arc
furnaces; lighting; heating; others (e.g. special motor drives).

By type: RLC + controls. Drives: ac/dc motors + electronic controls. Special (e.g. arc furnace).
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 2

Power System Dynamics and Stability

148

Remarks on Load Classication

Most controls are implemented using a variety of power electronic


converters.

Aggregate load models are necessary at the transmission system


modeling level.

Only large loads can be represented with their actual models.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 3

Power System Dynamics and Stability

149

RLC Loads, Resistor

Ideal, linear resistors (R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C ). Resistor: i


+

R v v = Ri

Time domain: Phasor domain: V = RI

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

150

RLC Loads, Inductor

Inductor: i
+

L v di v=L dt

Time domain:

Phasor domain: V = jLI = ZL I

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 5

Power System Dynamics and Stability

151

RLC Loads, Inductor

The inductor time domain model can be discretized using the trapezoidal
integration method as follows:

i = ik+1

1 L

vdt

t = ik + (vk+1 + vk ) 2L t t = vk+1 + (ik + vk ) 2L 2L


hk

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

152

RLC Loads, Capacitor

This yields the equivalent resistive circuit:


vk+1
+

ik+1 hk

2L t

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 7

Power System Dynamics and Stability

153

RLC Loads, Capacitor

Capacitor: i
+

C v

Time domain: dv i=C dt Phasor domain: V 1 I C = ZC I = j

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

154

RLC Loads, Capacitor

The capacitor time domain model can be discretized using the trapezoidal
integration method as follows:

v vk+1 ik+1

1 C

idt

t = vk + (ik+1 + ik ) 2C 2C 2C = vk+1 (ik + vk ) t t


hk

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 9

Power System Dynamics and Stability

155

RLC Loads, Capacitor

This yields the equivalent resistive circuit:


vk+1
+

ik+1 hk

t 2C

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 10

Power System Dynamics and Stability

156

Induction Motor

Arbitrary 0dq reference:


d c s ar 0 cr bs br cs d as q r

r
b s r

a s

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 11

Power System Dynamics and Stability

157

Induction Motor

Electrical (inductor) equations: d [abcs ] dt d [vabcr ] = [rabcr ][iabcr ] + [abcr ] dt i Lsr(r ) L abcs abcs = abcs Lsr (r ) Labcr abcr iabcr [vabcs ] = [rabcs ][iabcs ] +
L(r ) [i]

Te

1 T d[L(r )] [i] [i] 2 dr

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 12

Power System Dynamics and Stability

158

Induction Motor

Mechanical (Newtons) equations: d J r + dr dt d r dt Stator transformation equations: vas v0s vds = Ks vbs vcs vqs = Tm Te = r

ias i0s ids = Ks ibs ics iqs

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 13

Power System Dynamics and Stability

159

Induction Motor

Where the transformation matrix Ks is as follows: 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 sin sin( 2/3) sin( + 2/3) Ks = 3 cos cos( 2/3) cos( + 2/3) 1 sin cos 1 1 sin( 2/3) cos( 2/3) Ks = 1 sin( + 2/3) cos( + 2/3)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 14

Power System Dynamics and Stability

160

Induction Motor

Rotor transformation equations: var v0r vdr = Kr vbr vcr vqr

iar i0r idr = Kr ibr icr iqr

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 15

Power System Dynamics and Stability

161

Induction Motor

Where the transformation matrix Kr is as follows: 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 sin sin( 2/3) sin( + 2/3) Kr = 3 cos cos( 2/3) cos( + 2/3) 1 sin cos 1 Kr = 1 sin( 2/3) cos( 2/3) 1 sin( + 2/3) cos( + 2/3) = r

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 16

Power System Dynamics and Stability

162

Induction Motor

Stator equations: v0s rs vds = 0 vqs 0

0 rs 0

Rotor equations referred to the stator: 2 a rr 0 0 0 0 i0r 0r rr d i + ( r ) + 0 = 0 qr dt dr rr 0 dr 0 iqr qr dr 0 0 rr a= Ns Nr

ids + qs + d ds 0 dt qs rs iqs ds

i0s

0s

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 17

Power System Dynamics and Stability

163

Induction Motor

Magnetic ux equations: Lls 0 0s 0 Lls + M ds Ls 0 0 qs = 0 0 0r dr 0 M qr 0 0

0 0 Ls 0 0 M

0 0 0 L lr 0 0

0 M 0 0 L + M lr
L r

0 i0s i ds M iqs 0 i 0r 0 i dr iqr L r

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

164

Induction Motor

Mechanical equations: 2 d 2 J r + Dr p dt p d r dt d dt Te = Tm Te = r = = 3p (iqs ds ids qs ) 22

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 19

Power System Dynamics and Stability

165

Induction Motor

Equivalent circuit representation of these equations:


iqs + vqs rs + Lls L lr +
rr

Ns : Nr

iqr

ds M

( r ) dr vqr

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 20

Power System Dynamics and Stability

166

Induction Motor
ids + vds rs + Lls L lr +
rr

Ns : Nr

idr

qs M

( r ) qr vdr

i0s + v0s

rs

Lls

L lr

rr

Ns : Nr

i0r

v0r

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 21

Power System Dynamics and Stability

167

Induction Motor

Assuming a balanced, fundamental frequency ( = 0 ) system, the model can be reduced to a p.u. transient model (3rd order model): Vas Ias d ER dt d E dt I = VasR + jVasI = IasR + jIasI 1 = 0 EI [ER + (xS x )IasI ] T0 1 = 0 ER [EI + (xS x )IasR ] T0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 22

Power System Dynamics and Stability

168

Induction Motor
VasR ER

VasI EI d dt

Te TL

= rs IasI + x IasR 1 = (TL Te + D0 D) H 1 (ER IasR + EI IasR ) = 0 = f ()

= rs IasR x IasI

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 23

Power System Dynamics and Stability

169

Induction Motor

where: xs x
T0

0 r slip = 0 = xls + xm stator reactance x xm = xls + lr transient reactance xlr + xm = x + xm lr 0 rr


open circuit transient time constant

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 24

Power System Dynamics and Stability

170

Induction Motor

If the electromagnetic transients are neglected, the system can be


reduced to the following quasi-steady state equivalent circuit model: jx jxls rs Iar rr Ias lr
+ Vas jxm
rr 1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 25

Power System Dynamics and Stability

171

Induction Motor

Or equivalently:
Ias + Vas jxm
1 rr

rs

jxls

jx lr

Iar

Plus mechanical equations.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 26

Power System Dynamics and Stability

172

Induction Motor

This simplication can be justied from the point of view of the


torque-speed characteristic:
Te Te max
Steady state characteristic

Transient start up

r c

=1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 27

Power System Dynamics and Stability

173

Induction Motor

If the mechanical dynamics are ignored, the slip becomes a xed value,
and hence the equivalent circuit can be reduced to a simple equivalent reactive impedance, i.e. a Z load.

For loads with multiple IMs, a equivalent motor model can be used to
represent these motors.

Neglecting the motor dynamic equations in large or equivalent aggregate


motors can lead to signicant modeling errors, as the transient model and mechanical time constants can be on the same range as the generator time constants.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 28

Power System Dynamics and Stability

174

Induction Motor

Double-cage IMs can be modeled by introducing an additional inductance


on the rotor side, which leads to a subtransient model.

Since rotor cores are laminated, eddy currents do not play a signicant
role on the system dynamics.

Controls can also be modeled in detail by representing the converters


with ideal electronic switches plus their control systems.

For balanced, fundamental frequency systems, approximate equivalent


models of the IM and its controls can be readily implemented.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 29

Power System Dynamics and Stability

175

Induction Motor

For example, an IM with voltage-fed eld oriented control can be


represented by:

dr dt diqs dt

P (Te TL ) 2J
L r rs + M 2 rr L r 2 M rr iqs ids + qr Lr

M L r dr + r vqs dids dt =
L r rs + M 2 rr L r 2 M rr ids + iqs + dr Lr

M L + r qr + r vds
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 30

Power System Dynamics and Stability

176

Induction Motor

d qr dt d dr dt Te dTref dt

rr rr M = ( r ) qr + iqs dr Lr Lr rr rr M = ( r )qr dr + ids Lr Lr 3pM = (iqs ids ) dr qr 4L r

= Ls L M 2 r = kq3

pTL 3p2 M iqs dr 2J 8JL r

+ kq4 (ref r )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 31

Power System Dynamics and Stability

177

Induction Motor

duqs dt

rr M 3pM kq1 rr M 2 [ iqs dr ids iqs + dr r 4Lr Lr Lr

L r rs + M 2 rr L r

iqs dr

L r dr uqs ]

+kq1 kq3

pTL 3p2 M iqs dr 2J 8JL r


aLr

+kq2 Tref 2pM iqs dr duds dt +kq1 kq4 (ref r ) = kd1


M rr rr ids dr Lr Lr

+ kd2 (ref ) dr

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 32

Power System Dynamics and Stability

178

Example

A 21 MW load at 4 kV and 60 Hz is made of: An inductive impedance load with G = 0.06047, B = 0.03530. An aggregated induction motor model with rs = 0.07825, xls = 0.8320, rr = 0.1055, x = 0.8320, xm = 16.48. lr This data is all in p.u. on a 100 MVA, 4 kV base.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 33

Power System Dynamics and Stability

179

Example

The Z load model is then: PL PZ PIM 21 MW = 0.21 = 100 MVA = PZ + PIM


2 = VL G = 0.06

= 0.15

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

180

Example

ZIM

jxM (rr / + jx ) lr = rs + jxls + rr / + j(xM + x ) lr

= 0.07825 + j0.832 + =

13.7114 + j1.7386/ 0.1055/ + j17.312 28.652/ 0.07825 + 0.01113 2 + 299.71

0.18342/ 2 + 237.37 +j 0.832 + 0.01113/ 2 + 299.71 (0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452) + j(0.19628/ 2 + 486.73) = 0.01113/ 2 + 299.71

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 35

Power System Dynamics and Stability

181

Example

PIM

2 = VL GIM = GIM

0.15 = ZIM YL ZL = = = =

(0.01113/ 2 + 299.71)(0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452) (0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452)2 + (0.19628/ 2 + 486.73)2 0.0191 (by trial-and-error) 4.6221 + j3.0742 1 (G + jB) + ZIM 1 = 3.3654 + j2.1597 YL

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 36

Power System Dynamics and Stability

182

Impedance Models

Ignoring fast and slow transients, certain loads can be represented


using an equivalent impedance.

A Z load model is typically used for a variety of dynamic analysis of


power systems.

Using these load models, an equivalent impedance can be readily


obtained for all loads connected at a particular bus at the transmission system level.

ULTCs are used to connect distribution systems (subtransmission and LV


systems and the loads connetced to these) to the transmission system to control the steady state voltage on the load side.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 37

Power System Dynamics and Stability

183

Power Models

Hence, for slow dynamic analysis of balanced, fundamental frequency


system models:
2

PL QL VL

2 = VL GL = PL0

VL VL0 VL VL0

This is typically referred as a constant P Q model.

2 = VL BL = QL0 P L PL0 VL0 QL QL0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 38

Power System Dynamics and Stability

184

Power Models

Load recovery of certain loads (e.g. thermostatic) with respect to voltage


changes can be modeled as:
Nps Npt

dx(t) dt PL (t)

VL (t) x(t) + PL0 = Tp VL0 = VL (t) x(t) + PL0 Tp VL0

PL0

VL (t) VL0

Npt

dy(t) dt

y(t) VL (t) + QL0 = Tq VL0 y(t) VL (t) + QL0 Tq VL0

Nqs

QL0

VL (t) VL0

Nqt

Nqt

QL (t) =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 39

Power System Dynamics and Stability

185

Power Models

This results in the following time response:


P PL0

tf V VL0

tf
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008

Load Modeling - 40

Power System Dynamics and Stability

186

Example

Identication of LD1 -LD4 loads at paper mill in Sweden:


Net 894 MVA, 30 kV

1 2

LD1 LD2 3 LD3 LD4 4 G1 6 G2 5

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 41

Power System Dynamics and Stability

187

Example

Measurements vs. model:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 42

Power System Dynamics and Stability

188

Power Models

Certain loads have been shown to behave in steady state as follows: PL QL


= KP VL P fLP PL0

VL VL0 VL VL0

KQ VL Q fLQ

PL0

If f f0 , then the following approximation holds: PL QL PL0 PL0 VL VL0 VL VL0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 43

Power System Dynamics and Stability

189

Power Models
Load Filament lamp Fluorescent lamp Heater Induction motor (half load) Induction motor (full load) Reduction furnace Aluminum plant

P
1.6 1.2 2.0 0.2 0.1 1.9 1.8

Q
0 3.0 0 1.6 0.6 2.1 2.2

P
0 -0.1 0 1.5 2.8 -0.5 -0.3

Q
0 2.8 0 -0.3 1.8 0 0.6

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 44

Power System Dynamics and Stability

190

Power Models

ZIP model: PL QL Jimmas model: PL QL = P LZ = QLZ VL VL0 VL VL0


2

= P LZ = QLZ

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ P LI
2

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ P LP + QLP

+ QLI

+ P LI
2

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ PL P + QLP dVL + KV dt

+ QLI

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 45

Power System Dynamics and Stability

191

Induction Motor Power Models

Walves model: PL = Kpf f + Kpv VL + T dVL dt

QL

dVL PL0 + Kpv (VL VL0 ) + T dt = Kqf f + Kqv VL QL0 + Kqv (VL VL0 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 46

Power System Dynamics and Stability

192

Induction Motor Power Models

Mixed model: PL
= Kpf f + Kpv VL + Tpv

dVL dt dVL dt

PL0 + Kpv (VL VL0 ) + Tpv QL


= Kqf f + Kqv VL + Tqv

dVL dt

QL0 + Kqv

dVL (VL VL0 ) + Tqv dt

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

193

Power Flow Outlines

Power Flow: System model. Equations. Solution techniques: Newton-Raphson. Fast decoupled.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Power Flow Model

The steady-state operating point of a power system is obtained by solving


the power ow equations.

Power ow system model corresponds to the steady state model. Generator: Generates and injects power P in the system while keeping the output voltage V constant within active and reactive power limits
(capability curve):

Pmin P Pmax Qmin Q Qmax


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Power Flow Model

Thus, it is modeled as a P V bus:


P = constant Q = unknown

V = constant = unknown

When Q reaches a limit it becomes a P Q bus:


P = constant Q = constant

V = unknown = unknown

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Power Flow Model

Slack bus: The phasor model needs a reference bus. A large generator is typically chosen as the the reference bus, as it
should be able to take the power slack:
P = unknown Q = unknown

V = constant =0

Pslack =
L

PL + Plosses

PG
G

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Power Flow Model

Hence, if Q reaches a limit:


P = unknown Q = constant

V = unknown =0

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Power Flow Model

Load: Loads are typically connected to the transmission system through


ULTC transformers.

Thus, most loads in steady state represent a constant power demand in the system, and hence are modeled as a P Q bus:
P = constant Q = constant

V = unknown = unknown

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Power Flow Model

Transmission system: AC transmission lines and transformers in steady state are basically
modeled using the following model:
Si Sk Z Ik /a Ik Y1 Y2 aVk Vk

Vi

Ii

a : 1

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Power Flow Model

Hence: Si = V i I i

= Vi (Vi aVk )

1 Z
Y

+Vi Y1

= Vi (Y + Yi ) Vi + (aY) Vk
Yii Yik

Similarly for Sk .
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 8

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Power Flow Model

Thus, for an N bus system interconnected through an ac transmission system, an N N bus admittance matrix can be dened: I Y 1 11 I Y 2 21 . . . . . . = Ii Yi1 . . . . . . IN YN 1 I = Ybus
node injections

Y12 Y22
. . .

.. .

Y1i Y2i
. . .


.. .

.. .


.. .

Yi2
. . .

Yii
. . .

YN 2 V

YN i

V 1 Y2N V2 . . . . . . YiN Vi . . . . . . YN N VN

Y1N

node voltages

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Power Flow Model

where: 1 Yii = N Yi k=1 Zik + = sum of all the Ys connected to node i = Yij = 1 Zij = negative of the Y between nodes i and j

Ybus

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Power Flow Equations

In steady state, a system with n generators G and m loads L can be


modeled as:
SG1 VG1
Transmission System

SL1 VL1

Ybus (N N ) SGn VGn N =n+m SLm VLm

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Power Flow Equations

Hence the power injections at each node are dened by: Si = Pi + jQi = V i I i
N

= Vi
k=1

Yik Vk N

= Vi i
k=1

(Gij jBij )Vk k


for generator buses for load buses

Si

Gi

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 12

SL i

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Power Flow Equations

This yields two equations per node or bus: Pi (, V, Pi ) =


N

Pi

k=1

Vi Vk [Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin(i k )] = 0

Qi (, V, Qi ) =
N

Qi

k=1

Vi Vk [Gik sin(i k ) Bik cos(i k )] = 0

And two variables per node: PQ buses Vi and i PV buses i and Qi

Slack buses Pi and Qi


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Power Flow Equations

These equations are referred to as the power mismatch equations. The equations are typically subjected to inequality constraints
representing control limits:

0.95 Qmini

Vi

1.05 for all buses

Qi Qmaxi for generator buses

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Power Flow Equations

In summary, typical power ow data are as follows:


Bus PQ PV slack Parameters Variables

P, Q P, V V,

V, Q, P, Q

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Power Flow Equations

In constrained power ow analysis, standard buses can degenerate if


some limits is reached: Bus PQ PV slack Parameters Variables

P , Vmax,min P , Qmax,min Qmax,min ,

Q, V, P, V

Continuation power ow techniques are by far more accurate and robust


than standard power ow analysis if limits are taken into account.

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Power Flow Equations

The slack bus can be single or distributed. This refers to losses. For single slack bus model, all system losses are cleared by the
slack bus.

For distributed slack bus model losses are shared (equally or


proportionally) among all or part of the generators:

Continuation power ow techniques are by far more accurate and robust


than standard power ow analysis if limits are taken into account.

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Power Flow Equations

The distributed slack bus model is based on a generalized power center


concept.

This is practically obtained by including in power ow equations a variable kG and rewriting the system active power balance as follows:
nG i nP

(1 + kG i )PGi

PLi Plosses = 0

The parameters i allow tuning the weight of the participation of each


generator to the losses.

For single slack bus model, i = 0 for all generators but one.
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Power Flow Solution

The power ow equations can be represented as F (z) = 0 There are 2 equations per bus, with 2 known variables and 2 unknown variables per bus; the problem is of dimension 2N . Since these equations are highly nonlinear due to the sine and cosine
terms, Newton-Raphson (NR) based numerical techniques are used to solve them.

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Power Flow Solution

A robust NR technique may be used to solve these equations:


1. Start with an initial guess, typically Vi0
0 Pslack = 0 (at start). 0 = 1, i = 0, Q0 = 0, Gi

2. At each iteration k(k matrix:

= 0, 1, 2, . . .), compute the sparse Jacobian


F1 z1 |z k F1 zN |z k

...
.. .

F z

zk

= Jk =

. . .

. . .


2N 2N

FN z1 |z k

...

FN zN |z k

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Power Flow Solution


3. Find z k by solving the following linear set of equations (the sparse matrix Jk is factorized and not inverted to speed up the solution process):

Jk z k = F (z k )
4. Computes the new guess for the next iteration, where is a step control constant to guarantee convergence (0

< < 1):

z k+1 = z k + z k

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Power Flow Solution


5. Stop when:

F (z k+1 ) = max |Fi (z k+1 )| This is basically the technique used in M ATLABs fsolve() routine,
based on either numerical or actual Jacobians.

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Power Flow Solution

If only the unknown bus voltage angles and magnitudes are calculated
using NRs method (the generator reactive powers and active slack power are evaluated later):

H N

Jk z k = F (z k ) M P ( k , V k ) k = L V k /V k Q( k , V k )

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Power Flow Solution

Where: H M N = = = P (k ,V k ) P V V (k ,V k ) Q (k ,V k ) Q V V (k ,V k )

L =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 24

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Power Flow Solution

Assuming: (i k ) < 10 , then cos(i k ) sin(i k ) 1 i k

The resistance in the transmission system are small, i.e. R X , then Gij Bik . The M and N matrices may be neglected, and: H M V k BV k

V k B V k

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Power Flow Solution

Thus the linear step equations may be decoupled and reduced to: B k B V k = P ( k , V k )/V k

= Q( k , V k )/V k

where B is the imaginary part of the Ybus matrix, and B is the imaginary part of the admittance matrix obtained by ignoring the system resistances, i.e.

B = B .

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Power Flow Solution

The fast Decoupled iterative method is then dened as follows:


0 1. Start with an initial guess, typically i

= 0, Vi0 = 1.

2. Solve for k

3. Update k+1 4. Solve for V k 5. Update

B k = P ( k , V k )/V k . = k + k . B V k = Q( k , V k )/V k .

V k+1 = V k + V k .

6. Compute unknown generator powers and check for limits. 7. Repeat process for k

= 1, 2, . . ., until convergence.

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Power Flow Solution

This technique requires a relatively large number of iterations as


compared to the robust NR method.

It is signicantly faster, as there is no need to re-compute and re-factorize


the Jacobian matrix every iteration.

It is sensitive to initial guesses and there is no guarantee of convergence,


particularly for systems with large transmission system resistances.

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Example

For the following system:


1 2 All lines: 200 MVA 138 kV

P1
3

P2

X = 0.1 p.u. B = 0.2 p.u.

200 MVA 0.9 p.f. lagging

V1 = 1, 1 = 0, V2 = 1, V3 = 1, and P2 = P1 /2. Determine the voltage phasor angles 2 and 3 and the shunt Q by
solving the PF equations.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 29

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Example

The Ybus matrix is: 2 B +2 j = j19.8 jX 2 1 Y12 = Y13 = Y23 = = j10 jX 19.8 10 10 B11 B12 B13 10 = j B21 B22 B23 Ybus = j 19.8 10 10 10 19.8 B31 B32 B33 Y11 = Y22 = Y33 =

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Example

Mismatch equation P1 :
3

P1 0

= P1 = P1

k=1 3

V1 Vk [G1k cos(1 k ) + B1k sin(1 k )] B1k sin(k )

k=1

= P1 + B12 sin(2 ) + B13 sin(3 ) = P1 + 10 sin(2 ) + 10 sin(3 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 31

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Example

Mismatch equation Q1 :
3

Q1 0

= Q1 = Q1 +

k=1 3

V1 Vk [G1k sin(1 k ) B1k cos(1 k )] B1k cos(k )

k=1

= Q1 19.8 + 10 cos(2 ) + 10 cos(3 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 32

Power System Dynamics and Stability

225

Example

Mismatch equation P2 :
3

P2 0

= P2

k=1

V2 Vk [G2k cos(2 k ) + B2k sin(2 k )]


3

= P1 /2

k=1

B2k sin(2 k )

= 0.5P1 + 10 sin(2 ) + 10 sin(2 3 )

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Example

Mismatch equation Q2 :
3

Q2 0

= Q2 = Q2 +

k=1 3

V2 Vk [G2k sin(2 k ) B2k cos(2 k )] B2k cos(2 k )

k=1

= Q1 + 10 cos(2 ) 19.8 + 10 cos(2 3 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

227

Example

Mismatch equation P3 :
3

P3 0

= P3

k=1

V3 Vk [G3k cos(3 k ) + B3k sin(3 k )]


3

= 0.9

k=1

B3k sin(3 k )

= 0.9 + 10 sin(3 ) + 10 sin(3 2 )

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Example

Mismatch equation Q3 :
3

Q3 0

= Q3 = Q

k=1

V3 Vk [G3k sin(3 k ) B3k cos(3 k )]


3

1 0.92 +

k=1

B3k cos(3 k )

= Q 0.436 + 10 cos(3 ) + 10 cos(3 2 ) 19.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 36

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Example

Thus 6 equations and 6 unknowns, i.e. 2 , 3 , P1 , Q1 , Q2 , and Q, can be solved using M ATLABs fsolve() routine:
>> global lambda >> lambda = 1; >> z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) First-order Trust-region Iteration Func-count f(x) optimality radius 0 7 0.945696 18 1 1 14 0.000661419 0.705901 0.0205 1 2 21 9.98637e-18 0.0257331 2.52e-09 1.76 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality is less than options.TolFun. z0 = -0.0100 -0.0500 0.6000 -0.1870 -0.1915 0.2565 Norm of step

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Example

Where lambda is used to simulate constant power factor load changes and pf eqs.m is:
function F = pf_eqs(z) global lambda d2 d3 P1 Q1 Q2 Q = = = = = = z(1); z(2); z(3); z(4); z(5); z(6); = = = = = = P1 + 10*sin(d2) + 10*sin(d3); Q1 - 19.8 + 10*cos(d2) + 10*cos(d3); 0.5*P1 - 10*sin(d2) - 10*sin(d2-d3); Q2 + 10*cos(d2) - 19.8 + 10*cos(d2-d3); -0.9*lambda - 10*sin(d3) - 10*sin(d3-d2); Q - 0.436*lambda + 10*cos(d3) + 10*cos(d3-d2) - 19.8;
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 38

F(1,1) F(2,1) F(3,1) F(4,1) F(5,1) F(6,1)

Power System Dynamics and Stability

231

Example

Observe that as the load (lambda) is increased, convergence problems


show up:
lambda = 20; z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order optimality 360 143 Trust-region radius 1 1

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 7 396.67 1 14 246.008 1 . . . 9 70 2.68094e-07 0.179729 0.000311 25.9 10 77 7.43614e-16 0.00127159 1.64e-08 25.9 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality is less than options.TolFun. z0 = -0.2501 -1.2613 12.0000 7.0658 4.8031 20.1667

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Example

Convergence problems develop until the equations fail to converge:


lambda = 22; z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order optimality 396 168 Trust-region radius 1 1

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 7 480.33 1 14 310.93 1 . . . 90 595 0.00622095 0.0211144 0.0322 0.0211 91 602 0.00621755 0.0211144 0.0155 0.0211 Maximum number of function evaluations reached: increase options.MaxFunEvals. z0 = -0.3322 -1.7225 13.1600 11.8633 8.5479 29.1072

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 40

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Stability Concepts Outlines

Basic stability concepts Nonlinear systems: Ordinary differential equations (ODE) Differential algebraic equations (DAE) Equilibrium points: Denitions. Stability:  Linearization.  Eigenvalue analysis. Stability regions.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 1

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ODE Systems

Nonlinear systems are represented by a nonlinear set of differential


equations:

x = s(x, p, )
where

x n state variables (e.g. generator angles) uncontrollable parameters (e.g. loads)

p k controllable parameters (e.g. compensation) s() n nonlinear functions (e.g. generator equations)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 2

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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ODE Systems

For example, for a simple generator-system model:


Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL jxth

System

V1 1

V2 2

V 0
Innite bus (M

= )

AVR

The generator is modeled as a simple d axis transient voltage behind transient reactance.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 3

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ODE Systems

The generator has only the mechanical dynamics:


where

= = r 0 1 (PL PG D) = M EV sin x + xL + xth G V1 V sin 1 xL + xth

PG

= =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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ODE Systems

If the AVR is modeled, V1 may be assumed to be kept constant by varying E , with the generators reactive power within limits: V12 V1 V QG = cos 1 xL + xth xL + xth QG min QG QG max

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 5

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ODE Systems

If the AVR is not modeled: x = [, ]T state variables p = [E , V ]T controlled parameters = PL uncontrolled parameters Hence, assuming p = [1.5, 1]T , M = D = 0.1, and x = 0.75: x = x 1 2 s(x, p, ) = x2 = 10 = 20 sin x1 x2

These are basically the pendulum equations.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 6

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DAE Systems

Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) models are dened as: x = f (x, y, p, ) 0


where:

= g(x, y, p, )

y m algebraic variables (e.g. load voltages)

f () n nonlinear differential equations (e.g. generator equations) g() m nonlinear algebraic equations (e.g. reactive power
equations)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 7

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DAE Systems

For example, for the generator-innite bus example with AVR, for QG min QG QG max : 0 0 0 = 1 EV = PL sin D M x V1 V EV sin 1 sin = x xL + xth V1 E V12 = QG + cos(1 ) xG xG V12 V1 V = QG + cos 1 xL + xth xL + xth
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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DAE Systems

Thus, for: x = [, ]T y = [E , 1 , QG ]T p = [V1 , V ]T = [1, 1]T = PL M = D = 0.1, x = 0.75, x = 0.25, xL + xth = 0.5 G x = x 1 2 f (x, y, p, ) = x2 = 10 13.33y1 sin x1 x2 0 = 1.333y1 sin x1 2 sin y2 g(x, y, p, ) = 0 = y3 4 + 4y1 cos(y2 x1 ) 0 = y3 2 + 2 cos y2
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 9

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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DAE Systems

If QG = QG max or QG = QG min : x = [, ]T y = [E , 1 , V1 ]T p = [QG , V ]T = [0.5, 1]T = PL M = D = 0.1, x = 0.75, x = 0.25, xL + xth = 0.5 G x = x 1 2 f (x, y, p, ) = x2 = 10 13.33y1 y3 sin x1 x2 0 = 1.333y1 sin x1 2y3 sin y2 2 g(x, y, p, ) = 0 = 0.5 4y3 + 4y1 y3 cos(y2 x1 ) 2 0 = 0.5 2y3 + 2y3 cos y2
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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DAE Systems

If the Jacobian matrix Dy g = [gi /yi ]mm is nonsingular, i.e.


invertible, along the trajectory solutions, the system can be transformed into an ODE system (Implicit Function Theorem):

= h(x, p, ) = s(x, p, )

x = f (x, h(x, p, ), p, )

In practice, this is a purely theoretical exercise that is not carry out due
to its complexity.

The system model should be revised when Dy g is singular.

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Equilibria

For the ODE system, equilibria are dened as the solution x0 for given parameter values p0 and 0 of the set of equations s(x0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 There are multiple solutions to this problem, i.e. multiple equilibrium
points.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Equilibria

The stability of these equilibria is dened by linearizing the nonlinear system around x0 , i.e. x = si (x0 , p0 , 0 ) xj x x0
x

nn

= Dx s|0 x where Dx s|0 = Dx s(x0 , p0 , 0 ) = s/x|0 is the system Jacobian


matrix evaluated at the equilibrium point.

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Equilibria

From linear system theory, the linear system stability is dened by the eigenvalues i of the Jacobian matrix Dx s|0 , which are dened as the
solutions of the equation:

Dx s|0 v Dx s|T w 0

= v = w

right e-vector left e-vector

an n + an1 n1 + . . . + a1 + a0 = 0

det(Dx s|0 In ) = 0

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Equilibria

There are n complex eigenvalues, left and right eigenvectors associated with the system Jacobian Dx s|0 . In practice, these eigenvalues are not computed using characteristic
polynomial but other more efcient numerical techniques, as the costs associated with computing these values is rather large in realistic power systems.

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Equilibria

These eigenvalues dene the small perturbation stability of the ODE


system, i.e. the local stability of the nonlinear system near the equilibrium points:

Stable equilibrium point (s.e.p.): The system is locally stable about x0 if all the eigenvalues i (Dx s|0 ) are on the left-half (LH) of the
complex plane.

Unstable equilibrium point (u.e.p.): The system is locally unstable about x0 if at least one eigenvalue i (Dx s|0 ) is on the right-half
(RH) of the complex plane.

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Equilibria

The equilibrium point x0 is a bifurcation point if at least one eigenvalue i (Dx s|0 ) is on the imaginary axis of the complex plane. Some systems have equilibria with eigenvalues on the imaginary axis
without these being bifurcation points; for example, a lossless generator-innite bus system with no damping.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Equilibria

For example, for the simple generator-innite bus example with no AVR: x1 x2 = x2 = 10 20 sin x1 x2

the equilibrium points can be found from the steady-state (power ow) equations:

0 0

= x20 = 10 20 sin x10 x20

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

251

Equilibria

which leads to the solutions: sin1 (/2) x10 = 0 x20


repetitions of these three):

This yields basically three equilibrium points (other solutions are just s.e.p /2 < x1s < /2 u.e.p.1 x1u1 = x1s + u.e.p.2 x1u2 = x1s

sin1 (PL /2) 0 = 0 0

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Equilibria

This corresponds to the intersections of PG = E V /x sin with PL :


Stable

EV /x
Unstable

PG PL

Bifurcation Unstable

2 (x2 )

s (xs ) /2 1 (x1 )

, (x1 )

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Equilibria

The stability of these equilibria is determined using the system Jacobian: s /x1 |0 s1 /x2 |0 1 Dx s|0 = s2 /x1 |0 s2 /x2 |0 0 1 = 20 cos x10 1

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Equilibria

det(Dx s|0 I2 )

= 2 + + 20 cos x10 = 0 PL = 1 1,2 1 1 1 80 cos x10 = 2 2

= det 20 cos x10

1,2 (Dx s|xs ) = 0.5 j4.132 3.192 1,2 (Dx s|xu1 /u2 ) = 5.192
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Equilibria

For this system, the equilibria are: stable if PG >0 unstable if PG <0 bifurcation point for PG =0 = /2

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Equilibria

For DAE systems, the equilibria z0 = (x0 , y0 ) for parameter values p0 and 0 are dened as the solution to the nonlinear, steady state problem: f (x , y , p , ) = 0 0 0 0 0 F (x0 , y0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 g(x0 , y0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 In this case, the linearization about (x0 , y0 ) yields: x = Dx f |0 x + Dy f |0 y 0 = Dx g|0 x + Dy g|0 y

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Equilibria

Hence, by eliminating y from these equations, one obtains: Dx s|0 = Dx f |0 Dy f |0 Dy g|1 Dx g|0 0 Observe that, as mentioned before, the nonsingularity of the Jacobian Dy g|0 in this case is required. The same local stability conditions apply in this case based on the eigenvalues of Dx s|0 .

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Equilibria

For the generator-innite bus example with AVR example (within QG


limits), the steady-state solutions are obtained from solving the steady-state or power ow equations:

0 0 0 0 0

= x20 = 10 13.33y10 sin x10 x20 = 1.333y10 sin x10 2 sin y20 = y30 4 + 4y10 cos(y20 x10 ) = y30 2 + 2 cos y20

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Equilibria

Which in M ATLAB format are:


function f = dae_eqs(z) global lambda x10 x20 y10 y20 y30 = = = = = z(1); z(2); z(3); z(4); z(5); = = = = = x20; 10*lambda - 13.33 * y10 * sin(x10) - x20; 1.333 * y10 * sin (x10) - 2 * sin(y20); -y30 - 4 + 4 * y10 * cos(y20 - x10); y30 - 2 + 2 * cos(y20);

f(1,1) f(1,2) f(1,3) f(1,4) f(1,5)

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Equilibria

This generates the equilibrium point for = PL = 1:


>> lambda = 1; >> z0 = fsolve(@dae_eqs,[0 0 1 0 1],optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order Trust-region optimality radius 133 1 10.2 1 0.219 2.5 0.0534 2.5 4.89e-06 2.5 2.23e-13 2.5 is less than options.TolFun.

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 6 102 1 12 1.52385 1 2 18 0.0050436 0.298687 3 24 2.72816e-05 0.0607967 4 30 2.0931e-13 0.000413599 5 36 4.98474e-28 5.13313e-08 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality z0 = 0.7539 0 1.0959 0.5236

0.2679

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Equilibria

And the symbolic Jacobian matrices:


syms x1 x2 y1 y2 y3 real z = [x1 x2 y1 y2 y3]; F = dae_eqs(z); f = F(1:2); g = F(3:5); Dxf Dyf Dxg Dyg = = = = jacobian(f,[x1,x2]) jacobian(f,[y1,y2,y3]) jacobian(g,[x1,x2]) jacobian(g,[y1,y2,y3])

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Equilibria

And the symbolic Jacobian matrices:


Dxf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*y1*cos(x1), Dyf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*sin(x1), Dxg = [ 1333/1000*y1*cos(x1), [ -4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), [ 0, Dyg = [ 1333/1000*sin(x1), [ 4*cos(-y2+x1), [ 0, 1] -1]

0, 0,

0] 0]

0] 0] 0]

-2*cos(y2), 4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), -2*sin(y2),

0] -1] 1]

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Equilibria

These generate the following eigenvalues at the equilibrium point:


Dxf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*y1*cos(x1), Dyf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*sin(x1), Dxg = [ 1333/1000*y1*cos(x1), [ -4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), [ 0, Dyg = [ 1333/1000*sin(x1), [ 4*cos(-y2+x1), [ 0, 1] -1]

0, 0,

0] 0]

0] 0] 0]

-2*cos(y2), 4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), -2*sin(y2),

0] -1] 1]

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Equilibria

These generate the following eigenvalues at the equilibrium point:


x1 = z0(1); x2 = z0(2); y1 = z0(3); y2 = z0(4); y3 = z0(5); A = vpa(subs(Dxf),5); B = vpa(subs(Dyf),5); C = vpa(subs(Dxg),5); D = vpa(subs(Dyg),5); Dxs = A - B * inv(D) * C; ev = vpa(eig(Dxs),5) ev = -.50000+3.5698*i -.50000-3.5698*i

Hence, this is a s.e.p.


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Equilibria

A u.e.p. can be computed as well from these equations (neglecting QG


limits):
>> z0 = fsolve(@dae_eqs,[3 0 0.1 3 3],optimset(Display,iter)); z0 = 2.7465 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 0 1.9491 2.6180 3.7321

x1 = z0(1); x2 = z0(2); y1 = z0(3); y2 = z0(4); y3 = z0(5); A = vpa(subs(Dxf),5); B = vpa(subs(Dyf),5); C = vpa(subs(Dxg),5); D = vpa(subs(Dyg),5); Dxs = A - B * inv(D) * C; ev = vpa(eig(Dxs),5)

ev = 4.2892 -5.2892
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Equilibria

Associated with every s.e.p. xs there is a stability region A(xs ), which


basically corresponds to the region of system variables that are all attracted to xs , i.e.

x(t ) xs :
x1 (0) A(xs ) xs x1 (t)
stable

A(xs )
(stability region boundary)

x2 (0)

unstable

x2 (t)

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Equilibria

if A(xs ) is known, the stability of a system for large perturbations can be


readily evaluated.

However, determining this region is a rather difcult task. This can realistically be accomplished only for 2- or 3-dimendional
systems using sophisticated nonlinear system analysis techniques.

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Equilibria
= 0.2

10

x 0 x
2

u2

xs

u1

5 A(x )
s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria
= 0.5

10

x 0 x
2

u2

u1

10

A(x )
s

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria
= 1.0

10

x 0 x
2

u2

u1

5 A(x )
s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria
= 1.5

10

0 x
2

xs

u1

A(x ) 5
s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria
= 1.8

10

x 0 x
2

u1

A(x )
s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria
= 1.9

10

x 0 x
2

u1

A(x )
s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

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Equilibria

In real systems, trial-and-error techniques are usually used: A contingency yields a given initial condition x(0). For the post-contingency system, the time trajectories x(t) can be
computed by numerical integration.

If x(t) converges to the post-contingency equilibrium point xs , the system is stable, i.e. x(0) A(xs ). If it diverges, the system is unstable.

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Voltage Stability Outlines

Denitions. Basic concepts. Continuation Power Flow. Direct Methods. Indices. Controls and protections. Practical applications. Examples.

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Voltage Stability Denitions

IEEE-CIGRE classication (IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability)


Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Power System Stability

Rotor Angle Stability

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Angle Stability

Transient Stability

Large Disturbance Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Voltage Stability

Short Term Short Term Long Term

Short Term

Long Term

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Voltage Stability Denitions

Power system stability is the ability of an electric power system, for a


given initial operating condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance, with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains intact.

Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady


voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition.

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Voltage Stability Denitions

The inability of the trnasmission system to supply the demand leads to a


voltage collapse problem.

This problem is associated with the disappearance of a stable


equilibrium point due to a saddle-node or limit-induced bifurcation point, typically due to contingencies in the system (e.g. August 14, 2003 Northeast Blackout).

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Voltage Stability Concepts

The concept of saddle-node and limit induced bifurcations can be readily


explained using the generator-load example:
PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Neglecting for simplicity losses, electromagnetic dynamics, and the transient impedance in the d-axis transient model, the generator can be
simulated with:

1 1

= 1 = r 0 1 = (Pm PG DG 1 ) M

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Voltage Stability Concepts

The load can be simulated using the mixed models. For P , neglecting voltage dynamics (Tpv = 0) and voltage dependence ( = 0): PL PL 2 = Kpf f2 + Kpv [V2 + Tpv V2 ] = P d + DL 2 1 (PL Pd ) = 2 = DL

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Voltage Stability Concepts

For Q, neglecting frequency dependence (Kqf = 0) and voltage dependence ( = 0) QL QL V2 = Kqf f2 + Kqv [V2 + Tqv V2 ] = Qd + V2 = 1 (QL Qd )

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Voltage Stability Concepts

The transmission system yields the power ow equations: PL PG QL QG V1 V2 sin(2 1 ) XL V1 V2 sin(1 2 ) = XL V1 V2 V22 + cos(2 1 ) = XL XL V12 V1 V2 = cos(1 2 ) XL XL =

Finally, since the system is lossless: P m = Pd


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Voltage Stability Concepts

Hence, dening:
the system equations are:

= 1 2 = 1 = 2 V1 V2 sin DG XL V1 V2 sin Pd XL

V2

1 M

Pd 1 DL

= = 1

V1 V2 V22 + cos Qd XL XL

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Observe that these equations also represent a generator-dynamic load system with no AVR and with XL including XG , where V1 would stand for EG . The steady-state load demand may be assumed to have a constant
power factor, i.e.

Qd = kPd
If generator reactive power limits are considered, and neglecting XG ,

one has a DAE system.

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Voltage Stability Concepts

For QGmin QG QGmax : V2 = 1 M Pd 1 DL V10 V2 sin DG XL V10 V2 sin Pd XL

= = 1

V22 V10 V2 + cos Qd XL XL

2 V10 V2 V10 + cos 0 = QG XL XL

with

x = [, , V2 ]T p = V10

y = QG = Pd

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Voltage Stability Concepts

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0
with

V1 V2 sin DG Pd = XL V1 V2 1 sin Pd = DL XL 1 M = 1 V22 V1 V2 + cos Qd XL XL V12 V1 V2 + cos XL XL y = V1 = Pd

= QGmin,max

x = [, , V2 ]T p = QGmin,max

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Voltage Stability Concepts

All the equilibrium point for the system with and without limits can be
obtained solving the power ow equations:

0 0 0

V10 V20 sin 0 XL 2 V20 V10 V20 cos 0 = kPd + XL XL 2 V10 V10 V20 = QG0 + cos 0 XL XL = Pd

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Voltage Stability Concepts

And the stability of these equilibrium points come from the state matrix: Without limits, or for QGmin QG QGmax : DG V10 V20 V10 M XL sin 0 M M XL cos 0 V10 V20 V10 1 Dx s|0 = DL XL cos 0 DL XL sin 0 10 V20 0 V XL sin 0 2 V20 + V10 cos 0 XL XL

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Voltage Stability Concepts

For QG = QGmin,max : Dx s|0 = DG V10 V20 V10 M M XL cos 0 M XL sin 0 V10 V20 V10 1 DL XL cos 0 DL XL sin 0 10 V20 0 V XL sin 0 2 V20 + V10 cos 0 XL XL T V10 0 M XL sin 0 1 V10 V20 sin 0 V10 sin 0 2 V10 + V20 cos 0 D X XL L L XL XL V20 V10 cos 0 XL XL cos 0
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Voltage Stability Concepts

Assume XL = 0.5, M = 1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, k = 0.25. With the help of M ATLAB and the continuation power ow routine of PSAT, for the system without limits and V1 = V10 = 1, the power ow solutions
yield a PV or nose curve (bifurcation diagram):

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Voltage Stability Concepts


1 0.9 0.8 0.7

s.e.p.

x3 = V2

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

SNB

u.e.p.
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd

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Voltage Stability Concepts

The saddle-node bifurcation point SNB corresponds to a point where the state matrix Dx s|0 is singular (one zero eigenvalue). This is typically associated with a power ow solution with a singular PF Jacobian Dz F |0 . This is not always the case, as for more complex dynamic models, the
singularity of the state matrix does not necessarily correspond to a singularity o the PF Jacobian, and vice versa.

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Observe that the SNB point corresponds to a maximum value max = Ps max 0.78, which is why is also referred to as the
maximum loading or loadability point.

For a load greater than Pd max , there are no PF solutions. This point is also referred to as the voltage collapse point.

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Modeling a contingency at 0 = Pd0 = 0.7 by increasing XL = 0.5 0.6:


1 0.9 0.8 0.7

operating point

x3 = V2

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

contingency

XL = 0.5 XL = 0.6
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd
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Voltage Stability Concepts

The dynamic solution yields a voltage collapse:


6

V2 V1

3 Operating point Contingency

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]
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Voltage Stability Concepts

For the system with limits and QGmax,min = 0.5, the PV or nose
curve is:
1 0.9 0.8

s.e.p.
0.7

LIB

x3 = V2

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

u.e.p.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

= Pd
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Voltage Stability Concepts

In this case, the maximum loading or loadability point max = Pd max 0.65 corresponds to the point where the generator reaches its maximum reactive power limit QG = QG max = 0.5, and hence losses control of V1 . This is referred to a limit-induced bifurcation or LIB point. Beyond the LIB point, there are no more power ow solutions, due to
the limit recovery mechanism of the AVR.

In this case the LIB point is also a voltage collapse point.

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Modeling a contingency at 0 = Pd0 = 0.6 by increasing XL = 0.5 0.6:


1 0.9 0.8 0.7

operating point contingency

x3 = V2

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

XL = 0.5 XL = 0.6
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd
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Voltage Stability Concepts

The dynamic solution also yields a voltage collapse:


6

V2 V1

3 Operating point 2 Contingency

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]
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Voltage Stability Concepts

Collapse problems can be avoided using shunt or series compensation:


PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

jxC

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Voltage Stability Concepts

In this case, the system equations are: For QGmin QG QGmax : V2 0


where

1 (Pd V10 V2 BL sin DG ) M 1 (V10 V2 BL sin Pd ) = DL 1 = [V22 (BL BC ) + V10 V2 BL cos kPd ] 2 = QG V10 BL + V10 V2 BL cos = BL = 1 XL BC = 1 XC

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Voltage Stability Concepts

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0 1 (Pd V10 V2 BL sin DG ) M 1 (V10 V2 BL sin Pd ) = DL 1 = [V22 (BL BC ) + V10 V2 BL cos kPd ] 2 = QGmin,max V10 BL + V10 V2 BL cos =

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Voltage Stability Concepts

These equations generate the PV curves: Without limits:


1.5

XL = 0.6

XL = 0.5
1

V2

XL = 0.6
0.5

Bc = 0 Bc = 0 Bc = 0.5
0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

= Pd
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Voltage Stability Concepts

With limits:
1.5

XL = 0.6 XL = 0.5
1

V2

XL = 0.6
0.5

Bc = 0 Bc = 0 Bc = 0.5
0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

= Pd

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Voltage Stability Concepts

Applying compensation at t = 1.3 s without limits:

1.2 1

0.8 0.6

Apply compensation

Contingency 0.4

V2 V1

0.2 Operating point 0

0.2

10

t [s]
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Voltage Stability Concepts

Applying compensation at t = 1.3 s with limits:

1.2 1

0.8 0.6

Apply compensation

Contingency 0.4

V2 V1

0.2 Operating point 0

0.2

10

t [s]
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Continuation Power Flow

These PV or nose curves are obtained using a continuation power ow. This technique traces the solutions of the power equations F (z, p, ) = 0
as changes.

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Continuation Power Flow

The algorithm steps are:


1. Predictor 2. Parametrization

(z1 , 1 ) 2 1 z1

3. Corrector

(z0 , 0 )

z2

These methods guarantee convergence.

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CPF Predictor

Tangent vector method: Dz F |1 F dz d


t1

z1 =

k t1 t1
1

(z2 , 2 ) (z1 , 1 )

(z1 , 1 )

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CPF Predictor

Good method to follow closely the PV curves, but relatively slow. The tangent vector t denes sensitivities at any power ow solution
point.

This vector can also be used as an index to predict proximity to a


saddle-node bifurcation, as opposed to using the smallest eigenvalue, which changes in highly non linear fashion.

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CPF Predictor

Secant method: z1 1 = k(z1a z1b ) = k(1a 1b )


(z2 , 2 ) (z1 , 1 ) (z1b , 1b ) (z1a , 1a )

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CPF Predictor

This method is faster but can have convergence problems with sharp
corners (e.g. limits):

(z2 , 2 ) (z1b , 1b ) (z1a , 1a )

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CPF Parametrization

Used to avoid singularities during the predictor step. Methods: Local: interchange a zi z with , i.e. rotate the PV curve. Arc length (s): assume z1 (s) and 1 (s); thus solve for z1 and 1 : F Dz F |1 z1 + + 1
1

T z1 z1 + 2 1

= k

No real need for parametrization in practice if step cutting is needed.

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CPF Corrector

The idea is to add an equation to the equilibrium equations, i.e. solve for (z, ) at a given point p: F (z, p, ) = 0 (z, ) = 0 These equations are nonsingular for the appropriate choice of ().

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CPF Corrector

Perpendicular intersection technique:


(z1 , 1 ) (z1 , 1 ) z (z2 , 2 )

F (z, p, ) = 0 (z1 + z1 z)T z1 + (1 + 1 )1 = 0


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CPF Corrector

Local parametrization technique:


(z1 , 1 ) (z1 , 1 ) z (z2 , 2 )

F (z, p, ) = 0 = 1 + 1 or zi = zi1 + zi1


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318

Direct Methods

Allow to directly nd the maximum loading point (saddle-node or limit


induced bifurcation).

This problem can be set up as an optimization problem:

Max. s.t.

F (z, p, ) = 0 zmin z zmax pmin p pmax

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 44

Power System Dynamics and Stability

319

Direct Methods

If limits are ignored, the solution for given values of the control paramters (p = p0 ) to the associated optimization problem, based on the
Lagrangian and KKT conditions, is given by:

F (z, p0 , )
T Dz F (z, p0 , )w T D F (z, p0 , )w

0 = 0

steady stae solution singularity condition

= 1

w = 0 condition

This yields a saddle-node bifurcation point, and corresponds to the left eigenvector (w ) saddle-node equations.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 45

Power System Dynamics and Stability

320

Direct Methods

The solution to these nonlinear equations do not converge if the


maximum loading point is a limit-induced bifurcation.

In this case, the otpimization problem


Max. s.t.

F (z, p0 , ) = 0 zmin z zmax

must be solved using standard optimization techniques (e.g. Interior Point Method).

The solution to this optimization problem may be a saddle-node or


limit-induced bifurcation.
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

321

Direct Methods

Observe that if the control parameters p are allowed to change, the


problem is transformed into a maximization of the maximum loading margin.

Other optimization problems can be set up to not only


maximize/guarantee loading margins but at the same time minimize costs (e.g. maximize social welfare).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 47

Power System Dynamics and Stability

322

Direct Methods

For example, for an OPF-based auction in electricity markets, the


following multi-objective optimization problem can be posed: Min. s.t.
T T G = 1 (CD PD CS PS ) 2 c

f (, V, QG , PS , PD ) = 0 cmin c cmax 0 PS PSmax 0 PD PDmax

PF equations loading margin Sup. bid blocks Dem. bid blocks

f (c , Vc , QGc , c , PS , PD ) = 0 Max load PF eqs.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

323

Direct Methods

With the phyiscal and security limits: Iij (, V ) Iijmax Iji (, V ) Ijimax Iij (c , Vc ) Iijmax Iji (c , Vc ) Ijimax QGmin QG QGmax Gen. Q limits QGmin QGc QGmax Vmin V Vmax Vmin Vc Vmax
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 49

Thermal limits

V security lim.

Power System Dynamics and Stability

324

Direct Methods

More information about this probem can be found in:


F. Milano, C. A. Canizares and M. Invernizzi, Multi-objective Optimization for PRicing System Security in Electricity Marktes, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 2, May 2003, pp. 596-604.

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325

Indices

Indices have been developed with the aim of monitoring proximity to


voltage collapse for on-line applications.

For example, the minimum real eigenvalue of the system Jacobian can be
used to measure proximity to a saddle-node bifurcation, since this matrix becomes singular at that point.

Many indices have been proposed, but the most popular/useful are: Singular value. Reactive power reserves.

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326

Indices

The singular value index consists of simply monitoring the singular value of the Jacobian of the power ow equations as changes, e.g.

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327

Indices

Observations: Computationally inexpensive. Highly nonlinear behavior, especially when control limits are reached. Cannot really be used to detect proximity to limit-induced bifurcation. Useful in some OPF-applications to help represent voltage stability as
a constraints.

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328

Indices

The reactive-power-reserve index consists of monitoring the difference


between the reactive power generator output and its maximum limit, e.g. for a generator bus system:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

329

Indices

Observations: Computationally inexpensive. Highly nonlinear behavior. Only works for the right generators, i.e. the generators associated
with the limit-induced bifurcation.

Cannot really be used to detect proximity to a saddle-node bifurcation.

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330

Voltage Stability Applications

These concepts and associated techniques are applied to real power


systems through the computation of PV curves.

These curves are obtained either through a simple series of continuous


power ows or using actual CPFs.

In both cases, these nose curves are computed with respect to load
changes, which are dened as follows:

PL QL

= PL0 + PL = QL0 + QL

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331

Voltage Stability Applications

Generator power changes are then dened, with the exception of the
slack bus, as:

PG = PG0 + PG For a distributed slack bus model: PG = PG0 + ( + kG )PG


for all generators, where kG is a variable in the power ow equations replacing the variable power in the slack bus.

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332

Voltage Stability Applications

The Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of the tranmsission system is


typically obtained from (NERC denition): ATC

= TTC + ETC + TRM

The ATC can be associated to the maximum loading margin max of the
system if N-1 contingency criteria are taken into account.

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333

Voltage Stability Applications

TTC or Total Transfer Capability is the maximum loading level of the system considering N-1 contingency criteria, i.e. the max for the worst
realistic single contingency.

ETC or Existent Transmission Commitments represents the current


loading level plus any reserved transmission commitments.

TRM or Transmission Reliability Margin which is an additional margin


dened to represent other contingencies.

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334

Voltage Stability Applications

For example, for WECC, systems should be operated a minimum 5%


distance away from the maximum loadibility point when contigencies are considered:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

335

Control and Protections

To improve system loadability, i.e. avoid voltage stability problems, the


most common control and protections techniques are:

Increase reactive power output from generators, especially in the


critical area (the area most sensitive to voltage problems).

Introduce shunt compesation through the use of MSC, SVC or


STATCOM (see slides 304 and 305).

Use undervoltage relays.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 61

Power System Dynamics and Stability

336

Secondary Voltage Regulation

One way of improving reactive power support is to coordinate the reactive


power outputs of generators.

The French and Italians typically referred to as secondary voltage


regulation or control.

The basic structure and controls are:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

337

Secondary Voltage Regulation

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

338

Secondary Voltage Regulation

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

339

Secondary Voltage Regulation

Observations: Control areas and associated pilot buses and controlled generators
must be properly identied.

Control hierarchy is important, i.e. PQR is slower than AVR, and


RVR is slower than PQR.

It is relatively inexpensive compared to shunt compensation solutions.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 65

Power System Dynamics and Stability

340

Undervoltage Relays

These relays are installed on sub-transmission substations (loads) to


shed during long duration voltage dips.

The idea is to reduce load demand on the system to increase the


loadability margin (see slide 334).

Operation is somewhat similarly to taps in a LTC: Discrete load shedding steps (e.g. 1-2% of total load). Activated with a time delay (e.g. 1-2 mins.) after the voltage dips
below certain values (e.g. 0.8-0.9 p.u.)

The lower the voltage, the faster and larger the load shed.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 66

Power System Dynamics and Stability

341

Example

For a 3-area sample system:


100 MW 150 MW 150 MW
60 MVAr Area 1

v3<d3

150 MW 56 MVAr

Bus 2
1.020

50 MVAr R = 0.01 p.u. X = 0.15 p.u.

V2 2

Bus 3
50 MVAr

50 MW 40 MVAr 100 MW

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 67

Power System Dynamics and Stability

342

Example

For a 3-area sample system:


Bus Name Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

PG
(p.u.) 1.5 0 0.5

PL
(p.u.) 0 1.5 0.5

QL
(p.u.) 0 0.56 0.40

Using UWPFLOW to obtain the system PV curves, for a distributed slack


bus model:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 68

Power System Dynamics and Stability

343

Example

Data le in EPRI format (3area.wsc):


HDG UWPFLOW data file, WSCC format 3-area example April 2000 BAS C C AC BUSES C C | SHUNT | C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |PG |QM |Qm |Vpu BE 1 Area 1 138 1 150 60 0 0 0 150 0 0 1.02 B 1 Area 2 138 2 150 56 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00 B 1 Area 3 138 3 50 40 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 69

Power System Dynamics and Stability

344

Example

Data le in EPRI format (3area.wsc):


C C AC LINES C C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L 1 Area 1 138 Area 2 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 1 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 2 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 Area 1 138 0. END

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345

Example

Generator and load change le (3area.k):


C C UWPFLOW load and generation "direction" file C for 3-area example C C BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [ Smax 1 0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0 0 2 0 0.0 1.5 0.56 0 0 3 0 0.5 0.5 0.40 0 0

Vmax Vmin ] 1.05 0.95 1.05 0.95 1.05 0.95

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 71

Power System Dynamics and Stability

346

Example

Batch le for UNIX (run3area):


echo -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k echo -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s echo - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 echo - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 72

Power System Dynamics and Stability

347

Example

Batch le for Windows (run3area.bat):


rem -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k rem -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s rem - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 rem - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 73

Power System Dynamics and Stability

348

Example

PV curves (threearea.m):
Profiles 150

100

50 kVArea 3 kVArea 2 kVArea 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 L.F. [p.u.] 1 1.2 1.4
138 138 138

1.6

max 1.6 p.u.


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June 26, 2008

Power System Dynamics and Stability

349

Example

Hence, if contingencies are not considered:


TTC

= = = = = =

PL0 + max 670 MW PL0 350 MW 0.05TTC 33.5 MW 286.5 MW

PL

ETC

TRM

ATC

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

350

Example

The singular value index obtained with UWPFLOW is as follows:


0.7

0.6

Full matrix sing. value index

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8 L.F. [p.u.]

1.2

1.4

1.6

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351

August 14 2003 Blackout

This information is extracted from the nal report of the US-Canada Joint
Task Force.

The full details of the nal report can be found on the Internet at:
https://reports.energy.gov/B-F-Web-Part1.pdf

The report is titled: U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force.


Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations. Washington DC: USGPO, April 2004.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

352

August 14 2003 Blackout

3 Interconnections, 10 Regional Reliability Councils:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

353

August 14 2003 Blackout

Regions and control areas of the North American Electric Reliability


Council (NERC):

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

354

August 14 2003 Blackout

Reliability coordinators (some are also system and market operators,


such as the IMO and PJM):

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

355

August 14 2003 Blackout

Reliability coordinator and system/market operators in the Ohio area,


where the system collapse started:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

356

August 14 2003 Blackout

Four causes: Inadequate system understanding: FirstEnergy, ECAR Inadequate situational awareness: FirstEnergy Inadequate tree-trimming: FirstEnergy Inadequate diagnostic support: MISO, PJM

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 82

Power System Dynamics and Stability

357

August 14 2003 Blackout

At 12:15 EDT, MISO began having problems with its state estimator; it did
not return to full functionality until 16:04.

Sometime after 14:14, FirstEnergy began losing its energy management


system (EMS) alarms but did not know it.

At 14:20, parts of FEs EMS began to fail rst remote sites, then core
servers but FE system operators did not know this and FE IT support staff did not tell them.

Without a functioning EMS, FE operators did not know their system was
losing lines and voltage until about 15:45.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 83

Power System Dynamics and Stability

358

August 14 2003 Blackout

FirstEnergy did not do sufcient system planning to know the


Cleveland-Akron area was seriously decient in reactive power supply needed for voltage support.

At 13:31 EDT, FE lost its Eastlake 5 unit, a critical source of real and
reactive power for the Cleveland-Akron area.

FE did not perform contingency analysis after this event.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 84

Power System Dynamics and Stability

359

August 14 2003 Blackout

Lost of the Eastlake 5 unit and beginning of reactive power problems.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 85

Power System Dynamics and Stability

360

August 14 2003 Blackout

Between 15:05 and 15:41 EDT, FE lost 3 345 kV lines in the


Cleveland-Akron area under normal loading due to contact with too-tall trees but did not know it due to EMS problems.

Line loadings and reactive power demands increased with each line loss. Between 15:39 and 16:08 EDT, FE lost 16 138kV lines in the
Cleveland-Akron area due to overloads and ground faults.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

361

August 14 2003 Blackout

Line outages:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

362

August 14 2003 Blackout

At 16:05.57 EDT, FE lost its Sammis-Star 345 kV line due to overload. This closed a major path for power imports into the Cleveland-Akron area
and initiated the cascade phase of the blackout.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

363

August 14 2003 Blackout

The tipping point in Ohio:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

364

August 14 2003 Blackout

Effect of a line trip: increasing loading on other lines.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

365

August 14 2003 Blackout

Effect of a line trip: decreasing voltages leading to voltage collapse.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

366

August 14 2003 Blackout

Cascade: Denition: A cascade on an electric system is a dynamic, unplanned


sequence of events that, once started, cannot be stopped by human intervention.

Power swings, voltage uctuations and frequency uctuations cause


sequential tripping of transmission lines, generators, and automatic load-shedding in a widening geographic area.

The uctuations diminish in amplitude as the cascade spreads.


Eventually equilibrium is restored and the cascade stops.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

367

August 14 2003 Blackout

The system goes haywire:

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August 14 2003 Blackout

Higher voltage lines are better able to absorb large voltage and current
swings, buffering some areas against the cascade (AEP, Pennsylvania).

Areas with high voltage proles and ample reactive power were not
swamped by the sudden voltage and power drain (PJM and New England).

After islanding began, some areas were able to balance generation with
load and reach equilibrium without collapsing (upstate New York and southern Ontario).

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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August 14 2003 Blackout

Sequence of events:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

370

August 14 2003 Blackout

Sequence of events:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

371

August 14 2003 Blackout

Sequence of events:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

372

August 14 2003 Blackout

Sequence of events:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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August 14 2003 Blackout

When the cascade was over at 4:13 pm, as many as 50 million people in
the northeast U.S. and the province of Ontario had no power.

This is a good example of a voltage instability problem triggered by a


series of contingencies.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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August 14 2003 Blackout

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August 14 2003 Blackout

Had the system properly monitored and NERC recommended operating


guidelines followed, the system might have been saved.

An operating rule regarding max. system loadability margins similar to


WECCs might have given the operators a better picture of the situation, but without proper monitoring, these would have probably not worked either.

In the absence of these, under-voltage relays with ULTC blocking might


have saved the system, as these would have automatically shed load when the voltages started to collapse in First Energys (FE) region in Ohio.

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Voltage Stability Report

Much more information regarding the issue voltage stability can be found
in: C. A. Canizares, editor, Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts, Practices and Tools, IEEE-PES Power System Stability Subcommittee Special Publication, SP101PSS, August 2002. IEEE-PES WG Report Award 2005.

This is a 283-page report, published after 5 years in preparation, and


coauthored by several voltage stability from around the world.

More details about the report can be found at:


http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio/claudio.html/#VSWG

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Angle Stability Outlines

Denitions. Small disturbance: Hopf Bifurcations. Control and mitigation. Practical example. Transient Stability Time Domain. Direct Methods.  Equal Area Criterion.  Energy Functions. Practical applications.
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Angle Stability Denitions

IEEE-CIGRE classication (IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability)


Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Power System Stability

Rotor Angle Stability

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Angle Stability

Transient Stability

Large Disturbance Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Voltage Stability

Short Term Short Term Long Term

Short Term

Long Term

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Angle Stability Denitions

Rotor angle stability refers to the ability of synchronous machines of an


interconnected power system to remain in synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance. It depends on the ability to maintain/restore equilibrium between electromagnetic torque and mechanical torque of each synchronous machine in the system.

In this case, the problem becomes apparent through angular/frequency


swings in some generators which may lead to their loss of synchronism with other generators.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

380

Small Disturbance

Small disturbance (or small signal) rotor angle stability is concerned with
the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances. The disturbances are considered to be sufciently small that linearization of system equations is permissible for purposes of analysis.

This problem is usually associated with the appearance of undamped


oscillations in the system due to a lack of sufcient damping torque.

Theoretically, this phenomenon may be associated with a s.e.p.


becoming unstable through a Hopf bifurcation point, typically due to contingencies in the system (e.g. August 1996 West Coast Blackout).

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

381

Hopf Bifurcation I

For the generator-load example, with AVR but no QG limits:


Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1 +

V2 2

Kv s

V10

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

382

Hopf Bifurcation I

The DAE model is: E E V2 sin DG Pm = X E V2 1 sin Pd = DL X 1 M = Kv (V10 V1 )

1 V22 E V2 V2 = + cos kPd X X E V2 V1 V2 sin sin 0 = XL X 1 1 E V2 V1 V2 2 0 = V2 cos + cos XL X X XL


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Power System Dynamics and Stability

383

Hopf Bifurcation I

Observe that the algebraic constraint can be eliminated, since: V1r V1i
Thus:

= V1 cos = V1 sin

V1i V2 E V2 E XL 0= sin V1i = sin XL X X V22 1 E V2 V1r V2 1 + cos XL X X XL E XL 1 + cos 1 XL X

and

0 V1r

= V2

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

384

Hopf Bifurcation I

This yields the following equations, which are better for numerical time
domain simulations:

E V2

E V2 = sin DG Pm X E V2 1 sin Pd = DL X 1 M = Kv V10 = 1


2 2 V1r + V1i

V22 E V2 + cos kPd X X

Observe that in this case, Pm = Pd , i.e. generation and load are


assumed to be balanced.
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

385

Hopf Bifurcation I

The PV curves for M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, Kv = 10, XG = 0.5, V10 = 1, k = 0.25 are:
1

OP
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

HB

HB

V2

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

xL = 0.6

xL = 0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Hopf Bifurcation I

The eigenvalues for the system with respect to changes in Pd for xL = 0.5:
3

Imag

3 5

1 Real

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Hopf Bifurcation I

There is a Hopf bifurcation for Pd = 0.65, xL = 0.5:


6

HB
2

()

10

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

388

Hopf Bifurcation I

A Hopf bifurcation with eigenvalues = j yields a periodic


oscillation of period:

T = Hence, for the example:

j3

2s

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Hopf Bifurcation I

The contingency xL = 0.5 0.6 yields:


2.5

E V1 V2

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

t [s]

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Hopf Bifurcation I

Notice that in this case no oscillations are observed, which is a


trademark of Hopf bifurcations and small-disturbance angle instabilities.

The reason for this is that the oscillation period is 2 s (typical in practice
where these kinds of oscillations are in the 0.1-1 Hz range), but the bus voltage collapses well before the oscillations appear, which is atypical and is probably due to the chosen impedances and time constants.

This example stresses the point that angle instabilities do lead to voltage
collapse, and vice versa, voltage instabilities lead to angle/frequency oscillations, even though the reason behind each stability problem are fairly different.

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Hopf Bifurcation II

Single-machine dynamic-load system with SVC:


PG + jQG jX PL + jQT

E V Vref jBC

V 0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 15

Power System Dynamics and Stability

392

Hopf Bifurcation II

The total reactive power absorbed by the load and the SVC is as follows: EV V2 + cos() + V 2 BC QT (V, ) = X X The SVC controller is modeled as a rst order pure integrator.
Vref + 1/sT V BC

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 16

Power System Dynamics and Stability

393

Hopf Bifurcation II

The resulting differential equations of the SMDL system with SVC are as
follows:

V BC

= EV 1 [Pd sin() D] = M X 1 1 EV = [kPd + V 2 (BC ) + cos()] X X 1 (Vref V ) = T

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 17

Power System Dynamics and Stability

394

Hopf Bifurcation II

BC is the equivalent susceptance of the SVC; T and Vref are the SVC
time constant and reference voltage, respectively.

In the following, it is assumed that T = 0.01 s and Vref = 1.0 p.u. Observe that also in this case it is possible to deduce the set of ODE, i.e.
the algebraic variables can be explicitly expressed as a function of the state variables and the parameters.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

395

Hopf Bifurcation II

The state matrix of the system is as follows:

0 EV M X cos() A= EV sin() X 0

D | M

| |

0 0

| 0 E | M X sin() | 0 1 V2 | X [E cos() 2V + 2V BC X] | 1 | T | 0

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 19

Power System Dynamics and Stability

396

Hopf Bifurcation II

Eigenvalue loci:
400

300

200

100

Imaginary

Hopf Bifurcation P =1.4143


d

100

200

300

400 0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Real

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 20

Power System Dynamics and Stability

397

Hopf Bifurcation II

A complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues crosses the imaginary axis for Pd = 1.4143, thus leading to a Hopf bifurcation. The HB point is: (0 , 0 , V0 , BC0 , Pd0 ) = (0.7855, 0, 1, 1.2930, 1.4143)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 21

Power System Dynamics and Stability

398

Hopf Bifurcation II

Bifurcation diagram Pd - :

2.5

(rad)

P
1.5

max d

Hopf Bifurcation
1

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P (p.u.)
d

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 22

Power System Dynamics and Stability

399

Hopf Bifurcation II

We simulate a step change in Pd from 1.41 p.u. to 1.42 p.u. for t = 2 s. For t > 2 s the system does not present a stable equilibrium point and
shows undamped oscillations (likely an unstable limit cycle), as expected from the P - curve.

For t = 2.57 s, the load voltage collapses. Note that, in this case, the generator angle shows an unstable trajectory
only after the occurrence of the voltage collapse at the load bus.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 23

Power System Dynamics and Stability

400

Hopf Bifurcation II

Time domain simulation results:


0.85

(rad)

0.8

0.75 1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

t (s)

1.5

V (p.u.)

1 0.5 0 1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

t (s)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 24

Power System Dynamics and Stability

401

Hopf Bifurcation II

The use of the SVC device gives a birth to a new bifurcation, namely a
Hopf bifurcation.

This Hopf bifurcation cannot be removed by simply adjusting system


parameters.

However SVC and load dynamics can be coordinated so that the


loadability of the system can be increased.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 25

Power System Dynamics and Stability

402

Control and Mitigation

For the IEEE 14-bus test system:


Bus 13

Bus 14 Bus 10 Bus 12

Bus 11

Bus 09

Bus 07

Bus 06 Bus 04 Bus 08

Bus 05 Bus 01

Breaker

Bus 02

Bus 03

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 26

Power System Dynamics and Stability

403

Control and Mitigation

Generator speeds for the line 2-4 outage and 40% overloading:
1.001

1.0005

0.9995

0.999

0.9985

0.998

10

15 time (s)

20

25

30

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 27

Power System Dynamics and Stability

404

Control and Mitigation

This has been typically solved by adding Power System Stabilizers (PSS)
to the voltage controllers in certain generators, so that equilibriun point is made stable, i.e. the Hopf is removed.
vs max vSI Tw s Kw Tw s + 1 T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 T3 s + 1 T4 s + 1 1 T s + 1 vs

vs min

FACTS can also be used to address this problem.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 28

Power System Dynamics and Stability

405

Control and Mitigation

For the IEEE 14-bus test system with PSS at bus 1:


Bus 13

Bus 14 Bus 10 Bus 12

Bus 11

Bus 09

Bus 07

Bus 06 Bus 04 Bus 08

Bus 05 Bus 01

Breaker

Bus 02

Bus 03

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 29

Power System Dynamics and Stability

406

Control and Mitigation

Generator speeds for the line 2-4 outage and 40% overloading:
1.001

1.0005

0.9995

0.999

0.9985

0.998

10

15 time (s)

20

25

30

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 30

Power System Dynamics and Stability

407

Control and Mitigation

Data regarding this system are available at:


http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio /papers/IEEEBenchmarkTFreport.pdf

More details regarding this example can be found in:


F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, accpeted for publication on IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, March 2004.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 31

Power System Dynamics and Stability

408

Control and Mitigation

For the IEEE 145-bus, 50-machine test system:


1 93 110 43 33 5 4 3 49 2 114 34 38 40 84 35 41 37 39 47 50 51 102 55 53 56 101 52 61 54 86 127 135 138 128 133 132 120 122 121 95 67 111 8 9 69 63 64 65 68 97 125 124 80 112 11 12 72 71 21 59 98 13 70 100 103 58 14 15 17 16 81 25 108 22 73 31 26 106 105 75 82 109 27 91 29 24 28 20 19 18 83 78 30 23 10 32 94 60 89 96 77 76 123 131 134 42 48 44 46 85 117 139 118 137 129 136 49 36 99

AREA 2
87 88 45 116

AREA 1

115 145 144 143 142 141 140

113 6

57 7 104 126 66

62 119

92

90 130

107

79

74

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 32

Power System Dynamics and Stability

409

Control and Mitigation

For an impedance load model, the PV curves yield:


(a) 0.94 HB Voltage (p.u.) 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 Operating point HB Base Case Line 7990 Outage

Constant impedance load line

(b) L.F. (p.u.) 0.94 Voltage (p.u.) Base Case Line 7990 Outage

Operating point
0.93

HB
0.92 0.91 0.9

HB

Constant impedance load line

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5 x 10

6
3

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 33

Power System Dynamics and Stability

410

Control and Mitigation

Indices based on the singular values have been proposed to predict Hopf
bifucations:
0.015 HBI2 Base Case HBI Base Case 1 HBI Line 7990 Outage 2 HBI1 Line 7990 Outage

0.01

Hopf Indices 0.005

HB
0

HB

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

411

Control and Mitigation

More details regarding this example can be found in:


C. A. Canizares, N. Mithulananthan, F. Milano, and J. Reeve, Linear Performance Indices to Predict Oscillatory Stability Problems in Power Systems, IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 2, May 2004, pp. 1104-1114.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 35

Power System Dynamics and Stability

412

Small Disturbance Applications

In practice, some contingencies trigger plant or inter-area frequency


oscillations in a heavily loaded system, which may be directly associated with Hopf bifurcations.

This is a classical problem in power systems and there are many


examples of this phenomenon in practice, such as the August 10, 1996 blackout of the WSCC (now WECC) system.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 36

Power System Dynamics and Stability

413

Small Disturbance Applications

Observe that the maximum loadability of the system is reduced by the


presence of the Hopf bifurcation.

This leads to the denition of a dynamic ATC value.


1
HB

0.9
OP

HB

0.8 0.7
ETC

ATC

TRM

0.6

V2

0.5
TTC

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


Worst Contingency

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 37

Power System Dynamics and Stability

414

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

This information was extracted from a presentation by Dr. Prabha Kundur,


President and CEO of PowerTech Labs Inc.

The material is availbale at:


toronto.ieee.ca/events/oct0303/prabha.ppt

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 38

Power System Dynamics and Stability

415

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

System conditions: High ambient temperatures in Northwest, and hence high power
transfers from Canada to California.

Prior to main outage, three 500 kV line sections from lower Columbia
River to loads in Oregon were out of service due to tree faults.

California-Oregon interties loaded to 4330 MW north to south. Pacic DC intertie loaded at 2680 MW north to south. 2300 MW ow from Britsh Columbia.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 39

Power System Dynamics and Stability

416

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

Growing 0.23 Hz oscillations caused tripping of lines:

3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 0 3 6 12 16 19 22 25 28 31 40 43 47 50 53 56 59 62 65 68 71 74

3 4

4 1 2

Time in seconds

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 40

Power System Dynamics and Stability

417

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

Event 1: 14:06:39 Big Eddy-Ostrander 500 kV LG fault - ashed to tree Event 2: 14:52:37 John Day-Marion 500 kV LG -ashed to tree Event 3: 15:42:03 Keeler-Alliston 500 KV - LG - ashed to tree Event 4: 15:47:36 Ross-Lexington 500 kV - ashed to tree Event 5: 15:47:36-15:48:09 8 McMary Units trip
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 41

Power System Dynamics and Stability

418

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

As a results of the undamped oscillations, the system split into four large
islands.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 42

Power System Dynamics and Stability

419

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

PSS solution:

San Onofre (addition)

Palo Verde (tune existing)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 43

Power System Dynamics and Stability

420

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

PSS solution:
3000

With existing controls Eigenvalue = Frequency = Damping =

2800

0.0597 + j1.771 0.2818 Hz

2600 2400 2200

0.0337

15

30

45

61

72

Time in seconds 3000

With PSS modications


2800

Eigenvalue =
2600

0.0717 + j1.673 0.2664 Hz

Frequency =
2400

Damping =
2200 0 18 50 32 Time in seconds 68 75

0.0429

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 44

Power System Dynamics and Stability

421

August 10, 1996 WSCC Blackout

7.5 million customers experienced outages from a few minutes to nine


hours.

Total load loss: 35,500 MW.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 45

Power System Dynamics and Stability

422

Transient Stability

Large disturbance rotor angle stability or transient stability, as it is


commonly referred to, is concerned with the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism when subjected to a severe disturbance, such as a short circuit on a transmission line. The resulting system response involves large excursions of generator rotor angles and is inuenced by the nonlinear power-angle relationship.

The system nonlinearities determine the system response; hence,


linearization does not work in this case.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 46

Power System Dynamics and Stability

423

Transient Stability

For small disturbances, the problem is to determine if the resulting steady


state condition is stable or unstable (eigenvalue analysis) or a bifurcation point (e.g. Hopf bifurcation).

For large disturbances, the steady state condition after the disturbance
can exist and be stable, but it is possible that the system cannot reach that steady state condition.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 47

Power System Dynamics and Stability

424

Transient Stability

The basic idea and analysis procedures are: Pre-contingency (initial conditions): the system is operating in
normal conditions associated with a s.e.p.

Contingency (fault trajectory): a large disturbance, such as a short


circuit or a line trip forces the system to move away from its initial operating point.

Post contingency (fault clearance): the contingency usually forces


system protections to try to clear the fault; the issue is then to determine whether the resulting system is stable, i.e. whether the system remains relatively intact and the associated time trajectories converge to a reasonable operating point.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 48

Power System Dynamics and Stability

425

Transient Stability

Based on non linear theory, this analysis can be basically viewed as


determining wheter the fault trajectory at the clearance point is outside or inside of the stability region of the post-contingency s.e.p.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 49

Power System Dynamics and Stability

426

Time domain analysis

Given the complexity of power system models, the most reliable analysis
tool for these types of studies is full time domain simulations.

For example, for the generator-load example:


Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

jxC

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 50

Power System Dynamics and Stability

427

Time domain analysis

The ODE for the simplest generator d-axis transient model and
neglecting AVR and generator limits is:

V2
where

1 (Pd E V2 B sin DG ) M 1 = (E V2 B sin Pd ) DL 1 [V22 (B BC ) + E V2 B cos kPd ] = = B= 1 1 = X XG + XL

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 51

Power System Dynamics and Stability

428

Time domain analysis

The objective is to determine how much time an operator would have to connect the capacitor bank BC after a severe contingency, simulated here as a sudden increase in the value of the reactance X , so that the
system recovers.

In this case, and as previously discussed in the voltage stability section,


the contingency is severe, as the s.e.p. disappears.

Full time domain simulations are carried out to study this problem for the parameter values M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, E = 1, Pd = 0.7, k = 0.25, BC = 0.5.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 52

Power System Dynamics and Stability

429

Time domain analysis

A contingency X = 0.5 0.6 at tf = 1 s, with BC connection at tc = 1.4 s yields a stable system:


1.4


1.2 V2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

tf tc

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

t [s]
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 53

Power System Dynamics and Stability

430

Time domain analysis

If BC is connected at tc = 1.5 s, the system is unstable:


6


5 V2

tc
3

tf

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

t [s]
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 54

Power System Dynamics and Stability

431

Direct Methods

Time domain analysis is expensive, so direct stability analysis technique


have been proposed based on Lyapounovs stability theory.

The idea is to dene an energy or Lyapounov function (x, xs ) with


certain characteristics to obtain a direct measure of the stability region

A(xs ) associated with the post-contingency s.e.p. xs . A systems energy is usually a good Lyapounov function, as it yields a
stability measure.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 55

Power System Dynamics and Stability

432

Direct Methods

The rolling ball example can used to explain the basic behind these
techniques:
u.e.p.2

v m h
u.e.p.1

s.e.p.

There are 3 equilibrium points: one stable (valley bottom), two unstable
(hill tops).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 56

Power System Dynamics and Stability

433

Direct Methods

The energy of the ball is a good Lyapounov or Transient Energy Function


(TEF):

= Wkinetic + Wpotential = WK + WP 1 = mv 2 + mgh 2 = ([v, h]T , 0)

The potential energy at the s.e.p. is zero, and presents local maxima at the u.e.p.s (WP 1 and WP 2 ). The closest u.e.p. is u.e.p.1 since WP 1 < WP 2 .
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 57

Power System Dynamics and Stability

434

Direct Methods

The stability of this system can then be evaluated using this energy: if W < WP 1 , the ball remains in the valley, i.e. the system is stable, and will converge to the s.e.p. as t .
depending on friction (inconclusive test).

If W > WP 1 , the ball might or might not converge to the s.e.p., When the balls potential energy WP (t) reaches a maximum with respect to time t, the system leaves the valley, i.e. unstable
condition.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 58

Power System Dynamics and Stability

435

Direct Methods

The valley would correspond to the stability region when friction is


large.

In this case, the stability boundary A(xs ) corresponds to the ridge where the u.e.p.s are located and WP has a local max. value. The smaller the friction in the system, the larger the difference between the ridge and A(xs ). For zero friction, A(xs ) is dened by WP 1 .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 59

Power System Dynamics and Stability

436

Direct Methods

The direct stability test is only a necessary but not sufcient condition: (x, xs ) < c (x, xs ) > c
potential energy function.

x A(xs )
Inconclusive!

where the value of c is usually associated with a local maximum of a

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 60

Power System Dynamics and Stability

437

Direct Methods

For the simple generator-innite bus example, neglecting limits and AVR:
Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL jxth

System

V1 1

V2 2

V 0

= = r 0 1 EV = PL sin D M X
= XG + XL + Xth

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 61

Power System Dynamics and Stability

438

Direct Methods

The kinetic energy in this system is dened as: WK = And the potential energy is: WP = (Tc Tm )d (Pc Pm )d in p.u. for r 0 EV ( (PG PL )d PL )d X s s

1 M 2 2

E V B(cos cos s ) PL ( s )
where s is the s.e.p. for this system.
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 62

Power System Dynamics and Stability

439

Direct Methods

With WP presenting a very similar prole as the rolling ball example:


PG
unstable stable unstable

E V X

u2

u1

max

WF WF 2 WF 1
min max

u2

u1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 63

Power System Dynamics and Stability

440

Direct Methods

Hence, the system Lyapounov function of TEF is: T EF = (x, xs ) = ([, ]T , [s , 0]T ) 1 = M 2 E V B(cos cos s ) 2 PL ( s ) Thus, using similar criteria as in the case of the rolling ball: If T EF < WP 1 system is stable. If T EF > WP 1 inconclusive for D > 0 (friction). If T EF > WP 1 unstable for D = 0 (unrealistic).
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 64

Power System Dynamics and Stability

441

Direct Methods

This is equivalent to compare areas in the PG vs. graph (Equal Area


Criterion or EAC):
PG
pre-contingency

post-contingency

PL
contingency (fault)

(0) = spre

(tc ) spost

u1 post
fault clearing time

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 65

Power System Dynamics and Stability

442

Direct Methods

Thus, comparing the acceleration area:


(tc )

Aa

=
spre (tc )

(PL PGf ault )d EV PL Xf ault d

=
spre

versus the deceleration area:


spost

Ad

=
(tc ) spost

(PGpost PL )d EV PL d Xpost

=
(tc )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 66

Power System Dynamics and Stability

443

Direct Methods

In conclusion: If Aa < Ad system is stable at tc . If Aa > Ad inconclusive for D > 0.

If Aa > Ad unstable for D = 0 (unrealistic).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 67

Power System Dynamics and Stability

444

Direct Methods: Example 1

A 60 Hz generator with a 15% transient reactance is connected to an


innite bus of 1 p.u. voltage through two identical parallel transmission lines of 20% reactance and negligible resistance. The generator is delivering 300 MW at a 0.9 leading power factor when a 3-phase solid fault occurs in the middle of one of the lines; the fault is then cleared by opening the breakers of the faulted line.

Assuming a 100 MVA base, determine the critical clearing time for this
generator if the damping is neglected and its inertia is assumed to be

H = 5 s. Assuming D = 0.1 s, determine the actual critical clearing time.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 68

Power System Dynamics and Stability

445

Direct Methods: Example 1

Pre-contingency or initial conditions: PGpre QL EV sin spre = PL = Xpre V2 EV = + cos spre Xpre Xpre

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 69

Power System Dynamics and Stability

446

Direct Methods: Example 1

Where: Xpre = 0.15 + 0.2 = 0.25 2

300 MW PL = 100 MVA E 3 = sin spre 0.25 QL = 3 tan(cos1 0.9) E 1 + cos spre 1.4530 = 0.25 0.25

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 70

Power System Dynamics and Stability

447

Direct Methods: Example 1

Eipre

= E sin spre = 0.75 1.3633 E 2pre + E 2pre r i 1.5559 tan1


Eipre Erpre

Erpre

= E cos spre = = =

spre

= =

28.82 = 0.5030 rad

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 71

Power System Dynamics and Stability

448

Direct Methods: Example 1

Fault conditions: PGf ault = = EV sin Xf ault 1.5559 sin Xf ault

where, using a Y- circuit transformation due to the fault being in the middle of one of the parallel lines:
jXf ault j0.15 j0.2 E V 0 j0.1 j0.1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 72

Power System Dynamics and Stability

449

Direct Methods: Example 1

Xf ault PGf ault Aa

= = =

0.15 0.2 + 0.1 0.2 + 0.15 0.1 0.1 2.394 sin


(tcc ) spre (tcc )

(PL PGf ault )d (3 2.394 sin )d

=
0.503

= =

3((tcc ) 0.503) + 2.394(cos (tcc ) cos(0.503)) 3(tcc ) + 2.394 cos (tcc ) 3.6065

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 73

Power System Dynamics and Stability

450

Direct Methods: Example 1

Post contingency conditions: Xpost PGpost = = = 3 = = = spost 0.15 + 0.2 = 0.35 EV sin Xpost 4.446 sin 4.446 sin spost 42.44 0.7407 rad

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 74

Power System Dynamics and Stability

451

Direct Methods: Example 1

spost

Ad

=
(tcc ) 2.4

(PGpost PL )d (4.446 sin 3)d

=
(tcc )

= 4.446(cos 2.4 cos (tcc )) 3(2.4 (tcc )) = 3(tcc ) + 4.446 cos (tcc ) 3.9215

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 75

Power System Dynamics and Stability

452

Direct Methods: Example 1

Aa

= Ad = 3(tcc ) + 2.394 cos (tcc ) 3.6065 = 3(tcc ) + 4.446 cos (tcc ) 3.9215

(tcc )

= 81.17 = 1.4167 rad

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 76

Power System Dynamics and Stability

453

Direct Methods: Example 1

During the fault: M = 1 EV = sin PL M Xf ault H = f 5s = 60 Hz = 0.0265 s2 = = 37.70(3 2.394 sin )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 77

Power System Dynamics and Stability

454

Direct Methods: Example 1

Integrating these equations numerically for (0) = spre = 28.82 :


220 200 180 160 140

[deg]

120 100 80 60 40 20

0.05

0.1

0.15

t [s]

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 78

Power System Dynamics and Stability

455

Direct Methods: Example 1

For D = 0.1 and a clearing time of tc = 0.27 s, the system is stable:


150

[deg]

100

50

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

10

[deg]

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 79

Power System Dynamics and Stability

456

Direct Methods: Example 1

For a clearing time of tc = 0.28 s, the system is unstable; hence tcc 0.275 s:
2500 2000

[deg]

1500 1000 500 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

40

30

[deg]

20

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 80

Power System Dynamics and Stability

457

Direct Methods: Example 2

Generator-motor, i.e. system-system, cases may also be studied using


the EAC method based on an equivalent inertia

M = M1 M2 /(M1 M2 ), and damping D = M D1 /M1 = M D2 /M2 . For the generator-load example neglecting the internal generator
impedance and assuming an instantaneous AVR:
PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 81

Power System Dynamics and Stability

458

Direct Methods: Example 2

The energy functions, with or without generator limits, can be shown to


be:

WK WP

1 M 2 2 = B(V1 V2 cos V10 V20 cos 0 ) 1 1 2 2 2 + B(V2 V20 ) + B(V12 V10 ) 2 2 V2 QG ln Pd ( 0 ) + Qd ln V20 =

V1 V10

The stability of this system can then be studied using the same energy evaluation previously explained for T EF = (x, x0 ) = WK + WP .

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

459

Direct Methods: Example 2

Thus for V1 = 1, XL = 0.5, Pd = 0.1, and Qd = 0.25Pd , the potential energy WP (, V2 ) that denes the stability region withr espect
to the s.e.p. is:

8 7 6 5

WP

4 3 2 1

0 400 200

u.e.p. saddle

0 200

s.e.p. node
1 0.5 400 0

2 1.5

V2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 83

Power System Dynamics and Stability

460

Direct Methods: Example 2

Simulating the critical contingency XL = 0.5 0.6 for Pd = 0.7 and


neglecting limits, the energy proles are:
0.2

Wp Wk+Wp

0.1

T EF

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 84

Power System Dynamics and Stability

461

Direct Methods: Example 2

The exit point on A(xs ) is approximately at the maximum potential


energy point.

Thus, the critical clearing time is: tcc 1.42 s A similar value can be obtained through trial-and-error.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 85

Power System Dynamics and Stability

462

Direct Methods: Conclusions

The advantages of using Lyapounov functions are: Allows reduced stability analysis. Can be used as an stability index. The problems are: Lyapounov functions are model dependent; in practice, only
approximate energy functions can be found.

Inconclusive if test fails. The post-perturbation system state must be known ahead of time, as
the energy function is dened with respect to the corresponding s.e.p.

Can only be used as an approximate stability analysis tool.


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 86

Power System Dynamics and Stability

463

Transient Stability Applications

In practice, transient stability studies are carried out using time-domain


trial-and-error techniques.

These types of studies can now be done on-line even for large systems. The idea is to determine whether a set of realistic contingencies make
the system unstable or not (contingency ranking), and thus determine maximum transfer limits or ATC in certain transmission corridors for given operating conditions.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 87

Power System Dynamics and Stability

464

Transient Stability Applications

Thus, the maximum loadability of the system may be affected by the


size of the stability region, leading to the denition of a true ATC value.
1
HB

0.9
OP

HB

0.8 0.7
ETC

ATC

TRM

0.6

V2

0.5
TTC

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


Worst Contingency

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 88

Power System Dynamics and Stability

465

Transient Stability Applications

Critical clearing times are not really an issue with current fast acting
protections.

Simplied direct methods such as the Extended Equal Area Criterion (Y.
Xue et al., Extended Equal Area Criterion Revisited, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3, Aug. 1992, pp. 1012-1022) have been proposed and tested for on-line contingency pre-ranking, and are being implemented for practical applications through an E.U. project.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 89

Power System Dynamics and Stability

466

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

An example of an application of transient analysis techniques can be


found in L.S. Vargas and C. A. Canizares, Time Dependence of Controls to Avoid Voltage Collapse, IEEE Transaction son Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 4, November 2000, pp. 1367-1375.

This paper discusses the May 1997 voltage collapse event of the main
power system in Chile.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 90

Power System Dynamics and Stability

467

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

Most of Chile lost power in a major blackout on Friday evening, snarling


rush hour trafc in the capital. The blackout began at about 7:20 pm, and power was back in about a third of the affected areas at 9:00 pm.

At 9:00 pm lights were gradually coming on in parts of the capital, home


to 5 million people or one third of the countrys population. Television reports said power went out as far as Puerto Montt, a city some 600 miles south of Santiago, and in areas the same distance to the north.

Source Reuters

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 91

Power System Dynamics and Stability

468

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

Main system characteristics: Extension: 756626 km2 . Inhabitants: 14.5 mil. National consumptions: 33531 GWh. National peak load: 5800 MW. Installed capacity: 8000 MW. Frequency: 50 Hz. Trans. Level: 66/110/154/220/500 kV. Four interconnected systems: SING, SIC, AISEN, MAGALLANES

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 92

Power System Dynamics and Stability

469

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

470

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

Initial state of SIC system: 2500 MW load. Power ow south-north near 1000 MW (900 MW through 500 kV lines
and 100 MW through 154 kV lines).

Events: Line 154 kV trips. Major generator in the south hits reactive power limits and losses
voltage control.

Operator tries to recover falling voltages by connecting a capacitor


bank near Santiago.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 94

Power System Dynamics and Stability

471

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 95

Power System Dynamics and Stability

472

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

The line trip and generator limits yield a voltage collapse associated with
a limit-induced bifurcation problem:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 96

Power System Dynamics and Stability

473

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

PV curves:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 97

Power System Dynamics and Stability

474

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

The connection of the capacitor bank after the generator limits are
reached did not save the system, as the faulted system trajectories had left the stability region of the post contingency operating point.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 98

Power System Dynamics and Stability

475

Chilean Blackout (11/07/2003)

If the capacitor bank is connected before the generator limits are reached,
the system would have been saved, as the faulted system trajectories were still within the stability of the post-contingency operating point.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 99

Power System Dynamics and Stability

476

Frequency Stability Outlines

Denitions. Basic Concepts. Practical applications, controls and protections. Italian Blackout (28/10/2003) European Blackout (4/11/2006)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 1

Power System Dynamics and Stability

477

Frequency Stability Denitions

IEEE-CIGRE classication (IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability)


Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Power System Stability

Rotor Angle Stability

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Angle Stability

Transient Stability

Large Disturbance Voltage Stability

Small Disturbance Voltage Stability

Short Term Short Term Long Term

Short Term

Long Term

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 2

Power System Dynamics and Stability

478

Frequency Stability Denitions

Frequency Stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain


steady frequency following a severe system upset resulting in a signicant imbalance between generation and load.

Thus, frequency stability analysis concentrates on studying the overall


system stability for sudden changes in the generation-load balance.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 3

Power System Dynamics and Stability

479

Frequency Stability Concepts

For the generator-load example, with AVR but no QG limits:


Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1 +

V2 2

Kv s

V10

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

480

Frequency Stability Concepts

Neglecting losses and electromagnetic dynamics, the generator with a very simple AVR and no limits can be modeled using a d-axis transient
model:

G G E

= G = r 0 1 (Pm PG DG G ) = M = Kv (V10 V1 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 5

Power System Dynamics and Stability

481

Frequency Stability Concepts

The load can be simulated using simplied mixed models and constant
power factor:

2 V2

= 2 = =

1 (PL Pd ) DL

1 (QL kPD )
Qd

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

482

Frequency Stability Concepts

The transmission system yields the power ow equations (X = XL = XG ): PG = = QL = = QG = E V2 PL = sin(G 2 ) X V1 V2 sin(1 2 ) XL V22 E v2 + cos(2 G ) X X V22 V1 V2 + cos(2 1 ) XL XL V12 V1 V2 cos(1 2 ) XL XL

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 7

Power System Dynamics and Stability

483

Frequency Stability Concepts

Dene: = G 2 = 1 2 = G = 2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

484

Frequency Stability Concepts

This yields the DAE model: E E V2 Pm sin DG = X E V2 1 sin Pd = DL X 1 M = Kv (V10 V1 )

1 V22 E V2 V2 = + cos kPd X X E V2 V1 V2 sin sin 0 = XL X 1 1 E V2 V1 V2 2 0 = V2 cos + cos XL X X XL


Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 9

Power System Dynamics and Stability

485

Frequency Stability Concepts

And the equilibrium equations: 0 0 0 0 0 0 = = = = = = E V2 Pm sin DG X E V2 sin Pd DL X V10 V1 V22 E V2 + cos kPd X X E V2 V1 V2 sin sin XL X 1 E V2 V1 V2 1 2 V2 cos + cos XL X X XL
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 10

Power System Dynamics and Stability

486

Frequency Stability Concepts

Hence: x = [, , E , v2 ]T y p = [V1 , ]T = [Pm , V10 ] = Pd

Observe that in this analysis, Pm = Pd to study the effect of


generator-load imbalances in the system.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 11

Power System Dynamics and Stability

487

Frequency Stability Concepts

In normal operating conditions Pm = Pd = 0, from the rst 2


equilibrium equations.

Hence, these equations can be replaced by the following 4 power ow equations, with 4 unknowns (E , V2 , , ): 0 0 0 0 = = = = E V2 sin Pd X V22 E V2 kPd + cos X X V10 V2 sin Pd XL V22 V10 V2 kPd + cos XL XL

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 12

Power System Dynamics and Stability

488

Frequency Stability Concepts

Simulating a 50% generation and load reduction, respectively, for M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, Kv = 10, XL = 0.5, XG = 0.5, V10 = 1, Pd0 = 0.7, k = 0.25. Initial solution: E V2 V1 = = = = = = 0 0.7266 1.3463 0.7826 1.0000 0.4636

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 13

Power System Dynamics and Stability

489

Frequency Stability Concepts

Time domain simulation:


1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5
50% generator drop

1 1.5 2
50% load drop

2.5 3 3.5

E V2 V1
6 7 8 9 10

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 14

Power System Dynamics and Stability

490

Frequency Stability Concepts

The generation reduction yields a 0.5 Hz frequency drop and a load


voltage increase.

The load reduction yields a 0.5 Hz frequency increase, and an even


larger load voltage increase, as the reactive power demand drops.

The system reaches new s.e.p.s in both cases, as expected. Observe that the AVR keeps the generator terminal fairly stable and close to its set value V10 .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 15

Power System Dynamics and Stability

491

Frequency Stability Concepts

These frequency excursions due to generation-load imbalances are


typical.

It might lead to unstable conditions due to device protections such as


frequency relays in generators and loads.

Frequency problems may be solved manually by operators or


automatically through controls and/or protections.

Generator governors automatically regulate local frequency excursions.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 16

Power System Dynamics and Stability

492

Frequency Stability Concepts

Centralized frequency regulators, such as automatic Area Control Error


(ACE) regulators, may be used to regulate power exchanges among control areas by controlling the frequency deviations on the interties.

Examples of frequency instabilities are: The Italian blackout of Tuesday, October 28, 2003 (Material courtesy
of Prof. Alberto Berizzi, Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

The European blackout of Saturday, November 4, 2006 (Material


courtesy of Prof. Edmund Handschin, University of Technology, Dortmund, Germany).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 17

Power System Dynamics and Stability

493

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

494

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 19

Power System Dynamics and Stability

495

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)


3:10.47 ETrans (operator of interties between Switzerland and rest of Europe) lets the GRTN (Italian operator) know of the Mettlen-Lavorgo line trip (1320 MW) and the overloading of the Sils-Soazza line (1650 MW), and requests a 300 MW demand reduction to relief the overload. 3:18.40 ETrans contacts EGL (Switzerland operator) requesting the tripping of a transformer in Soazza. 3:21.00 GRTN reduces the power imports by 300 MW.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 20

Power System Dynamics and Stability

496

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)


3:22.03 ATEL (Swiss energy company) changes the connection of the transformer at Lavorgo. 3:25.22 Protections trip the Sils-Soazza line (1783 MW). This is basically the beginning of the cascading events that follow, severing Italy from the rest of Europe and leading to the collapse of the Italian system.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 21

Power System Dynamics and Stability

497

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 22

Power System Dynamics and Stability

498

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Imports from France:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 23

Power System Dynamics and Stability

499

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Frequency in Italy:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 24

Power System Dynamics and Stability

500

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Frequency and voltages in Europe:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 25

Power System Dynamics and Stability

501

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 26

Power System Dynamics and Stability

502

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 27

Power System Dynamics and Stability

503

Italian Blackout (28/10/2003)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 28

Power System Dynamics and Stability

504

European Interconnected Systems

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

505

European Interconnected Systems


System Capacity GW Nordel UPS/IPS UKTSOA Nordel 94 337 85 600 Peak Load GW 66 215 66 390 Energy TWh 405 1285 400 2530 Population Mio. 24 280 65 450

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 30

Power System Dynamics and Stability

506

European Interconnected Systems

450 million people served 2530 TWh used 600 GW installed capacity at 500 e/kW = 300 Ge 230.000 km HV network at 400 000 e/km = 90 Ge Approx. 5.000.000 km MV+LV network 1500 e investment per EU citizen Largest man-made system

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 31

Power System Dynamics and Stability

507

European Blackout (4/11/2006)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 32

Power System Dynamics and Stability

508

European Blackout (4/11/2006)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 33

Power System Dynamics and Stability

509

European Blackout (4/11/2006)

Area 1: The frequency drops to 49 Hz, which causes an automatic load


schedding.

Area 2: Real power surplus of 6000 MW.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

510

European Blackout (4/11/2006)


50.1 f [Hz] 50.0 49.9 49.8 49.7 49.6 49.5 49.4 49.3 49.2 49.1 49.0 48.9
22:10:00 22:10:10 22:10:20 22:10:30 22:10:40 22:10:50 22:11:00

frequency

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 35

Power System Dynamics and Stability

511

European Blackout (4/11/2006)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 36

Power System Dynamics and Stability

512

Contents

Overview UWPFLOW Matlab PSAT

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 1

Power System Dynamics and Stability

513

Overview

Software packages for power system analysis can be basically divided


into two classes of tools:

Commercial softwares. Educational/research-aimed softwares.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 2

Power System Dynamics and Stability

514

Overview

Commercial softwares: PSS/E EuroStag Simpow CYME PowerWorld Neplan

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 3

Power System Dynamics and Stability

515

Overview

Commercial software packages follows an all-in-one philosophy and are


typically well-tested and computationally efcient.

Despite their completeness, these softwares can result cumbersome for


educational and research purposes.

commercial softwares are closed, i.e. do not allow changing the source
code or adding new algorithms.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

516

Overview

For research purposes, the exibility and the ability of easy prototyping
are often more crucial aspects than computational efciency.

At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are
typically aimed to a specic aspect of power system analysis.

An example is UWPFLOW which provides an extremely robust algorithm


for continuation power ow analysis.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 5

Power System Dynamics and Stability

517

Overview

C anf FORTRAN are very fast but requires keen programming skills and
are not suitable for fast prototyping.

Several high level scientic languages, such as Matlab, Mathematica and


Modelica, have become more and more popular for both research and educational purposes.

At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are
typically aimed to a specic aspect of power system analysis.

Matlab proved to be the best user choice.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

518

Overview

Matlab-based power system analysis tools: Power System Toolbox (PST) MatPower Voltage Stability Toolbox (VST) Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) Educational Simulation Tool (EST) Power system Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 7

Power System Dynamics and Stability

519

Overview

Comparison of Matlab-based power system analysis softwares:


Package EST MatEMTP MatPower PAT PSAT PST SPS VST PF CPF OPF SSA TD EMT GUI GNE

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

520

Overview

The features illustrated in the table are: power ow (PF) continuation power ow and/or voltage stability analysis (CPF-VS) optimal power ow (OPF) small signal stability analysis (SSA) time domain simulation (TD) graphical user interface (GUI) graphical network editor (GNE).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 9

Power System Dynamics and Stability

521

Overview

An important but often missed issue is that the Matlab environment is a


commercial and closed product, thus Matlab kernel and libraries cannot be modied nor freely distributed.

To allow exchanging ideas and effectively improving scientic research,


both the toolbox and the platform on which the toolbox runs should be free (Richard Stallman).

An alternative to Matlab is the free GNU/Octave project.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

522

UWPFLOW

UWPFLOW is a research tool that has been designed to calculate local


bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian.

The program also generates a series of output les that allow further
analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power ow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 11

Power System Dynamics and Stability

523

UWPFLOW Features

Adequate handling of generators limits, with generators being able to


recover from a variety of limits, including S limits.

Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and
Primemover limits) are included.

Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also
included.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 12

Power System Dynamics and Stability

524

UWPFLOW Features

Either BPA/WSCC ac-dc (HVDC systems) input data formats (and


variations) or IEEE common format may be used.

Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM
models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included.

Secondary voltage control, as dened by ENEL (elecetricity company of


Italy), can be modeled and simulated in the program.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 13

Power System Dynamics and Stability

525

UWPFLOW Features

The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the
related right and left eigenvectors and several voltage stability indices.

The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m)
les as well as IEEE common format data les.

The program has being designed to automatically run script les.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 14

Power System Dynamics and Stability

526

UWPFLOW Usage

Like any other UNIX program, i.e., command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into les:
uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file]

For example, to generate the program help:


uwpflow -h

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 15

Power System Dynamics and Stability

527

UWPFLOW Example

3-area sample system:


100 MW 150 MW 150 MW
60 MVAr Area 1

v3<d3

150 MW 56 MVAr

Bus 2
1.020

50 MVAr R = 0.01 p.u. X = 0.15 p.u.

V2 2

Bus 3
50 MVAr

50 MW 40 MVAr 100 MW

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 16

Power System Dynamics and Stability

528

UWPFLOW Example

For a 3-area sample system:


Bus Name Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

PG
(p.u.) 1.5 0 0.5

PL
(p.u.) 0 1.5 0.5

QL
(p.u.) 0 0.56 0.40

Using UWPFLOW to obtain the system PV curves, for a distributed slack


bus model:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 17

Power System Dynamics and Stability

529

UWPFLOW Example

Data le in EPRI format (3area.wsc):


HDG UWPFLOW data file, WSCC format 3-area example April 2000 BAS C C AC BUSES C C | SHUNT | C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |PG |QM |Qm |Vpu BE 1 Area 1 138 1 150 60 0 0 0 150 0 0 1.02 B 1 Area 2 138 2 150 56 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00 B 1 Area 3 138 3 50 40 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 18

Power System Dynamics and Stability

530

UWPFLOW Example

Data le in EPRI format (3area.wsc):


C C AC LINES C C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L 1 Area 1 138 Area 2 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 1 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 2 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 Area 1 138 0. END

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 19

Power System Dynamics and Stability

531

UWPFLOW Example

Generator and load change le (3area.k):


C C UWPFLOW load and generation "direction" file C for 3-area example C C BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [ Smax 1 0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0 0 2 0 0.0 1.5 0.56 0 0 3 0 0.5 0.5 0.40 0 0

Vmax Vmin ] 1.05 0.95 1.05 0.95 1.05 0.95

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 20

Power System Dynamics and Stability

532

UWPFLOW Example

Batch le for UNIX (run3area):


echo -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k echo -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s echo - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 echo - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

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UWPFLOW Example

Batch le for Windows (run3area.bat):


rem -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k rem -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s rem - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 rem - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

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534

UWPFLOW Example

PV curves (threearea.m):
Profiles 150

100

50 kVArea 3 kVArea 2 kVArea 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 L.F. [p.u.] 1 1.2 1.4
138 138 138

1.6

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UWPFLOW Example

The singular value index obtained with UWPFLOW is as follows (-0


option):
0.7

0.6

Full matrix sing. value index

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8 L.F. [p.u.]

1.2

1.4

1.6

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536

Matlab Overview

Matlab is a general purpose environment for mathematical and


engineering analysis.

Is vector/matrix based. A variable is by default a matrix. Is an interpreted language, thus can be slow for heavy applications. Is not open source. The GNU-Octave project provides a good alternative:
http://www.octave.org

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Matlab Example

Generator-load example (see the introductory example in the Voltage


Stability section starting from slide 279): :
PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

538

Matlab Example

For QGmin QG QGmax : V2 = 1 M Pd 1 DL V10 V2 sin DG XL V10 V2 sin Pd XL

= = 1

V10 V2 V22 + cos Qd XL XL

2 V10 V10 V2 0 = QG + cos XL XL

with

x = [, , V2 ]T p = V10

y = QG = Pd

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

539

Matlab Example

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0
with

V1 V2 = sin DG Pd XL V1 V2 1 sin Pd = DL XL = 1 V1 V2 V22 + cos Qd XL XL V1 V2 V12 + cos XL XL y = V1 = Pd

1 M

= QGmin,max

x = [, , V2 ]T p = QGmin,max

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

540

Matlab Example

Assume XL = 0.5, M = 1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, k = 0.25. The time domain integration can be solved with the help of M ATLAB.

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541

Matlab Example

Differential equations without limits:


function dx = example(t,x) global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 if t <= 1 XL = 0.5; else XL = 0.6; end delta = x(1); omega = x(2); V2 = max(x(3),0); dx(1,1) = omega - (V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-Pd)/DL; dx(2,1) = (Pd-V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-DG*omega)/M; dx(3,1) = (-V2*V2/XL+V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL-k*Pd)/tau;
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

542

Matlab Example

Initialization and main routine:


clear all global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 XL = 0.5; M = 0.1; DL = 0.1; DG = 0.01; tau = 0.01; k = 0.25; Pd = 0.7; V10 = 1; x0 = [0.4636; 0.0000; 0.7826]; tmax = 2; [t,x] = ode23(example,[0 tmax],x0);

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543

Matlab Example

Graphical commands:
figure plot(t,x(:,1),b-) hold on plot(t,x(:,2),g--) plot(t,max(x(:,3),0),c-.) plot([0 tmax],[V10 V10],r:) legend(delta,omega,V2,V1) xlabel(t [s]) ylim([-1 6])

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

544

Matlab Example

The dynamic solution without limits:


6

V2 V1

3 Operating point Contingency

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

545

Matlab Example

Differential equations without limits:


function dx = example(t,x) global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 if t <= 1, XL = 0.5; else, XL = 0.6; end delta = x(1); omega = x(2); V2 = max(x(3),0); V10 = 1; Q = V10*V10/XL - V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL; if Q > 0.5 a = 1/XL; b = -V2*cos(delta)/XL; c = -0.5; V10 = (-b + sqrt(b*b - 4*a*c))/2/a; end dx(1,1) = omega - (V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-Pd)/DL; dx(2,1) = (Pd-V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-DG*omega)/M; dx(3,1) = (-V2*V2/XL+V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL-k*Pd)/tau;
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 34

Power System Dynamics and Stability

546

Matlab Example

The dynamic solution with limits:


6

V2 V1

3 Operating point 2 Contingency

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]
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Power System Dynamics and Stability

547

PSAT Features

PSAT has been thought to be portable and open source. PSAT runs on the commonest operating systems PSAT can perform several power system analysis:
1. Continuation Power Flow (CPF); 2. Optimal Power Flow (OPF); 3. Small signal stability analysis; 4. Time domain simulations.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

548

PSAT Features

PSAT deeply exploits Matlab vectorized computations and sparse matrix


functions in order to optimize performances.

PSAT also contains interfaces to UWPFLOW and GAMS which highly


extend PSAT ability to solve CPF and OPF problems, respectively.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

549

Synoptic Scheme
Input
Simulink Models Other Data Format Saved Results

Data Files Simulink Library

Simulink Model Conversion

Power Flow & State Variable Initialization

Conversion Utilities

Settings

User Defined Models

Interfaces
GAMS Static Analysis Optimal Power Flow UWpflow Continuation Power Flow Dynamic Analysis Small Signal Stability Time Domain Simulation

PSAT

Command History

Plotting Utilities

Output

Text Output

Save Results

Graphic Output

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

550

PSAT Features

In order to perform accurate and complete power system analyses, PSAT


supports a variety of static and dynamic models.

Dynamic models include non conventional loads, synchronous machines


and controls, regulating transformers, FACTS, wind turbines, and fuel cells.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

551

PSAT Features

Besides mathematical algorithms and models, PSAT includes a variety of


additional tools, as follows: 1. User-friendly graphical user interfaces; 2. Simulink library for one-line network diagrams; 3. Data le conversion to and from other formats; 4. User dened model editor and installer; 5. Command line usage.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

552

PSAT Features

Not all features are available on GNU-Octave:


Function Continuation power ow Optimal power ow Small signal stability analysis Time domain simulation GUIs and Simulink library Data format conversion User dened models Command line usage Matlab yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes GNU/Octave yes yes yes yes no yes no yes

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Getting Started

PSAT is launched by typing at the Matlab prompt:


>> psat
which will create all structures required by the toolbox and open the main GUI.

All procedures implemented in PSAT can be launched from this window


by means of menus, buttons and/or short cuts.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Getting Started

Main PSAT GUI:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

555

Simulink Library

PSAT allows drawing electrical schemes by means of pictorial blocks. The PSAT computational engine is purely Matlab-based and the Simulink
environment is used only as graphical tool.

A byproduct of this approach is that PSAT can run on GNU/Octave, which


is currently not providing a Simulink clone.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Simulink Library

PSAT-Simulink Library:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

557

Other Features

To ensure portability and promote contributions, PSAT is provided with a


variety of tools, such as a set of Data Format Conversion (DFC) functions and the capability of dening User Dened Models (UDMs).

The set of DFC functions allows converting data les to and from formats
commonly in use in power system analysis. These include: IEEE, EPRI, PTI, PSAP, PSS/E, CYME, MatPower and PST formats. On Matlab platforms, an easy-to-use GUI handles the DFC.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Data Format Conversion

GUI for data format conversion:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

559

User Dened Models

The UDM tools allow extending the capabilities of PSAT and help
end-users to quickly set up their own models.

Once the user has introduced the variables and dened the DAE of the
new model in the UDM GUI, PSAT automatically compiles equations, computes symbolic expression of Jacobians matrices and writes a Matlab function of the new component.

Then the user can save the model denition and/or install the model in
PSAT.

If the component is not needed any longer it can be uninstalled using the
UDM installer as well.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

560

User Dened Models

GUI for user dened models:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

561

Command Line Usage

PSAT is provided with a command line version. This feature allows using
PSAT in the following conditions: 1) If it is not possible or very slow to visualize the graphical environment (e.g. Matlab is running on a remote server). 2) If one wants to write scripting of computations or include calls to PSAT functions within user dened programs. 3) If PSAT runs on the GNU/Octave platform, which currently neither provides GUI tools nor a Simulink-like environment.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

562

Power System Model

The standard power system model is basically a set of nonlinear


differential algebraic equations, as follows:

x = f (x, y, p) 0 = g(x, y, p)

Rn ; y are the algebraic variables y Rm ; p are the independent variables p R ; f are the differential equations f : Rn Rm R Rn ; and g are the algebraic equations g : Rm Rm R Rm .
where x are the state variables x

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

563

Power System Model

PSAT uses these equations in all algorithms, namely power ow, CPF,
OPF, small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation.

The algebraic equations g are obtained as the sum of all active and
reactive power injections at buses:

where gpm and gqm are the power ows in transmission lines, M is the
T T set of network buses, Cm and [gpc , gqc ]T are the set and the power

g g g p = pm pc m M g(x, y, p) = gq gqm cCm gqc

injections of components connected at bus m, respectively.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

564

Component Models

PSAT is component-oriented, i.e. any component is dened


independently of the rest of the program as a set of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations, as follows:

xc Pc Qc

= fc (xc , yc , pc ) = gpc (xc , yc , pc ) = gqc (xc , yc , pc )

where xc are the component state variables, yc the algebraic variables (i.e.

V and at the buses to which the component is connected) and pc are independent variables. Then differential equations f are built concatenating fc of all components.
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

June 26, 2008

Software Tools - 53

Power System Dynamics and Stability

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Component Models

These equations along with Jacobians matrices are dened in a function


which is used for both static and dynamic analyses.

In addition to this function, a component is dened by means of a


structure, which contains data, parameters and the interconnection to the grid.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

566

Component Models: Example

Lets consider the exponential recovery load (ERL). The set of differential-algebraic equations are as follows: xc1 xc2 Pc Qc = xc1 /TP + P0 (V /V0 )s P0 (V /V0 )t = xc1 /TP + P0 (V /V0 )t

= xc2 /TQ + Q0 (V /V0 )s Q0 (V /V0 )t = xc2 /TQ + Q0 (V /V0 )t

where and P0 , Q0 and V0 are initial powers and voltages, respectively, as given by the power ow solution.

Observe that a constant PQ load must be connected at the same bus as the ERL to determine the values of P0 , Q0 and V0 .
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 55

Power System Dynamics and Stability

567

Component Models: Example

Component Data:
Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variable Description Bus number Power rating Active power voltage coefcient Active power frequency coefcient Real power time constant Reactive power time constant Static real power exponent Dynamic real power exponent Static reactive power exponent Dynamic reactive power exponent Unit int MVA kV Hz s s -

Sn Vn fn TP TQ s t s t

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 56

Power System Dynamics and Stability

568

Component Models: Example

Exponential recovery loads are dened in the structure Erload, whose


elds are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

con: exponential recovery load data. bus: Indexes of buses to which the ERLs are connected. dat: Initial powers and voltages (P0 , Q0 and V0 ). n: Total number of ERLs. xp: Indexes of the state variable xc1 . xq: Indexes of the state variable xc2 .

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

569

PSAT Example

This section illustrates some PSAT features for static and dynamic
stability analysis by means of the IEEE 14-bus test system.

All data can be retrieved from the PSAT web site:


http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/fmilano/

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

570

PSAT Example

IEEE 14-bus test system:

Bus 13
|V| = 1.047 p.u. <V = 0.2671 rad

Bus 14 Bus 10
|V| = 1.0318 p.u. <V = 0.2622 rad |V| = 1.0207 p.u. <V = 0.2801 rad

Bus 12
|V| = 1.0534 p.u. <V = 0.2664 rad

Bus 11
|V| = 1.0471 p.u. <V = 0.2589 rad

Bus 09
|V| = 1.0328 p.u. <V = 0.2585 rad

Bus 07
|V| = 1.0493 p.u. <V = 0.2309 rad

Bus 06
|V| = 1.07 p.u. <V = 0.2516 rad

Bus 04

Bus 08

|V| = 1.09 p.u. |V| = 1.012 p.u. <V = 0.2309 rad <V = 0.1785 rad

Bus 05 Bus 01
|V| = 1.06 p.u. <V = 0 rad |V| = 1.016 p.u. <V = 0.1527 rad

Breaker

Bus 02
|V| = 1.045 p.u. <V = 0.0871 rad

Breaker Bus 03
|V| = 1.01 p.u. <V = 0.2226 rad

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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PSAT Example

Power ow report:

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

572

PSAT Example

Continuation power ow analysis (GUI):

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

573

PSAT Example

Continuation power ow analysis (plots):

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

574

PSAT Example

Nose curves at bus 14 for different contingencies for the IEEE 14-bus test
system:

Base Case

1 0.8
Voltage [p.u.]

Line 2-4 Outage Line 2-3 Outage

0.6 0.4 0.2 0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4 c

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

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PSAT Example

Optimal power ow analysis (GUI):

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

576

PSAT Example

Comparison between OPF and CPF analysis:


Contingency

BCP
[MW]

[p.u.] 0.7211 0.5427 0.2852

M LC
[MW] 445.8 399.5 332.8

ALC
[MW] 186.8 148.6 73.85

None Line 2-4 Outage Line 2-3 Outage

259 259 259

Because of the denitions of generator and load powers PG and PL , one has c = + 1.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

577

PSAT Example

Time domain simulation: It has been used a 40% load increase with respect to the base case
loading, and no PSS at bus 1. A Hopf bifurcation occurs for the line 2-4 outage resulting in undamped oscillations of generator angles.

A similar analysis can be carried on the same system with a 40% load
increase but considering the PSS of the generator connected at bus 1. In this case the system is stable.

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

578

PSAT Example

Time domain simulation (without PSS):


1.002 1.0015 1.001
Generator Speeds [p.u.]

1 - Bus 1 2 - Bus 2 3 - Bus 3 4 - Bus 6 5 - Bus 8

1.0005 1 0.9995 0.999 0.9985 0.998

10

15
Time [s]

20

25

30

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

579

PSAT Example

Eigenvalue analysis (with PSS):


10 8 6 4 2 Imag 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.8

0.6 Real

0.4

0.2

0.2

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Power System Dynamics and Stability

580

Project 1

Reproduce the examples illustrated in the following slides: Voltage Stability: Slides 341-350 (using UWPFLOW) Angle Stability: Slides 444-456 (using Matlab) Frequency Stability: 479-489 (using Matlab) The software UWPFLOW is freely available at:
http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio/software/pow.html

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 1

Power System Dynamics and Stability

581

Project 1

Voltage stability (slides 341-350): Write the 3area.wsc data le in the EPRI data format (the format
is fully described in the UWPFLOW documetation).

Write the generator load change le 3area.k using the format


described in the UWPFLOW documentation.

Write a batch le for running the simulations as described in the


slides.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 2

Power System Dynamics and Stability

582

Project 1

Voltage stability (slides 341-350): Run a base case power ow, a continuation power ow with and
without enforcing voltage and current limits. Compute also the singular value index.

Report power ow results as given by UWPFLOW and plots PV


curves and the singular value index using Matlab.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 3

Power System Dynamics and Stability

583

Project 1

Angle stability (slides 444-456): Write a Matlab function with the system differential equations. Use a Matlab script le to initialize and solve the time domain simulation (function ode23). Using a trial-and-error technique nd the clearing time tc of the system for D = 0.1, D = 0.05 and D = 0.2. For each value of the damping D, provide plots of the rotor angle and the rotor speed .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 4

Power System Dynamics and Stability

584

Project 1

Frequency stability (slides 479-489): Write a Matlab function with the system differential equations. Use a Matlab script le to initialize and solve the time domain simulation (function ode23). Run the time domain integration for a 25%, 50% and 60% generation drop at t = 1 followed by a 25%, 50% and 60% load drop at t = 5,
respectively.

For each value of the generation and load drop, provide plots of , , E , V2 and V1 .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 5

Power System Dynamics and Stability

585

Project 2

Reproduce the results for the IEEE 14-bus tests system illustrated in the
paper: F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, accepted for publication on the IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, March 2005, 8 pages.

The full paper as well as the software PSAT is available at:


http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/fmilano/

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 6

Power System Dynamics and Stability

586

Project 2

The IEEE 14-bus test system is provided wintin the PSAT main distribution (folder tests). For the base case power ow, the continuation power ow and the
optimal power ow routines, use the le:

d 014 dyn l10.mdl

For the time domain simulations without PSS, use the le:
d 014 dyn l14.mdl

For the time domain simulations with PSS, use the le:
d 014 pss l14.mdl

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 7

Power System Dynamics and Stability

587

Project 2

Hints: For static analyses (PF, CPF, OPF), disable loading dynamic
components by checking the box Discard dynamic components in the GUI Settings (within the menu Edit in the main window).

To simulate a line outage in static analyses, uncheck the box initially


close box (within the Simulink block mask) of the breaker of the line that one wants to keep out.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 8

Power System Dynamics and Stability

588

Project 2

Hints: For OPF analysis, disable the base case powers in the GUI for OPF
Settings and set the weighting factor to 1 (maximization of the ditance to voltage collapse).

For time domain simulations, remember to uncheck Discard dynamic


components box and do not allow the conversion to PQ buses when the program asks for.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Projects - 9