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Dr. Federico Milano

E-mail: Federico.Milano@uclm.es Tel.: +34 926 295 219

Programa de Doctorado

Technical and Economical Management of Generation, Transmission and Distribution Electric Energy Systems

Area de Ingeniera Electrica de la E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de la Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha

Note

This course is partly based on the course ECE664 hold by Prof. Dr. C.

Canizares at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. I wish to sincerely thank Prof. Dr. C. Canizares for his courtesy in sharing this material.

Objectives

analysis to electromagnetic transients.

Discuss the basic denitions, concepts and tools for stability studies of

power systems.

systems.

Basic stability concepts: Nonlinear systems. Equilibrium points. Stability regions. Power Flow: System model. Equations and solution techniques. Contingency analysis.

Denitions. Basic concepts: Saddle-node bifurcation. Limit-induced bifurcation. Continuation Power Flow (CPF). Direct methods. Indices. Protections and controls. Real case example: August 2003 North American blackout.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Introduction - 7

Denitions. Small-disturbance: Hopf Bifurcations. Control and mitigation. Practical applications. Transient Stability (large-disturbance): Time domain. Direct Methods: Equal Area Criterion. Energy Functions. Real case example: May 1997 Chilean blackout.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Introduction - 8

Denitions. Basic concepts. Protections and controls. Real case example: October 2003 Italian blackout. Real case example: November 2006 European blackout.

10

11

References

P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, Mc Graw Hill, 1994. P. Sauer and M. Pai, Power system dynamics and stability, Prentice Hall,

1998.

Prentice-Hall, 2000.

and tools, IEEE-PES Power System Stability Subcommittee Special Publication, SP101PSS, May 2003.

12

References

Press, 1994.

Wiley, 1990.

Matrices, Oxford Science Publications, 1986.

Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1993.

13

References

Systems, Wiley, New York, 2000. C. A. Canizares, UWPFLOW, available at www.power.uwaterloo.ca

www.power.uwaterloo.ca

14

Evaluation

Two projects are required. The projects concentrates in the various topics discussed in class. These will require the use of MATLAB, PSAT and UWPFLOW (the last

two are free software for stability studies co-developed at the University of Waterloo, Canada).

MATLAB.

15

Evaluation

Alternatively, the students can develop a user dened model in PSAT. Interested students are invited to contact Dr. Federico Milano.

16

Contents

Introduction Generator Modeling Transmission System Modeling Load Modeling Power Flow Outlines Stability Concepts Voltage Stability Angle Stability Frequency Stability Software Tools Projects

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Introduction - 16

17

Generator Modeling

Generator overview. Synchronous machine. Dynamic models of generators for stability analysis: Subtransient model Transient model Basic control models Steady-state model.

18

Generator Overview

Generator components:

Steam at pressure, P Fuel Boiler Enthalpy, h Turbine Torque at speed, Generator Power at voltage, V Current, I

Firing

control

Governor

Excitation

system

Power set-point

Ref

Ref V

Generator: Synchronous machine: AC stator and DC rotor. Excitation system: DC generator or static converter plus voltage

regulator and stabilizer

19

Generator Overview

Commutator Amplidyne field dc Exc slip rings Regulator transfer PTs Field breaker ac Gen CT

Stabilizer

Compensator

Magnetic amplifier

Other inputs

20

Generator Overview

Auxiliary power input start up

FDR

Syn machine

CT

slip rings

Gate circuitry

Base adjuster manual control Regulator transfer Stabilizer Reference & voltage sensing Limiter sensing Other inputs Compensator Voltage adjuster

Other sensing

21

Synchronous Machine

a

Damper windings

r dr

c

Effects of induced currents in the rotor core

b

F D D Q1 Q2

r ar

Q 2 Q 1

DC eld

c qr

22

Synchronous Machine

23

Synchronous Machine

rs

Rotor equations: vF rF 0 = 0 0

i0s

0s

rD

i D iQ1 iQ2

d D + dt Q1 Q2

24

Synchronous Machine

Magnetic ux equations:

0s ds qs F D Q1 Q2

L0 Ld Lq Md Md Mq Mq LF Md Md LD LQ1 Mq Mq LQ2 Md Md Mq Mq

25

Synchronous Machine

Transformation equations: v0s vas vbs = P T vds vqs vcs P = 2 cos r 3 sin r 1/ 2

ias

1/ 2 cos(r sin(r

2 3 ) 2 3 )

2 3 ) 2 3 )

i0s

26

Synchronous Machine

27

Synchronous Machine

ia (t)

2|Ea (0)| x d

2|Ea (0)| x d

2|Ea (0)| xd

28

Synchronous Machine

model can be reduced to phasor models useful for stability and steady-state analysis.

Phasor models are based on the following assumptions: The rotor does not deviate much from the synchronous speed, i.e. r s = (2/p)2f0 . The rate of change in rotor speed is small, i.e. |dr /dt| 0

29

Synchronous Machine

including the few initial cycles (ms) associated with the damper windings.

the eld and induced rotor core current transient response.

the machine electrical response when all transients have disappeared after a few seconds.

30

Subtransient Model

2 vas 2 2 = vqs + vds

vas i2 as ias

tan1

= i2 + i2 qs ds = tan

1

31

Subtransient Model

Subtransient internal voltages associated with the damper windings (D and Q1 ): d eq dt d e dt d e vds d e vqs q = = 1 [eq + (x x )ids e ] q d d Td0 1 [ed (x x )iqs e ] q q d Tq0

= rs iqs x ids d

= rs ids + x iqs q

32

Subtransient Model

Transient internal voltages associated with the eld (F ) and rotor-core induced current windings (Q2 ): d eq dt d e dt d e vds d e vqs q = = 1 [ef + (xd x )ids e ] q d Td0 1 [(x x )iqs e ] q q d Tq0

33

Subtransient Model

Steady-state equations: ea vqs vds Mechanical equations: d r dt d dt = 1 [Pm vas ias cos(vas ias ) Dr ] M = rs iqs xd ids = rs ids + xq iqs

= r = r s

34

Subtransient Model

The subtransient reactances (x , x ) and open circuit time constants q d (Tq0 , Td0 ), as well as the transient reactances (x , x ) and open circuit q d time constants (Tq0 , Td0 ) are directly associated with the machine

resistances and inductances:

xd xq x d x q x d x q

= 0 Ld = x + xM d = 0 Lq = x + xM q xM d xLF = x + xLF + xM d xM q xLQ2 = x + xLQ2 + xM q xM d xLF xLD = x + xM d xLF + xM d xLD + xLF xLD xM q xLQ1 xLQ2 = x + xM q xLQ1 + xM q xLQ2 + xLQ1 xLQ2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

Generator Modeling - 18

35

Subtransient Model

36

Subtransient Model

Time constants:

Td0 Tq0 Td0 Tq0

= = = =

37

Subtransient Model

2-pole Conventional Cooled Conductor Cooled 1.7-2.17 .264-.387 .23-.323 1.71-2.16 .245-1.12 .116-.332 4.8-5.36 .032-.059 .3-1.5 .042-.218 .27-.42 .00145-.00229 5-7 Conventional Cooled 1.21-1.55 .25-.27 .184-.197 1.17-1.52 .47-1.27 .12-.308 5.4-8.43 .031-.055 .38-1.5 .055-.152 .16-.27 .00146-00147 6-8 4-pole Conductor Cooled 1.6-2.13 .35-.467 .269-.32 1.56-2.07 .47-1.27 .12-.308 4.81-7.73 .031-.055 .36-1.5 .055-.152 .29-41 .00167-00235 6-8

1.7-1.82 .18-.23 .11-.16 1.63-1.69 .245-1.12 .116-.332 7.1-9.6 .032-.059 .3-1.5 .042-.218 .118-.21 .00081-.00119 5-7

38

Subtransient Model

Salient-pole Dampers No dampers .6-1.5 .25-.5 .2-.5 .4-.8 Combustion Turbines 1.64-1.85 .159-.225 .102-.155 1.58-1.74 .306 .1 4.61-7.5 .054 1.5 .107 .113 .034 18-24 Synchronous Compensator 1.08-2.48 .244-.385 .141-.257 .72-1.18 .57-1.18 .17-.261 6-16 .039-.058 .15 .188-.235 .0987-.146 .0017-006 2-4

= x q

.135-.402 4-10 .029-.051

= x q

.135-.402 8-10 .029-.051

39

Subtransient Model

tests.

All the e voltages are internal machine voltages directly assocated with the internal phase angle . The internal eld voltage ef is directly proportional to the actual eld dc voltage vF , and is typically controlled by the voltage regulator. The mechanical power Pm is controlled through the governor.

40

Subtransient Model

Se vr max vref + vm 1 Tr s + 1 V + Ka Ta s + 1 vr min Kf s Tf s + 1 vr + 1 Te s + 1 vf

41

Subtransient Model

Vc = |Vt | + (Rc + jXc )It VT 1 1+sTR IT Vuxl + + VS Vmin Vmax 1+sTC 1+sTB VC VA max 1+sTC1 1+sTB1 VA min sKF 1+sTF KA 1+sTA + Vef l vref + KIR 0 + |VT |VR max KC If Ef HV

Gate

If ref + If

42

Subtransient Model

Torder ref + + 1/R + Tmin

Tin

Tmax Tin 1 Ts s + 1

Governor

T3 s + 1 Tc s + 1

Servo

T4 s + 1 T5 s + 1

Reheat

Tmech

43

Subtransient Model

w_ref K1 1.0 1 1+ sT_R 1 + sT_1 1 + sT_2 0.0 + 1 T_C1 1 1 + sT_C2 1 sT_C3 + P_ref

P_GV K_HP

+ +

P_mech

1 1 K_RH sT_RH

1 1+sT_IP

1 1 + st_LP F_LP

44

Example

For a 200 MVA, 13.8 kV, 60 Hz generator with the following p.u. data:

rs x xd xd xd

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

xq xq xq

0.074960

2 M = 10 D = 0

45

Example

A three-phase fault from open circuit conditions, i.e. before the fault vas = 13.8/ 3 kV and ias = 0, and after the fault vas = 0, is

simulated using the detailed machine equations:

1 0 1 2

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

t [s]

46

Example

10 9 8 7

iF [p.u.]

6 5 4 3 2 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

t [s]

47

Example

20

ia [p.u.]

0 20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 t [s]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

ib [p.u.]

0 20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 t [s]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

ic [p.u.]

20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Generator Modeling - 31

48

Transient Model

damper winding dynamic equations.

typically a small value, is assumed to be large to indirectly model the signicant damping effect of these windings on r .

49

Transient Model

x = xq Tq0 = 0 q

e = 0 d

This leads to the transient equations: d e dt a = = e a ea 1 [ef + (xd x )ids e ] d a Td0 1 [ef ea ] Td0 +jx ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs d = vas vas + rs ias ias +jxd ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Generator Modeling - 33

50

Transient Model

The phasor diagram in this case is: e a ea e a iqs vas jxd ids rs ias = vas + rs ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d = vas + rs ias + jxd ids + jxq iqs ea jxq iqs j(xd x )ids d

ids

ias

51

Transient Model

For faults near the generator terminals, the q axis has little effect on the system response, i.e. iqs 0. This results in the classical voltage source and transient reactance

generator model used in simple stability studies:

rs

jx d

ias ias +

e a

Pm

vas vas

52

Transient Model

A further approximation in some cases is used by neglecting the eld dynamics, i.e. Td0 = 0. In this case, e is a xed variable controlled directly through the voltage a regulator via ef . The limits in the voltage regulator are used to represent limits in the eld

and armature currents.

These limits can be soft, i.e. allowed to temporarily exceed the hard

steady-state limits, to represent under- and over-excitation.

53

Steady-state model

When all transient are neglected, the generator model becomes: ea ea ias ias = vas vas + rs ias ias +jxd ids ( + /2) + jxq iqs = ef = ids + jiqs

54

Steady-state model

the classical short circuit generator model:

rs

jxd

ias ias +

ea

Pm

vas vas

55

Steady-state model

Based on this simple model, the eld and armature current limits can be

used to dene the generator capability curves (for a given terminal voltage vas

= vt ):

Q ef limit Qmax

vt ea x

2 vt x

Pmax

56

Steady-state model

as a constant terminal voltage within the generator reactive power capability, delivering constant power (Pm ).

P

where P

Qmin

change.

57

Example

va PG v = 10 j0.1

r (t) = 0 t + /2 + xd

Td0

= xq = 0.9, = 2s

x = 0.2 d

ea = 1.5. At t = 0 there is a fault and the line is disconnected. Find va (t) for t > 0.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Generator Modeling - 41

58

Example

Steady-state conditions: ea = vas vas + (rs + jxd )ias ias = v + j(xd + xL )ias 1.5 1 = j(0.9 + 0.1) = 1.5 sin j(1.5 cos 1) = {v i } = {i } as as 1.5 sin sin1 (PG /1.5) = 19.47 0.65 39.64 = ias = =

ias PG

59

Example

iqs ids ea

= ias sin(ias )( + /2) = 0.558 70.53 = vas + rs ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d = v + j(xd + xL )ias + jx ids + jxq iqs d j0.9(0.33419.47 ) = 1 + j0.1(0.65 39.64 ) + j0.2(0.558 70.53 )

d ea dt

60

Example

Transient: d 1 ea (t) = [ef + (xd x )ids e (t)] d a dt Td0 ef = ea steady-state = ids = e (0) = a d ea (t) = dt 1.5 0 open line 1.110 1 [1.5 e (t)] a 2

61

Example

Solution: d ea (t) = 0.5e (t) + 0.75 a dt e (t) = Ae0.5t + B a e (0) = A + B = 1.110 a e () = B = 0.75/0.5 = 1.5 a e (t) = 0.390e0.5t + 1.5 a

e a

1.5 1.11 0 t

62

Transformers: Single phase: Detailed model Phasor model Three phase: Phase shifts Models

63

Transmission Lines: Single phase: Distributed parameter model Phasor lumped model Three phase: Distributed parameter model Reduced models Underground cables

64

Single-phase Transformers

The basic characteristics of this device are: Flux leakage around the transformer windings is represented by a leakage inductance L . The core is made of magnetic material and is represented by a magnetization inductance (Lm L ), but saturates.

Losses in the windings (Cu wires) and core (hysteresis and induced currents) are represented with lumped resistances (r and Gm ). Steps up or down the voltage/current depending on the turn ratio a = N1 /N2 = V1 /V2 .

65

Single-phase Transformers

leakage core

i1 + v1 N1 N2

i2 + v2

2 m

magnetizing

66

Single-phase Transformers

67

Single-phase Transformers

Equivalent circuit:

i1 + v1 Lm r1 L1 im Gm i + e N1 : N2 a:1 ai + e/a L2 r2 i2 + v2

68

Single-phase Transformers

69

Single-phase Transformers

I1 + V1 Z1 Im Ym aV2 a:1 a2 Z2 I2 /a + I2 + V2

70

Single-phase Transformers

This can also be readily transformed into a ABCD input-output form based on the following approximation, since Zm Z1 (Z1 a2 Z2 ): V1 I1 = a(1 + Z Ym ) Z /a V2 I2

aYm 1/a A B V2 = C C I2

71

Single-phase Transformers

I1 + V1 Z Im Ym aV2 a:1 I2 /a + I2 + V2

72

Single-phase Transformers

Or form: Z = Y1 Y2 = = Z a (1 a) 1 Z 1 Z

(a2 Z Ym + a2 + a)

2

1 for Ym 0 (a a) Z

73

Single-phase Transformers

equivalent circuit:

I1 Z I2

+ V1 Y1 Y2

+ V2

74

Single-phase Transformers

1. Time domain:

v1 i2

2. Phasor domain:

V1 I2

= Z I1 + aV2 = aI1

75

Single-phase Transformers

I1 + V1 aV2 a:1 Z + I2 = I1 /a + V2

76

Single-phase Transformers

Certain transformers have built-in Under-Load Tap Changers (ULTC). This is either operated manually (locally or remote controlled) or

automatically with a voltage regulator; the voltage control range is limited (

The time response is in the order of minutes, with 1-2 min. delays, due to

ULTCs being implemented using electromechanical systems.

77

Single-phase Transformers

These are typically used to control the load voltage side, and hence are

used at subtransmission substations.

Controller Voltage Regulators (TCVR), which are faster voltage controllers and are considered Flexible AC Transmission systems (FACTS).

These types of transformers are modelled using the same transformer models, but a may be assumed to be a discrete controlled variable

through a voltage regulator with a dead-band.

78

Single-phase Transformers

also be used for phase shift control and are known as Phase Shifters.

These control the phase shift difference between the two terminal voltages within approximately 30 , thus increasing the power capacity

of a transmission line (e.g. interconnection between Ontario and Michigan).

Phase shifters are modeled using a similar model but the tap ratio is a

phasor as opposed to a scalar:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 17

79

Single-phase Transformers

I1 + V1 Z Im Ym aV2 a:1 I2 /a + I2 + V2

80

Single phase 8/80 kV, 30 MVA transformer with X = 10% and Xm 10X . Detailed model parameters: a = L1 = = L2 Lm = = 8/80 = 0.1 X1 X 0 20 0.1 (8 kV)2 = 0.283 mH 2 377 30 MVA L1 = 28.3 mH 2 a X 0.1 (8 kV)2 10 = 10 = 5.66 mH 0 377 30 MVA

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 19

81

a =

82

A B

= =

C = D =

83

2 2

Z = Y1 Y2 = =

84

Three-phase Transformers

a1

+ aVa2

a2

b1

+ aVb2

b2

c1

+ aVc2

c2

85

Three-phase Transformers

phase shift, depending on the connection:

86

Three-phase Transformers

Y:

Y YY

a= apu =

3a30

: :

87

Three-phase Transformers

generation and load sides is zero, and hence is neglected during system analyses:

Generator side Load side

identical to the equivalent single-phase transformer models.

88

Three-phase Transformers

preferred to transformers banks:

a b c

core

3 windows

vabc1 vabc2

iabc1

L1233

L2233

89

Saturation

current due to saturation of the magnetic core.

dipoles in the enriched core.

This results in the core behaving more like air than a magnet, i.e.

magnetic conductivity decreases.

90

Saturation

current due to saturation of the magnetic core:

m Lm1 Lm2

ims

im

Lm (im ) =

m1

for

im ims

91

c = D R R 0 0 = =

4 107 [H/m]

92

i1

+

l [H/m]

+ +

i2

+

dv

di v

v1

c [F/m]

v2

dx

93

I2 (t )

i2 (t)

1 1 v2 (t) i1 (t ) + v1 (t ) Zc Zc

I1 (t )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

94

where: Zc = l/c chracteristic impedance 1 wave speed lc d travelling time for line length s

r/2 i2 + Zc v2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 33

s = =

i1 + v1 Zc r/2

I2 (t )

I1 (t )

95

Example: t=0

+ +

i1

Trans. Line

i2 = 0

+

v1

v2

v1 (t) = E i2 (t) = 0

96

Example: t 0 2 3 4 5 I1 (t ) 0 2E/Zc 2E/Zc 0 0 2E/Zc I2 (t ) 0 0 2E/Zc 2E/Zc 0 0 i1 E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc E/Zc i2 0 2E 2E 0 0 2E

97

Example: i1 E/Zc

2 3 4 5 6

E/Zc v2 2E

98

99

The solution to this set of linear dynamical equations is: cosh d Zc sinh d V2 d V1 = dx I2 1/Zc sinh d cosh d I1

where

characteristic impedance

100

I1 Z I2

+ V1

Y1 /2 Y2 /2

+ V2

101

equivalent circuit: Z Y

= =

sinh d zd d

Z

tanh d yd d

Y

for for

Z Z

Z Z

Y Y Y 0

102

d n d n

2R a b d d c

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 41

103

Typically the phase wires are bundled (e.g. 4 wires/phase) and the guard

wires are grounded at every tower, i.e. correspond to the neutral.

v1 6 7 6 7 6 v2 7 6 7 x 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 vN 2 3 = 2 r11 6 6r 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . rN 1 2 l11 6 6l 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . lN 1 r12 r22

. . .

rN 2 l12 l22

. . .

lN 2

32

104

i1 6 7 6 7 6 i2 7 6 7 x 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 iN 2 3 = 2 g11 6 6g 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . gN 1 2 p11 6 6p 6 21 6 6 . 6 . 4 . pN 1 p1 N N g12 g22

. . .

... ...

.. .

gN 2 p12 p22

. . .

.. .

pN 2

...

32

cN N

105

V1 6 7 6V 7 d 6 27 6 7 6 . 7 dx 6 . 7 4 . 5 VN 2 3 I1 6 7 6 7 d 6 I2 7 6 7 dx 6 . 7 6 . 7 4 . 5 IN 2 3 = z11 6 6z 6 21 6 . 6 . 6 . 4 zN 1 2 y11 6 6y 6 21 6 . 6 . 6 . 4 yN 1 2 z12 z22

. . .

... ...

.. .

zN 2 y12 y22

. . .

.. .

yN 2

...

32

d V = [z]I dx

d I = [y]V dx

106

11 2Ri 00 11 00 11 00

dij

111 000 2Rj 111 000 111 000 111 000

hi

ij

Dij

hj [m]

Earth

hj hi j

image

i

image

107

The line parameters zij and yij can be computed using Carsons

formulas:

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

108

June 26, 2008

D=

2h

for i

=j

1 b2 = 16 d k = bk 4

0 for i = j = ij for i = j

1 1 ck = ck2 + + k k+2

109

+b3 a3 cos 3 b4 [(c4 ln a)a4 cos 4 + a4 sin 4] +b5 a5 cos 5 d6 a6 cos 6 + b7 a7 cos 7 b8 [(c8 ln a)a8 cos 6 + a8 sin 8] + . . .} 1 2Dij pij = ln 20 dij

gij pii

= gij 0 2hi 1 ln = 20 Ri

110

f (Hz)

2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000

Rac /Rdc

L /L ac dc

0.99992 0.99970 0.99932 0.99879 0.99812 0.99254 0.97125 0.93898 0.89946 0.85639 0.66232 0.47004 0.38503 0.33418 0.29924 0.21204

f (Hz)

4000 6000 8000 10000 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 2000000 4000000

Rac /Rdc

L /L ac dc

0.15008 0.12258 0.10617 0.09497 0.06717 0.04750 0.03879 0.03359 0.03004 0.02124 0.01502 0.01227 0.01062 0.00950 0.00672 0.00475

1.0002 1.0007 1.0015 1.0026 1.0041 1.0164 1.0632 1.1347 1.2233 1.3213 1.7983 2.4554 2.9421 3.3559 3.7213 5.1561

7.1876 8.7471 10.0622 11.2209 15.7678 22.1988 27.1337 31.2942 34.9597 49.3413 69.6802 85.2870 98.4441 110.0357 155.5154 219.8336

111

frequency dependent model.

based on the following observations:

The voltage of all Nb conductors in a phase bundled are at the same voltage (e.g. v1 = v2 = = vN b = va ). The current in each phase is shared approximately equally by each conductor in the bundle (e.g. i1 = i2 = = iN b = ia /Nb ). The voltage in the guard wires is zero (e.g. vg = 0).

112

This reduces the matrices to: zaa zab zac yaa yab yac zab zbb zbc yab ybb ybc zac

[z]N N

[y]N N

d Vabc dt d Iabc dt

113

A line is transposed to balance the phases. The length of the barrel B must be much less than the wavelength (s/f 5000 km @ 60 Hz). B 50 km.

B a b c 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1

B/3

B/3

B/3

June 26, 2008

zac

zbc zcc

yac

ybc ycc

114

analysis techniques:

T = TI [z]N N TI (diagonal matrix)

[zm ] [ym ] Vm Im

1 T = TV V = TI V 1 T = TI I = TV I

T = TV [z]N N TV

(diagonal matrix)

115

transformation:

1 = TS Vabc 1 = TS Iabc

V0pn I0pn 1 1 1 3 1 1 a

2

TS

a =

1120

a a2

1 TS

1 1 = 1 3 1

1 a a2

a a

2

116

1 [z0pn ] = TS [zabc ]TS zs + 2zm 0 = 0 zs zm 0 0

zp = zn

z0 3zp

0 z0 0 =0 zs zm 0

0 zp 0

0 zn

117

transformation:

V0 I0

= T 1 Vabc

T 1 = T T

118

0 zs zm 0

0 z 0

z = z = zp

z0 3z

0 z

119

per-unit length formulas:

r l

= =

c =

rtables Nb 0 Dm ln 2 Rb 20 ln Dm Rb

120

3

Nb

Nb

121

Example 1

70.68 mH

Bus 1

15 miles

Bus 2

Bus 3

0.741 325/ 3 kV

1 ms

R0 = 0.3167 /km

R1 = 0.0243 /km

L = 3.222 mH/km 0

C0 = 0.00787 F/km

L = 0.9238 mH/km 1

C1 = 0.0126 F/km

122

Example 1

2 187.79 cos(377t) 6 7 6187.79 cos(377t 2/3)7 4 5 187.79 cos(377t + 2/3) 3 = 2 3 2 32 3 vBU S1a 0.714 0 0 i1 6 7 6 7 6 a7 6 vBU S1 7 + 6 0 0.714 0 7 6 i1b 7 4 4 54 5 b5 vBU S1c 0 0 0.714 i1c 2 32 3 0.07068 0 0 i1 7 6 a7 d 6 6 7 6 i1 7 0 0.07068 0 4 54 b5 dt 0 0 0.07068 i1c 32 3 2 vBU S1a 1 1 1 7 76 1 6 7 6 vBU S1 7 6 2 1/ 2 4 1/ 2 5 4 b5 p p 3 0 3/2 3/2 vBU S1c | {z }

T 1

+ 2 3 =

i1 6 07 6i1 7 4 5 i1

3 2 i1 6 a7 1 6 7 T 4 i1b 5 i1c

123

Example 1

r0 1 vBU S10 i10 (t) I20 (t 0 ) Zc0 2 1 r0 vBU S20 i20 (t) I10 (t 0 ) Zc0 2 0.3167 24.14 = 7.6451 3.222 103 = 639.85 0.00787 106

124

Example 1

i1 (t) = i2 (t) = r ZC = = =

r 1 vBU S1 i1 (t) I2 (t ) Zc 2 1 r vBU S2 i2 (t) I1 (t ) Zc 2 0.0243 24.14 = 0.5866 0.9238 103 = 270.77 0.0126 106

125

Example 1

i1 (t) i2 (t) r ZC

126

Example 1

2 3 vBU S2a 6 7 6 vBU S2 7 4 b5 vBU S2c 2 3 i1 6 a7 6 i1 7 4 b5 i1c 3 2 1 1 6 61 34 1 | 2 2 1/ 2 1/ 2 {z

T

i2 6 07 T 6i2 7 4 5 i2 2 32 3 251.2 0 0 i2 6 7 6 a7 6 0 251.2 0 7 6 i2b 7 4 54 5 0 0 251.2 i2c 2 3 32 0.28926 0 0 i2 7 6 a7 d 6 6 7 6 i2 7 0 0.28926 0 4 54 b5 dt 0 0 0.28926 i2c

32

127

Example 1

300

vaBUS2 vasource

200

100

[kV]

100

200

300

0.01

0.02

t [s]

128

Example 1

300

200

100

[kV]

100 200

300

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

400

t [s]

129

Example 2

50 n 28 8 n

1 a b 45 110 c

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 68

40 40

130

Example 2

Line data: 4 Drake wires per phase (Nb = 4) 927 kcmil = 469.8 mm2 ACSR, 24 Al/13 steel, 3 layers R = 0.554 in = 1.407 cm R = 0.425 in = 1.080 cm rdc = 0.1032 /mile = 0.0645 /km rac@25 C = 0.1061 /mile = 0.0663 /km rac@100 C = 0.1361 /mile = 0.0851 /km d = 200 km f = 60 Hz = 377 rad/s

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Transmission System Modeling - 69

131

Example 2

r Dm

Rb

= = = = = =

Rb l c

rac@100 C = 0.02134 /km Nb 3 45 45 90 = 17.27 m 4 1.080 30.48 30.48 43.11 cm = 0.1442 m 4 1.407 30.48 30.48 43.11 cm = 0.1541 m 17.27 7 = 0.9573 103 H/m 2 10 ln 0.1442 28.854 1012 = 0.01179 H/m 17.27 ln 0.1541

132

Example 2

133

Example 2

= D = cosh d ed + ed = 2 = 0.96860.11

C = =

134

Example 2

Z = zd = Y = 72.3086.62 = yd 8.89 104 90 S sinh d = Z d = 71.3386.65 Z tanh d/2 = Y d/2 = 9.032 104 89.95 S Y

135

Cables

Steel pipe (lled with insulating oil) Skid wires Metallic tapes Paper/oil insulation Screen Conductor (stranded copper)

11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 11111111111 00000000000 1111 0000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 11111111111 00000000000

136

Cables

111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

conductor

sheath

SF6 gas

111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111 000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 11 11 00 00 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

137

Cables

VC

VS

11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111 000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000 111111 000000 11111111 00000000

A

1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1 0 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 1 0 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 11111111 00000000 1111111 0000000 V

I1 I2 I3

138

Cables

139

Cables

140

Cables

The elements of the impedance matrix z arecomputed as follows: z11 z12 z22 z23 z33 = zC ext + zCS + zS int = zS mut = zS ext + zSA + zAint = zAmut = zAext + zAE + zE

141

Cables

11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 q 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 r 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000

m [I0 (mr)K1 (mq) + K0 (mr)I1 (mq)] 2rD m [I0 (mq)K1 (mr) + K0 (mq)I1 (mr)] = 2qD = 2qrD 0 r 1 = y = j 2 q =

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

142

Cables

m =

k=0

1 k!(n + k + 1)

x 2

n+2k

143

Cables

0

ex xn1 dx

(n + 1) = n(n) (n + 1) = n! for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . For asymmetric cables a nite element method is needed to compute

these impedances.

144

Cables

voltage/currents, the node equations are:

d VS = zCS dx VA zCA

e.g.

VC

zCC

IC

d dx

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

IS IA

145

Cables

For a three-phase cable made of 3 single-phase cables: d [V] = [z]99 [I] dx d [I] = [y]99 [V] dx [zaa ]33 [z] = [zab ]33 [zac ]33 [yaa ]33 [y] = 0 0

June 26, 2008

146

Load Modeling

RLC models. Induction motors. Detailed models. Phasor models. Aggregated models: Impedance models. Power models. Induction motor power models.

147

Load Classication

By demand level: Residential: lighting and heating (RL + controls); AC (motor + controls); appliances (small motors + controls). Commercial: similar types of devices as residential. Industrial: motor drives (induction and dc motor-based mostly); arc

furnaces; lighting; heating; others (e.g. special motor drives).

By type: RLC + controls. Drives: ac/dc motors + electronic controls. Special (e.g. arc furnace).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 2

148

converters.

modeling level.

149

+

R v v = Ri

150

Inductor: i

+

L v di v=L dt

Time domain:

151

The inductor time domain model can be discretized using the trapezoidal

integration method as follows:

i = ik+1

1 L

vdt

hk

152

vk+1

+

ik+1 hk

2L t

153

Capacitor: i

+

C v

154

The capacitor time domain model can be discretized using the trapezoidal

integration method as follows:

v vk+1 ik+1

1 C

idt

hk

155

vk+1

+

ik+1 hk

t 2C

156

Induction Motor

d c s ar 0 cr bs br cs d as q r

r

b s r

a s

157

Induction Motor

Electrical (inductor) equations: d [abcs ] dt d [vabcr ] = [rabcr ][iabcr ] + [abcr ] dt i Lsr(r ) L abcs abcs = abcs Lsr (r ) Labcr abcr iabcr [vabcs ] = [rabcs ][iabcs ] +

L(r ) [i]

Te

158

Induction Motor

Mechanical (Newtons) equations: d J r + dr dt d r dt Stator transformation equations: vas v0s vds = Ks vbs vcs vqs = Tm Te = r

159

Induction Motor

Where the transformation matrix Ks is as follows: 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 sin sin( 2/3) sin( + 2/3) Ks = 3 cos cos( 2/3) cos( + 2/3) 1 sin cos 1 1 sin( 2/3) cos( 2/3) Ks = 1 sin( + 2/3) cos( + 2/3)

160

Induction Motor

161

Induction Motor

Where the transformation matrix Kr is as follows: 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 sin sin( 2/3) sin( + 2/3) Kr = 3 cos cos( 2/3) cos( + 2/3) 1 sin cos 1 Kr = 1 sin( 2/3) cos( 2/3) 1 sin( + 2/3) cos( + 2/3) = r

162

Induction Motor

0 rs 0

ids + qs + d ds 0 dt qs rs iqs ds

i0s

0s

163

Induction Motor

0 0 Ls 0 0 M

0 0 0 L lr 0 0

0 M 0 0 L + M lr

L r

164

Induction Motor

165

Induction Motor

iqs + vqs rs + Lls L lr +

rr

Ns : Nr

iqr

ds M

( r ) dr vqr

166

Induction Motor

ids + vds rs + Lls L lr +

rr

Ns : Nr

idr

qs M

( r ) qr vdr

i0s + v0s

rs

Lls

L lr

rr

Ns : Nr

i0r

v0r

167

Induction Motor

Assuming a balanced, fundamental frequency ( = 0 ) system, the model can be reduced to a p.u. transient model (3rd order model): Vas Ias d ER dt d E dt I = VasR + jVasI = IasR + jIasI 1 = 0 EI [ER + (xS x )IasI ] T0 1 = 0 ER [EI + (xS x )IasR ] T0

168

Induction Motor

VasR ER

VasI EI d dt

Te TL

= rs IasR x IasI

169

Induction Motor

where: xs x

T0

open circuit transient time constant

170

Induction Motor

reduced to the following quasi-steady state equivalent circuit model: jx jxls rs Iar rr Ias lr

+ Vas jxm

rr 1

171

Induction Motor

Or equivalently:

Ias + Vas jxm

1 rr

rs

jxls

jx lr

Iar

172

Induction Motor

torque-speed characteristic:

Te Te max

Steady state characteristic

Transient start up

r c

=1

173

Induction Motor

If the mechanical dynamics are ignored, the slip becomes a xed value,

and hence the equivalent circuit can be reduced to a simple equivalent reactive impedance, i.e. a Z load.

For loads with multiple IMs, a equivalent motor model can be used to

represent these motors.

motors can lead to signicant modeling errors, as the transient model and mechanical time constants can be on the same range as the generator time constants.

174

Induction Motor

on the rotor side, which leads to a subtransient model.

Since rotor cores are laminated, eddy currents do not play a signicant

role on the system dynamics.

with ideal electronic switches plus their control systems.

models of the IM and its controls can be readily implemented.

175

Induction Motor

represented by:

dr dt diqs dt

P (Te TL ) 2J

L r rs + M 2 rr L r 2 M rr iqs ids + qr Lr

M L r dr + r vqs dids dt =

L r rs + M 2 rr L r 2 M rr ids + iqs + dr Lr

M L + r qr + r vds

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Load Modeling - 30

176

Induction Motor

d qr dt d dr dt Te dTref dt

= Ls L M 2 r = kq3

+ kq4 (ref r )

177

Induction Motor

duqs dt

L r rs + M 2 rr L r

iqs dr

L r dr uqs ]

+kq1 kq3

aLr

M rr rr ids dr Lr Lr

+ kd2 (ref ) dr

178

Example

A 21 MW load at 4 kV and 60 Hz is made of: An inductive impedance load with G = 0.06047, B = 0.03530. An aggregated induction motor model with rs = 0.07825, xls = 0.8320, rr = 0.1055, x = 0.8320, xm = 16.48. lr This data is all in p.u. on a 100 MVA, 4 kV base.

179

Example

2 = VL G = 0.06

= 0.15

180

Example

ZIM

= 0.07825 + j0.832 + =

0.18342/ 2 + 237.37 +j 0.832 + 0.01113/ 2 + 299.71 (0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452) + j(0.19628/ 2 + 486.73) = 0.01113/ 2 + 299.71

181

Example

PIM

2 = VL GIM = GIM

0.15 = ZIM YL ZL = = = =

(0.01113/ 2 + 299.71)(0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452) (0.00087/ 2 + 28.652/ + 23.452)2 + (0.19628/ 2 + 486.73)2 0.0191 (by trial-and-error) 4.6221 + j3.0742 1 (G + jB) + ZIM 1 = 3.3654 + j2.1597 YL

182

Impedance Models

using an equivalent impedance.

power systems.

obtained for all loads connected at a particular bus at the transmission system level.

systems and the loads connetced to these) to the transmission system to control the steady state voltage on the load side.

183

Power Models

system models:

2

PL QL VL

2 = VL GL = PL0

VL VL0 VL VL0

184

Power Models

changes can be modeled as:

Nps Npt

dx(t) dt PL (t)

PL0

VL (t) VL0

Npt

dy(t) dt

Nqs

QL0

VL (t) VL0

Nqt

Nqt

QL (t) =

185

Power Models

P PL0

tf V VL0

tf

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008

Load Modeling - 40

186

Example

Net 894 MVA, 30 kV

1 2

187

Example

188

Power Models

= KP VL P fLP PL0

VL VL0 VL VL0

KQ VL Q fLQ

PL0

189

Power Models

Load Filament lamp Fluorescent lamp Heater Induction motor (half load) Induction motor (full load) Reduction furnace Aluminum plant

P

1.6 1.2 2.0 0.2 0.1 1.9 1.8

Q

0 3.0 0 1.6 0.6 2.1 2.2

P

0 -0.1 0 1.5 2.8 -0.5 -0.3

Q

0 2.8 0 -0.3 1.8 0 0.6

190

Power Models

2

= P LZ = QLZ

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ P LI

2

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ P LP + QLP

+ QLI

+ P LI

2

VL VL0 VL VL0

+ PL P + QLP dVL + KV dt

+ QLI

191

QL

dVL PL0 + Kpv (VL VL0 ) + T dt = Kqf f + Kqv VL QL0 + Kqv (VL VL0 )

192

Mixed model: PL

= Kpf f + Kpv VL + Tpv

dVL dt dVL dt

= Kqf f + Kqv VL + Tqv

dVL dt

QL0 + Kqv

193

Power Flow: System model. Equations. Solution techniques: Newton-Raphson. Fast decoupled.

194

the power ow equations.

Power ow system model corresponds to the steady state model. Generator: Generates and injects power P in the system while keeping the output voltage V constant within active and reactive power limits

(capability curve):

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 2

195

P = constant Q = unknown

V = constant = unknown

P = constant Q = constant

V = unknown = unknown

196

Slack bus: The phasor model needs a reference bus. A large generator is typically chosen as the the reference bus, as it

should be able to take the power slack:

P = unknown Q = unknown

V = constant =0

Pslack =

L

PL + Plosses

PG

G

197

P = unknown Q = constant

V = unknown =0

198

ULTC transformers.

Thus, most loads in steady state represent a constant power demand in the system, and hence are modeled as a P Q bus:

P = constant Q = constant

V = unknown = unknown

199

Transmission system: AC transmission lines and transformers in steady state are basically

modeled using the following model:

Si Sk Z Ik /a Ik Y1 Y2 aVk Vk

Vi

Ii

a : 1

200

Hence: Si = V i I i

= Vi (Vi aVk )

1 Z

Y

+Vi Y1

= Vi (Y + Yi ) Vi + (aY) Vk

Yii Yik

Similarly for Sk .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 8

201

Thus, for an N bus system interconnected through an ac transmission system, an N N bus admittance matrix can be dened: I Y 1 11 I Y 2 21 . . . . . . = Ii Yi1 . . . . . . IN YN 1 I = Ybus

node injections

Y12 Y22

. . .

.. .

Y1i Y2i

. . .

.. .

.. .

.. .

Yi2

. . .

Yii

. . .

YN 2 V

YN i

V 1 Y2N V2 . . . . . . YiN Vi . . . . . . YN N VN

Y1N

node voltages

202

where: 1 Yii = N Yi k=1 Zik + = sum of all the Ys connected to node i = Yij = 1 Zij = negative of the Y between nodes i and j

Ybus

203

modeled as:

SG1 VG1

Transmission System

SL1 VL1

204

Hence the power injections at each node are dened by: Si = Pi + jQi = V i I i

N

= Vi

k=1

Yik Vk N

= Vi i

k=1

for generator buses for load buses

Si

Gi

SL i

205

N

Pi

k=1

Qi (, V, Qi ) =

N

Qi

k=1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 13

206

These equations are referred to as the power mismatch equations. The equations are typically subjected to inequality constraints

representing control limits:

0.95 Qmini

Vi

207

Bus PQ PV slack Parameters Variables

P, Q P, V V,

V, Q, P, Q

208

some limits is reached: Bus PQ PV slack Parameters Variables

Q, V, P, V

than standard power ow analysis if limits are taken into account.

209

The slack bus can be single or distributed. This refers to losses. For single slack bus model, all system losses are cleared by the

slack bus.

proportionally) among all or part of the generators:

than standard power ow analysis if limits are taken into account.

210

concept.

This is practically obtained by including in power ow equations a variable kG and rewriting the system active power balance as follows:

nG i nP

(1 + kG i )PGi

PLi Plosses = 0

generator to the losses.

For single slack bus model, i = 0 for all generators but one.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 18

211

The power ow equations can be represented as F (z) = 0 There are 2 equations per bus, with 2 known variables and 2 unknown variables per bus; the problem is of dimension 2N . Since these equations are highly nonlinear due to the sine and cosine

terms, Newton-Raphson (NR) based numerical techniques are used to solve them.

212

1. Start with an initial guess, typically Vi0

0 Pslack = 0 (at start). 0 = 1, i = 0, Q0 = 0, Gi

F1 z1 |z k F1 zN |z k

...

.. .

F z

zk

= Jk =

. . .

. . .

2N 2N

FN z1 |z k

...

FN zN |z k

213

3. Find z k by solving the following linear set of equations (the sparse matrix Jk is factorized and not inverted to speed up the solution process):

Jk z k = F (z k )

4. Computes the new guess for the next iteration, where is a step control constant to guarantee convergence (0

z k+1 = z k + z k

214

5. Stop when:

F (z k+1 ) = max |Fi (z k+1 )| This is basically the technique used in M ATLABs fsolve() routine,

based on either numerical or actual Jacobians.

215

If only the unknown bus voltage angles and magnitudes are calculated

using NRs method (the generator reactive powers and active slack power are evaluated later):

H N

Jk z k = F (z k ) M P ( k , V k ) k = L V k /V k Q( k , V k )

216

Where: H M N = = = P (k ,V k ) P V V (k ,V k ) Q (k ,V k ) Q V V (k ,V k )

L =

217

The resistance in the transmission system are small, i.e. R X , then Gij Bik . The M and N matrices may be neglected, and: H M V k BV k

V k B V k

218

Thus the linear step equations may be decoupled and reduced to: B k B V k = P ( k , V k )/V k

= Q( k , V k )/V k

where B is the imaginary part of the Ybus matrix, and B is the imaginary part of the admittance matrix obtained by ignoring the system resistances, i.e.

B = B .

219

0 1. Start with an initial guess, typically i

= 0, Vi0 = 1.

2. Solve for k

B k = P ( k , V k )/V k . = k + k . B V k = Q( k , V k )/V k .

V k+1 = V k + V k .

6. Compute unknown generator powers and check for limits. 7. Repeat process for k

= 1, 2, . . ., until convergence.

220

compared to the robust NR method.

the Jacobian matrix every iteration.

particularly for systems with large transmission system resistances.

221

Example

1 2 All lines: 200 MVA 138 kV

P1

3

P2

V1 = 1, 1 = 0, V2 = 1, V3 = 1, and P2 = P1 /2. Determine the voltage phasor angles 2 and 3 and the shunt Q by

solving the PF equations.

222

Example

The Ybus matrix is: 2 B +2 j = j19.8 jX 2 1 Y12 = Y13 = Y23 = = j10 jX 19.8 10 10 B11 B12 B13 10 = j B21 B22 B23 Ybus = j 19.8 10 10 10 19.8 B31 B32 B33 Y11 = Y22 = Y33 =

223

Example

Mismatch equation P1 :

3

P1 0

= P1 = P1

k=1 3

k=1

224

Example

Mismatch equation Q1 :

3

Q1 0

= Q1 = Q1 +

k=1 3

k=1

225

Example

Mismatch equation P2 :

3

P2 0

= P2

k=1

3

= P1 /2

k=1

B2k sin(2 k )

226

Example

Mismatch equation Q2 :

3

Q2 0

= Q2 = Q2 +

k=1 3

k=1

227

Example

Mismatch equation P3 :

3

P3 0

= P3

k=1

3

= 0.9

k=1

B3k sin(3 k )

228

Example

Mismatch equation Q3 :

3

Q3 0

= Q3 = Q

k=1

3

1 0.92 +

k=1

B3k cos(3 k )

229

Example

Thus 6 equations and 6 unknowns, i.e. 2 , 3 , P1 , Q1 , Q2 , and Q, can be solved using M ATLABs fsolve() routine:

>> global lambda >> lambda = 1; >> z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) First-order Trust-region Iteration Func-count f(x) optimality radius 0 7 0.945696 18 1 1 14 0.000661419 0.705901 0.0205 1 2 21 9.98637e-18 0.0257331 2.52e-09 1.76 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality is less than options.TolFun. z0 = -0.0100 -0.0500 0.6000 -0.1870 -0.1915 0.2565 Norm of step

230

Example

Where lambda is used to simulate constant power factor load changes and pf eqs.m is:

function F = pf_eqs(z) global lambda d2 d3 P1 Q1 Q2 Q = = = = = = z(1); z(2); z(3); z(4); z(5); z(6); = = = = = = P1 + 10*sin(d2) + 10*sin(d3); Q1 - 19.8 + 10*cos(d2) + 10*cos(d3); 0.5*P1 - 10*sin(d2) - 10*sin(d2-d3); Q2 + 10*cos(d2) - 19.8 + 10*cos(d2-d3); -0.9*lambda - 10*sin(d3) - 10*sin(d3-d2); Q - 0.436*lambda + 10*cos(d3) + 10*cos(d3-d2) - 19.8;

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Power Flow Outlines - 38

231

Example

show up:

lambda = 20; z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order optimality 360 143 Trust-region radius 1 1

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 7 396.67 1 14 246.008 1 . . . 9 70 2.68094e-07 0.179729 0.000311 25.9 10 77 7.43614e-16 0.00127159 1.64e-08 25.9 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality is less than options.TolFun. z0 = -0.2501 -1.2613 12.0000 7.0658 4.8031 20.1667

232

Example

lambda = 22; z0 = fsolve(@pf_eqs,[0 0 0 0 0 0], optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order optimality 396 168 Trust-region radius 1 1

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 7 480.33 1 14 310.93 1 . . . 90 595 0.00622095 0.0211144 0.0322 0.0211 91 602 0.00621755 0.0211144 0.0155 0.0211 Maximum number of function evaluations reached: increase options.MaxFunEvals. z0 = -0.3322 -1.7225 13.1600 11.8633 8.5479 29.1072

233

Basic stability concepts Nonlinear systems: Ordinary differential equations (ODE) Differential algebraic equations (DAE) Equilibrium points: Denitions. Stability: Linearization. Eigenvalue analysis. Stability regions.

234

ODE Systems

equations:

x = s(x, p, )

where

p k controllable parameters (e.g. compensation) s() n nonlinear functions (e.g. generator equations)

235

ODE Systems

Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL jxth

System

V1 1

V2 2

V 0

Innite bus (M

= )

AVR

The generator is modeled as a simple d axis transient voltage behind transient reactance.

236

ODE Systems

where

PG

= =

237

ODE Systems

If the AVR is modeled, V1 may be assumed to be kept constant by varying E , with the generators reactive power within limits: V12 V1 V QG = cos 1 xL + xth xL + xth QG min QG QG max

238

ODE Systems

If the AVR is not modeled: x = [, ]T state variables p = [E , V ]T controlled parameters = PL uncontrolled parameters Hence, assuming p = [1.5, 1]T , M = D = 0.1, and x = 0.75: x = x 1 2 s(x, p, ) = x2 = 10 = 20 sin x1 x2

239

DAE Systems

where:

= g(x, y, p, )

f () n nonlinear differential equations (e.g. generator equations) g() m nonlinear algebraic equations (e.g. reactive power

equations)

240

DAE Systems

For example, for the generator-innite bus example with AVR, for QG min QG QG max : 0 0 0 = 1 EV = PL sin D M x V1 V EV sin 1 sin = x xL + xth V1 E V12 = QG + cos(1 ) xG xG V12 V1 V = QG + cos 1 xL + xth xL + xth

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241

DAE Systems

Thus, for: x = [, ]T y = [E , 1 , QG ]T p = [V1 , V ]T = [1, 1]T = PL M = D = 0.1, x = 0.75, x = 0.25, xL + xth = 0.5 G x = x 1 2 f (x, y, p, ) = x2 = 10 13.33y1 sin x1 x2 0 = 1.333y1 sin x1 2 sin y2 g(x, y, p, ) = 0 = y3 4 + 4y1 cos(y2 x1 ) 0 = y3 2 + 2 cos y2

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242

DAE Systems

If QG = QG max or QG = QG min : x = [, ]T y = [E , 1 , V1 ]T p = [QG , V ]T = [0.5, 1]T = PL M = D = 0.1, x = 0.75, x = 0.25, xL + xth = 0.5 G x = x 1 2 f (x, y, p, ) = x2 = 10 13.33y1 y3 sin x1 x2 0 = 1.333y1 sin x1 2y3 sin y2 2 g(x, y, p, ) = 0 = 0.5 4y3 + 4y1 y3 cos(y2 x1 ) 2 0 = 0.5 2y3 + 2y3 cos y2

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 10

243

DAE Systems

invertible, along the trajectory solutions, the system can be transformed into an ODE system (Implicit Function Theorem):

= h(x, p, ) = s(x, p, )

x = f (x, h(x, p, ), p, )

In practice, this is a purely theoretical exercise that is not carry out due

to its complexity.

244

Equilibria

For the ODE system, equilibria are dened as the solution x0 for given parameter values p0 and 0 of the set of equations s(x0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 There are multiple solutions to this problem, i.e. multiple equilibrium

points.

245

Equilibria

The stability of these equilibria is dened by linearizing the nonlinear system around x0 , i.e. x = si (x0 , p0 , 0 ) xj x x0

x

nn

matrix evaluated at the equilibrium point.

246

Equilibria

From linear system theory, the linear system stability is dened by the eigenvalues i of the Jacobian matrix Dx s|0 , which are dened as the

solutions of the equation:

Dx s|0 v Dx s|T w 0

= v = w

an n + an1 n1 + . . . + a1 + a0 = 0

det(Dx s|0 In ) = 0

247

Equilibria

There are n complex eigenvalues, left and right eigenvectors associated with the system Jacobian Dx s|0 . In practice, these eigenvalues are not computed using characteristic

polynomial but other more efcient numerical techniques, as the costs associated with computing these values is rather large in realistic power systems.

248

Equilibria

system, i.e. the local stability of the nonlinear system near the equilibrium points:

Stable equilibrium point (s.e.p.): The system is locally stable about x0 if all the eigenvalues i (Dx s|0 ) are on the left-half (LH) of the

complex plane.

Unstable equilibrium point (u.e.p.): The system is locally unstable about x0 if at least one eigenvalue i (Dx s|0 ) is on the right-half

(RH) of the complex plane.

249

Equilibria

The equilibrium point x0 is a bifurcation point if at least one eigenvalue i (Dx s|0 ) is on the imaginary axis of the complex plane. Some systems have equilibria with eigenvalues on the imaginary axis

without these being bifurcation points; for example, a lossless generator-innite bus system with no damping.

250

Equilibria

For example, for the simple generator-innite bus example with no AVR: x1 x2 = x2 = 10 20 sin x1 x2

the equilibrium points can be found from the steady-state (power ow) equations:

0 0

251

Equilibria

repetitions of these three):

This yields basically three equilibrium points (other solutions are just s.e.p /2 < x1s < /2 u.e.p.1 x1u1 = x1s + u.e.p.2 x1u2 = x1s

252

Equilibria

Stable

EV /x

Unstable

PG PL

Bifurcation Unstable

2 (x2 )

s (xs ) /2 1 (x1 )

, (x1 )

253

Equilibria

The stability of these equilibria is determined using the system Jacobian: s /x1 |0 s1 /x2 |0 1 Dx s|0 = s2 /x1 |0 s2 /x2 |0 0 1 = 20 cos x10 1

254

Equilibria

det(Dx s|0 I2 )

1,2 (Dx s|xs ) = 0.5 j4.132 3.192 1,2 (Dx s|xu1 /u2 ) = 5.192

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Stability Concepts Outlines - 22

255

Equilibria

For this system, the equilibria are: stable if PG >0 unstable if PG <0 bifurcation point for PG =0 = /2

256

Equilibria

For DAE systems, the equilibria z0 = (x0 , y0 ) for parameter values p0 and 0 are dened as the solution to the nonlinear, steady state problem: f (x , y , p , ) = 0 0 0 0 0 F (x0 , y0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 g(x0 , y0 , p0 , 0 ) = 0 In this case, the linearization about (x0 , y0 ) yields: x = Dx f |0 x + Dy f |0 y 0 = Dx g|0 x + Dy g|0 y

257

Equilibria

Hence, by eliminating y from these equations, one obtains: Dx s|0 = Dx f |0 Dy f |0 Dy g|1 Dx g|0 0 Observe that, as mentioned before, the nonsingularity of the Jacobian Dy g|0 in this case is required. The same local stability conditions apply in this case based on the eigenvalues of Dx s|0 .

258

Equilibria

limits), the steady-state solutions are obtained from solving the steady-state or power ow equations:

0 0 0 0 0

= x20 = 10 13.33y10 sin x10 x20 = 1.333y10 sin x10 2 sin y20 = y30 4 + 4y10 cos(y20 x10 ) = y30 2 + 2 cos y20

259

Equilibria

function f = dae_eqs(z) global lambda x10 x20 y10 y20 y30 = = = = = z(1); z(2); z(3); z(4); z(5); = = = = = x20; 10*lambda - 13.33 * y10 * sin(x10) - x20; 1.333 * y10 * sin (x10) - 2 * sin(y20); -y30 - 4 + 4 * y10 * cos(y20 - x10); y30 - 2 + 2 * cos(y20);

260

Equilibria

>> lambda = 1; >> z0 = fsolve(@dae_eqs,[0 0 1 0 1],optimset(Display,iter)) Norm of step First-order Trust-region optimality radius 133 1 10.2 1 0.219 2.5 0.0534 2.5 4.89e-06 2.5 2.23e-13 2.5 is less than options.TolFun.

Iteration Func-count f(x) 0 6 102 1 12 1.52385 1 2 18 0.0050436 0.298687 3 24 2.72816e-05 0.0607967 4 30 2.0931e-13 0.000413599 5 36 4.98474e-28 5.13313e-08 Optimization terminated: first-order optimality z0 = 0.7539 0 1.0959 0.5236

0.2679

261

Equilibria

syms x1 x2 y1 y2 y3 real z = [x1 x2 y1 y2 y3]; F = dae_eqs(z); f = F(1:2); g = F(3:5); Dxf Dyf Dxg Dyg = = = = jacobian(f,[x1,x2]) jacobian(f,[y1,y2,y3]) jacobian(g,[x1,x2]) jacobian(g,[y1,y2,y3])

262

Equilibria

Dxf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*y1*cos(x1), Dyf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*sin(x1), Dxg = [ 1333/1000*y1*cos(x1), [ -4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), [ 0, Dyg = [ 1333/1000*sin(x1), [ 4*cos(-y2+x1), [ 0, 1] -1]

0, 0,

0] 0]

0] 0] 0]

0] -1] 1]

263

Equilibria

Dxf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*y1*cos(x1), Dyf = [ 0, [ -1333/100*sin(x1), Dxg = [ 1333/1000*y1*cos(x1), [ -4*y1*sin(-y2+x1), [ 0, Dyg = [ 1333/1000*sin(x1), [ 4*cos(-y2+x1), [ 0, 1] -1]

0, 0,

0] 0]

0] 0] 0]

0] -1] 1]

264

Equilibria

x1 = z0(1); x2 = z0(2); y1 = z0(3); y2 = z0(4); y3 = z0(5); A = vpa(subs(Dxf),5); B = vpa(subs(Dyf),5); C = vpa(subs(Dxg),5); D = vpa(subs(Dyg),5); Dxs = A - B * inv(D) * C; ev = vpa(eig(Dxs),5) ev = -.50000+3.5698*i -.50000-3.5698*i

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Stability Concepts Outlines - 32

265

Equilibria

limits):

>> z0 = fsolve(@dae_eqs,[3 0 0.1 3 3],optimset(Display,iter)); z0 = 2.7465 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 0 1.9491 2.6180 3.7321

x1 = z0(1); x2 = z0(2); y1 = z0(3); y2 = z0(4); y3 = z0(5); A = vpa(subs(Dxf),5); B = vpa(subs(Dyf),5); C = vpa(subs(Dxg),5); D = vpa(subs(Dyg),5); Dxs = A - B * inv(D) * C; ev = vpa(eig(Dxs),5)

ev = 4.2892 -5.2892

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266

Equilibria

basically corresponds to the region of system variables that are all attracted to xs , i.e.

x(t ) xs :

x1 (0) A(xs ) xs x1 (t)

stable

A(xs )

(stability region boundary)

x2 (0)

unstable

x2 (t)

267

Equilibria

readily evaluated.

However, determining this region is a rather difcult task. This can realistically be accomplished only for 2- or 3-dimendional

systems using sophisticated nonlinear system analysis techniques.

268

Equilibria

= 0.2

10

x 0 x

2

u2

xs

u1

5 A(x )

s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

269

Equilibria

= 0.5

10

x 0 x

2

u2

u1

10

A(x )

s

15 10

0 x1

10

270

Equilibria

= 1.0

10

x 0 x

2

u2

u1

5 A(x )

s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

271

Equilibria

= 1.5

10

0 x

2

xs

u1

A(x ) 5

s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

272

Equilibria

= 1.8

10

x 0 x

2

u1

A(x )

s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

273

Equilibria

= 1.9

10

x 0 x

2

u1

A(x )

s

10

15 10

0 x1

10

274

Equilibria

In real systems, trial-and-error techniques are usually used: A contingency yields a given initial condition x(0). For the post-contingency system, the time trajectories x(t) can be

computed by numerical integration.

If x(t) converges to the post-contingency equilibrium point xs , the system is stable, i.e. x(0) A(xs ). If it diverges, the system is unstable.

275

Denitions. Basic concepts. Continuation Power Flow. Direct Methods. Indices. Controls and protections. Practical applications. Examples.

276

Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Transient Stability

Short Term

Long Term

277

given initial operating condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance, with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains intact.

voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition.

278

voltage collapse problem.

equilibrium point due to a saddle-node or limit-induced bifurcation point, typically due to contingencies in the system (e.g. August 14, 2003 Northeast Blackout).

279

explained using the generator-load example:

PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

280

Neglecting for simplicity losses, electromagnetic dynamics, and the transient impedance in the d-axis transient model, the generator can be

simulated with:

1 1

= 1 = r 0 1 = (Pm PG DG 1 ) M

281

The load can be simulated using the mixed models. For P , neglecting voltage dynamics (Tpv = 0) and voltage dependence ( = 0): PL PL 2 = Kpf f2 + Kpv [V2 + Tpv V2 ] = P d + DL 2 1 (PL Pd ) = 2 = DL

282

For Q, neglecting frequency dependence (Kqf = 0) and voltage dependence ( = 0) QL QL V2 = Kqf f2 + Kqv [V2 + Tqv V2 ] = Qd + V2 = 1 (QL Qd )

283

The transmission system yields the power ow equations: PL PG QL QG V1 V2 sin(2 1 ) XL V1 V2 sin(1 2 ) = XL V1 V2 V22 + cos(2 1 ) = XL XL V12 V1 V2 = cos(1 2 ) XL XL =

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284

Hence, dening:

the system equations are:

= 1 2 = 1 = 2 V1 V2 sin DG XL V1 V2 sin Pd XL

V2

1 M

Pd 1 DL

= = 1

V1 V2 V22 + cos Qd XL XL

285

Observe that these equations also represent a generator-dynamic load system with no AVR and with XL including XG , where V1 would stand for EG . The steady-state load demand may be assumed to have a constant

power factor, i.e.

Qd = kPd

If generator reactive power limits are considered, and neglecting XG ,

286

= = 1

with

x = [, , V2 ]T p = V10

y = QG = Pd

287

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0

with

= QGmin,max

x = [, , V2 ]T p = QGmin,max

288

All the equilibrium point for the system with and without limits can be

obtained solving the power ow equations:

0 0 0

V10 V20 sin 0 XL 2 V20 V10 V20 cos 0 = kPd + XL XL 2 V10 V10 V20 = QG0 + cos 0 XL XL = Pd

289

And the stability of these equilibrium points come from the state matrix: Without limits, or for QGmin QG QGmax : DG V10 V20 V10 M XL sin 0 M M XL cos 0 V10 V20 V10 1 Dx s|0 = DL XL cos 0 DL XL sin 0 10 V20 0 V XL sin 0 2 V20 + V10 cos 0 XL XL

290

For QG = QGmin,max : Dx s|0 = DG V10 V20 V10 M M XL cos 0 M XL sin 0 V10 V20 V10 1 DL XL cos 0 DL XL sin 0 10 V20 0 V XL sin 0 2 V20 + V10 cos 0 XL XL T V10 0 M XL sin 0 1 V10 V20 sin 0 V10 sin 0 2 V10 + V20 cos 0 D X XL L L XL XL V20 V10 cos 0 XL XL cos 0

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291

Assume XL = 0.5, M = 1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, k = 0.25. With the help of M ATLAB and the continuation power ow routine of PSAT, for the system without limits and V1 = V10 = 1, the power ow solutions

yield a PV or nose curve (bifurcation diagram):

292

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

s.e.p.

x3 = V2

SNB

u.e.p.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd

293

The saddle-node bifurcation point SNB corresponds to a point where the state matrix Dx s|0 is singular (one zero eigenvalue). This is typically associated with a power ow solution with a singular PF Jacobian Dz F |0 . This is not always the case, as for more complex dynamic models, the

singularity of the state matrix does not necessarily correspond to a singularity o the PF Jacobian, and vice versa.

294

Observe that the SNB point corresponds to a maximum value max = Ps max 0.78, which is why is also referred to as the

maximum loading or loadability point.

For a load greater than Pd max , there are no PF solutions. This point is also referred to as the voltage collapse point.

295

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

operating point

x3 = V2

contingency

XL = 0.5 XL = 0.6

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd

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296

6

V2 V1

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]

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297

For the system with limits and QGmax,min = 0.5, the PV or nose

curve is:

1 0.9 0.8

s.e.p.

0.7

LIB

x3 = V2

u.e.p.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

= Pd

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298

In this case, the maximum loading or loadability point max = Pd max 0.65 corresponds to the point where the generator reaches its maximum reactive power limit QG = QG max = 0.5, and hence losses control of V1 . This is referred to a limit-induced bifurcation or LIB point. Beyond the LIB point, there are no more power ow solutions, due to

the limit recovery mechanism of the AVR.

299

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

x3 = V2

XL = 0.5 XL = 0.6

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

= Pd

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300

6

V2 V1

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]

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301

PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

jxC

302

where

1 (Pd V10 V2 BL sin DG ) M 1 (V10 V2 BL sin Pd ) = DL 1 = [V22 (BL BC ) + V10 V2 BL cos kPd ] 2 = QG V10 BL + V10 V2 BL cos = BL = 1 XL BC = 1 XC

303

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0 1 (Pd V10 V2 BL sin DG ) M 1 (V10 V2 BL sin Pd ) = DL 1 = [V22 (BL BC ) + V10 V2 BL cos kPd ] 2 = QGmin,max V10 BL + V10 V2 BL cos =

304

1.5

XL = 0.6

XL = 0.5

1

V2

XL = 0.6

0.5

Bc = 0 Bc = 0 Bc = 0.5

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

= Pd

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305

With limits:

1.5

XL = 0.6 XL = 0.5

1

V2

XL = 0.6

0.5

Bc = 0 Bc = 0 Bc = 0.5

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

= Pd

306

1.2 1

0.8 0.6

Apply compensation

Contingency 0.4

V2 V1

0.2

10

t [s]

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307

1.2 1

0.8 0.6

Apply compensation

Contingency 0.4

V2 V1

0.2

10

t [s]

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308

These PV or nose curves are obtained using a continuation power ow. This technique traces the solutions of the power equations F (z, p, ) = 0

as changes.

309

1. Predictor 2. Parametrization

(z1 , 1 ) 2 1 z1

3. Corrector

(z0 , 0 )

z2

310

CPF Predictor

t1

z1 =

k t1 t1

1

(z2 , 2 ) (z1 , 1 )

(z1 , 1 )

311

CPF Predictor

Good method to follow closely the PV curves, but relatively slow. The tangent vector t denes sensitivities at any power ow solution

point.

saddle-node bifurcation, as opposed to using the smallest eigenvalue, which changes in highly non linear fashion.

312

CPF Predictor

(z2 , 2 ) (z1 , 1 ) (z1b , 1b ) (z1a , 1a )

313

CPF Predictor

This method is faster but can have convergence problems with sharp

corners (e.g. limits):

314

CPF Parametrization

Used to avoid singularities during the predictor step. Methods: Local: interchange a zi z with , i.e. rotate the PV curve. Arc length (s): assume z1 (s) and 1 (s); thus solve for z1 and 1 : F Dz F |1 z1 + + 1

1

T z1 z1 + 2 1

= k

315

CPF Corrector

The idea is to add an equation to the equilibrium equations, i.e. solve for (z, ) at a given point p: F (z, p, ) = 0 (z, ) = 0 These equations are nonsingular for the appropriate choice of ().

316

CPF Corrector

(z1 , 1 ) (z1 , 1 ) z (z2 , 2 )

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317

CPF Corrector

(z1 , 1 ) (z1 , 1 ) z (z2 , 2 )

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Voltage Stability - 43

318

Direct Methods

induced bifurcation).

Max. s.t.

319

Direct Methods

If limits are ignored, the solution for given values of the control paramters (p = p0 ) to the associated optimization problem, based on the

Lagrangian and KKT conditions, is given by:

F (z, p0 , )

T Dz F (z, p0 , )w T D F (z, p0 , )w

0 = 0

= 1

w = 0 condition

This yields a saddle-node bifurcation point, and corresponds to the left eigenvector (w ) saddle-node equations.

320

Direct Methods

maximum loading point is a limit-induced bifurcation.

Max. s.t.

must be solved using standard optimization techniques (e.g. Interior Point Method).

limit-induced bifurcation.

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321

Direct Methods

problem is transformed into a maximization of the maximum loading margin.

maximize/guarantee loading margins but at the same time minimize costs (e.g. maximize social welfare).

322

Direct Methods

following multi-objective optimization problem can be posed: Min. s.t.

T T G = 1 (CD PD CS PS ) 2 c

323

Direct Methods

With the phyiscal and security limits: Iij (, V ) Iijmax Iji (, V ) Ijimax Iij (c , Vc ) Iijmax Iji (c , Vc ) Ijimax QGmin QG QGmax Gen. Q limits QGmin QGc QGmax Vmin V Vmax Vmin Vc Vmax

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Thermal limits

V security lim.

324

Direct Methods

F. Milano, C. A. Canizares and M. Invernizzi, Multi-objective Optimization for PRicing System Security in Electricity Marktes, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 2, May 2003, pp. 596-604.

325

Indices

voltage collapse for on-line applications.

For example, the minimum real eigenvalue of the system Jacobian can be

used to measure proximity to a saddle-node bifurcation, since this matrix becomes singular at that point.

Many indices have been proposed, but the most popular/useful are: Singular value. Reactive power reserves.

326

Indices

The singular value index consists of simply monitoring the singular value of the Jacobian of the power ow equations as changes, e.g.

327

Indices

Observations: Computationally inexpensive. Highly nonlinear behavior, especially when control limits are reached. Cannot really be used to detect proximity to limit-induced bifurcation. Useful in some OPF-applications to help represent voltage stability as

a constraints.

328

Indices

between the reactive power generator output and its maximum limit, e.g. for a generator bus system:

329

Indices

Observations: Computationally inexpensive. Highly nonlinear behavior. Only works for the right generators, i.e. the generators associated

with the limit-induced bifurcation.

330

systems through the computation of PV curves.

power ows or using actual CPFs.

In both cases, these nose curves are computed with respect to load

changes, which are dened as follows:

PL QL

= PL0 + PL = QL0 + QL

331

Generator power changes are then dened, with the exception of the

slack bus, as:

for all generators, where kG is a variable in the power ow equations replacing the variable power in the slack bus.

332

typically obtained from (NERC denition): ATC

The ATC can be associated to the maximum loading margin max of the

system if N-1 contingency criteria are taken into account.

333

TTC or Total Transfer Capability is the maximum loading level of the system considering N-1 contingency criteria, i.e. the max for the worst

realistic single contingency.

loading level plus any reserved transmission commitments.

dened to represent other contingencies.

334

distance away from the maximum loadibility point when contigencies are considered:

335

most common control and protections techniques are:

critical area (the area most sensitive to voltage problems).

STATCOM (see slides 304 and 305).

336

power outputs of generators.

regulation or control.

337

338

339

Observations: Control areas and associated pilot buses and controlled generators

must be properly identied.

RVR is slower than PQR.

340

Undervoltage Relays

shed during long duration voltage dips.

loadability margin (see slide 334).

Operation is somewhat similarly to taps in a LTC: Discrete load shedding steps (e.g. 1-2% of total load). Activated with a time delay (e.g. 1-2 mins.) after the voltage dips

below certain values (e.g. 0.8-0.9 p.u.)

The lower the voltage, the faster and larger the load shed.

341

Example

100 MW 150 MW 150 MW

60 MVAr Area 1

v3<d3

150 MW 56 MVAr

Bus 2

1.020

V2 2

Bus 3

50 MVAr

50 MW 40 MVAr 100 MW

342

Example

Bus Name Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

PG

(p.u.) 1.5 0 0.5

PL

(p.u.) 0 1.5 0.5

QL

(p.u.) 0 0.56 0.40

bus model:

343

Example

HDG UWPFLOW data file, WSCC format 3-area example April 2000 BAS C C AC BUSES C C | SHUNT | C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |PG |QM |Qm |Vpu BE 1 Area 1 138 1 150 60 0 0 0 150 0 0 1.02 B 1 Area 2 138 2 150 56 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00 B 1 Area 3 138 3 50 40 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00

344

Example

C C AC LINES C C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L 1 Area 1 138 Area 2 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 1 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 2 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 Area 1 138 0. END

345

Example

C C UWPFLOW load and generation "direction" file C for 3-area example C C BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [ Smax 1 0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0 0 2 0 0.0 1.5 0.56 0 0 3 0 0.5 0.5 0.40 0 0

346

Example

echo -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k echo -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s echo - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 echo - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

347

Example

rem -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k rem -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s rem - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 rem - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

348

Example

PV curves (threearea.m):

Profiles 150

100

50 kVArea 3 kVArea 2 kVArea 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 L.F. [p.u.] 1 1.2 1.4

138 138 138

1.6

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Voltage Stability - 74

349

Example

TTC

= = = = = =

PL

ETC

TRM

ATC

350

Example

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

351

This information is extracted from the nal report of the US-Canada Joint

Task Force.

The full details of the nal report can be found on the Internet at:

https://reports.energy.gov/B-F-Web-Part1.pdf

Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations. Washington DC: USGPO, April 2004.

352

353

Council (NERC):

354

such as the IMO and PJM):

355

where the system collapse started:

356

Four causes: Inadequate system understanding: FirstEnergy, ECAR Inadequate situational awareness: FirstEnergy Inadequate tree-trimming: FirstEnergy Inadequate diagnostic support: MISO, PJM

357

At 12:15 EDT, MISO began having problems with its state estimator; it did

not return to full functionality until 16:04.

system (EMS) alarms but did not know it.

At 14:20, parts of FEs EMS began to fail rst remote sites, then core

servers but FE system operators did not know this and FE IT support staff did not tell them.

Without a functioning EMS, FE operators did not know their system was

losing lines and voltage until about 15:45.

358

Cleveland-Akron area was seriously decient in reactive power supply needed for voltage support.

At 13:31 EDT, FE lost its Eastlake 5 unit, a critical source of real and

reactive power for the Cleveland-Akron area.

359

360

Cleveland-Akron area under normal loading due to contact with too-tall trees but did not know it due to EMS problems.

Line loadings and reactive power demands increased with each line loss. Between 15:39 and 16:08 EDT, FE lost 16 138kV lines in the

Cleveland-Akron area due to overloads and ground faults.

361

Line outages:

362

At 16:05.57 EDT, FE lost its Sammis-Star 345 kV line due to overload. This closed a major path for power imports into the Cleveland-Akron area

and initiated the cascade phase of the blackout.

363

364

365

366

sequence of events that, once started, cannot be stopped by human intervention.

sequential tripping of transmission lines, generators, and automatic load-shedding in a widening geographic area.

Eventually equilibrium is restored and the cascade stops.

367

368

Higher voltage lines are better able to absorb large voltage and current

swings, buffering some areas against the cascade (AEP, Pennsylvania).

Areas with high voltage proles and ample reactive power were not

swamped by the sudden voltage and power drain (PJM and New England).

After islanding began, some areas were able to balance generation with

load and reach equilibrium without collapsing (upstate New York and southern Ontario).

369

Sequence of events:

370

Sequence of events:

371

Sequence of events:

372

Sequence of events:

373

When the cascade was over at 4:13 pm, as many as 50 million people in

the northeast U.S. and the province of Ontario had no power.

series of contingencies.

374

375

guidelines followed, the system might have been saved.

WECCs might have given the operators a better picture of the situation, but without proper monitoring, these would have probably not worked either.

have saved the system, as these would have automatically shed load when the voltages started to collapse in First Energys (FE) region in Ohio.

376

Much more information regarding the issue voltage stability can be found

in: C. A. Canizares, editor, Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts, Practices and Tools, IEEE-PES Power System Stability Subcommittee Special Publication, SP101PSS, August 2002. IEEE-PES WG Report Award 2005.

coauthored by several voltage stability from around the world.

http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio/claudio.html/#VSWG

377

Denitions. Small disturbance: Hopf Bifurcations. Control and mitigation. Practical example. Transient Stability Time Domain. Direct Methods. Equal Area Criterion. Energy Functions. Practical applications.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 1

378

Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Transient Stability

Short Term

Long Term

379

interconnected power system to remain in synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance. It depends on the ability to maintain/restore equilibrium between electromagnetic torque and mechanical torque of each synchronous machine in the system.

swings in some generators which may lead to their loss of synchronism with other generators.

380

Small Disturbance

Small disturbance (or small signal) rotor angle stability is concerned with

the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances. The disturbances are considered to be sufciently small that linearization of system equations is permissible for purposes of analysis.

oscillations in the system due to a lack of sufcient damping torque.

becoming unstable through a Hopf bifurcation point, typically due to contingencies in the system (e.g. August 1996 West Coast Blackout).

381

Hopf Bifurcation I

Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1 +

V2 2

Kv s

V10

382

Hopf Bifurcation I

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 6

383

Hopf Bifurcation I

Observe that the algebraic constraint can be eliminated, since: V1r V1i

Thus:

= V1 cos = V1 sin

and

0 V1r

= V2

384

Hopf Bifurcation I

This yields the following equations, which are better for numerical time

domain simulations:

E V2

2 2 V1r + V1i

assumed to be balanced.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 8

385

Hopf Bifurcation I

The PV curves for M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, Kv = 10, XG = 0.5, V10 = 1, k = 0.25 are:

1

OP

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

HB

HB

V2

xL = 0.6

xL = 0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

386

Hopf Bifurcation I

The eigenvalues for the system with respect to changes in Pd for xL = 0.5:

3

Imag

3 5

1 Real

387

Hopf Bifurcation I

6

HB

2

()

10

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

388

Hopf Bifurcation I

oscillation of period:

j3

2s

389

Hopf Bifurcation I

2.5

E V1 V2

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

t [s]

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

390

Hopf Bifurcation I

trademark of Hopf bifurcations and small-disturbance angle instabilities.

The reason for this is that the oscillation period is 2 s (typical in practice

where these kinds of oscillations are in the 0.1-1 Hz range), but the bus voltage collapses well before the oscillations appear, which is atypical and is probably due to the chosen impedances and time constants.

This example stresses the point that angle instabilities do lead to voltage

collapse, and vice versa, voltage instabilities lead to angle/frequency oscillations, even though the reason behind each stability problem are fairly different.

391

Hopf Bifurcation II

PG + jQG jX PL + jQT

E V Vref jBC

V 0

392

Hopf Bifurcation II

The total reactive power absorbed by the load and the SVC is as follows: EV V2 + cos() + V 2 BC QT (V, ) = X X The SVC controller is modeled as a rst order pure integrator.

Vref + 1/sT V BC

393

Hopf Bifurcation II

The resulting differential equations of the SMDL system with SVC are as

follows:

V BC

394

Hopf Bifurcation II

BC is the equivalent susceptance of the SVC; T and Vref are the SVC

time constant and reference voltage, respectively.

In the following, it is assumed that T = 0.01 s and Vref = 1.0 p.u. Observe that also in this case it is possible to deduce the set of ODE, i.e.

the algebraic variables can be explicitly expressed as a function of the state variables and the parameters.

395

Hopf Bifurcation II

0 EV M X cos() A= EV sin() X 0

D | M

| |

0 0

| 0 E | M X sin() | 0 1 V2 | X [E cos() 2V + 2V BC X] | 1 | T | 0

396

Hopf Bifurcation II

Eigenvalue loci:

400

300

200

100

Imaginary

d

100

200

300

400 0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Real

397

Hopf Bifurcation II

A complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues crosses the imaginary axis for Pd = 1.4143, thus leading to a Hopf bifurcation. The HB point is: (0 , 0 , V0 , BC0 , Pd0 ) = (0.7855, 0, 1, 1.2930, 1.4143)

398

Hopf Bifurcation II

Bifurcation diagram Pd - :

2.5

(rad)

P

1.5

max d

Hopf Bifurcation

1

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P (p.u.)

d

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

399

Hopf Bifurcation II

We simulate a step change in Pd from 1.41 p.u. to 1.42 p.u. for t = 2 s. For t > 2 s the system does not present a stable equilibrium point and

shows undamped oscillations (likely an unstable limit cycle), as expected from the P - curve.

For t = 2.57 s, the load voltage collapses. Note that, in this case, the generator angle shows an unstable trajectory

only after the occurrence of the voltage collapse at the load bus.

400

Hopf Bifurcation II

0.85

(rad)

0.8

0.75 1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

t (s)

1.5

V (p.u.)

1 0.5 0 1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

t (s)

401

Hopf Bifurcation II

The use of the SVC device gives a birth to a new bifurcation, namely a

Hopf bifurcation.

parameters.

loadability of the system can be increased.

402

Bus 13

Bus 11

Bus 09

Bus 07

Bus 05 Bus 01

Breaker

Bus 02

Bus 03

403

Generator speeds for the line 2-4 outage and 40% overloading:

1.001

1.0005

0.9995

0.999

0.9985

0.998

10

15 time (s)

20

25

30

404

This has been typically solved by adding Power System Stabilizers (PSS)

to the voltage controllers in certain generators, so that equilibriun point is made stable, i.e. the Hopf is removed.

vs max vSI Tw s Kw Tw s + 1 T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 T3 s + 1 T4 s + 1 1 T s + 1 vs

vs min

405

Bus 13

Bus 11

Bus 09

Bus 07

Bus 05 Bus 01

Breaker

Bus 02

Bus 03

406

Generator speeds for the line 2-4 outage and 40% overloading:

1.001

1.0005

0.9995

0.999

0.9985

0.998

10

15 time (s)

20

25

30

407

http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio /papers/IEEEBenchmarkTFreport.pdf

F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, accpeted for publication on IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, March 2004.

408

1 93 110 43 33 5 4 3 49 2 114 34 38 40 84 35 41 37 39 47 50 51 102 55 53 56 101 52 61 54 86 127 135 138 128 133 132 120 122 121 95 67 111 8 9 69 63 64 65 68 97 125 124 80 112 11 12 72 71 21 59 98 13 70 100 103 58 14 15 17 16 81 25 108 22 73 31 26 106 105 75 82 109 27 91 29 24 28 20 19 18 83 78 30 23 10 32 94 60 89 96 77 76 123 131 134 42 48 44 46 85 117 139 118 137 129 136 49 36 99

AREA 2

87 88 45 116

AREA 1

113 6

57 7 104 126 66

62 119

92

90 130

107

79

74

409

(a) 0.94 HB Voltage (p.u.) 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 Operating point HB Base Case Line 7990 Outage

(b) L.F. (p.u.) 0.94 Voltage (p.u.) Base Case Line 7990 Outage

Operating point

0.93

HB

0.92 0.91 0.9

HB

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5 x 10

6

3

410

Indices based on the singular values have been proposed to predict Hopf

bifucations:

0.015 HBI2 Base Case HBI Base Case 1 HBI Line 7990 Outage 2 HBI1 Line 7990 Outage

0.01

HB

0

HB

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

411

C. A. Canizares, N. Mithulananthan, F. Milano, and J. Reeve, Linear Performance Indices to Predict Oscillatory Stability Problems in Power Systems, IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 2, May 2004, pp. 1104-1114.

412

oscillations in a heavily loaded system, which may be directly associated with Hopf bifurcations.

examples of this phenomenon in practice, such as the August 10, 1996 blackout of the WSCC (now WECC) system.

413

presence of the Hopf bifurcation.

1

HB

0.9

OP

HB

0.8 0.7

ETC

ATC

TRM

0.6

V2

0.5

TTC

Worst Contingency

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

414

President and CEO of PowerTech Labs Inc.

toronto.ieee.ca/events/oct0303/prabha.ppt

415

System conditions: High ambient temperatures in Northwest, and hence high power

transfers from Canada to California.

Prior to main outage, three 500 kV line sections from lower Columbia

River to loads in Oregon were out of service due to tree faults.

California-Oregon interties loaded to 4330 MW north to south. Pacic DC intertie loaded at 2680 MW north to south. 2300 MW ow from Britsh Columbia.

416

3 4

4 1 2

Time in seconds

417

Event 1: 14:06:39 Big Eddy-Ostrander 500 kV LG fault - ashed to tree Event 2: 14:52:37 John Day-Marion 500 kV LG -ashed to tree Event 3: 15:42:03 Keeler-Alliston 500 KV - LG - ashed to tree Event 4: 15:47:36 Ross-Lexington 500 kV - ashed to tree Event 5: 15:47:36-15:48:09 8 McMary Units trip

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 41

418

As a results of the undamped oscillations, the system split into four large

islands.

419

PSS solution:

420

PSS solution:

3000

2800

0.0337

15

30

45

61

72

2800

Eigenvalue =

2600

Frequency =

2400

Damping =

2200 0 18 50 32 Time in seconds 68 75

0.0429

421

hours.

422

Transient Stability

commonly referred to, is concerned with the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism when subjected to a severe disturbance, such as a short circuit on a transmission line. The resulting system response involves large excursions of generator rotor angles and is inuenced by the nonlinear power-angle relationship.

linearization does not work in this case.

423

Transient Stability

state condition is stable or unstable (eigenvalue analysis) or a bifurcation point (e.g. Hopf bifurcation).

For large disturbances, the steady state condition after the disturbance

can exist and be stable, but it is possible that the system cannot reach that steady state condition.

424

Transient Stability

The basic idea and analysis procedures are: Pre-contingency (initial conditions): the system is operating in

normal conditions associated with a s.e.p.

circuit or a line trip forces the system to move away from its initial operating point.

system protections to try to clear the fault; the issue is then to determine whether the resulting system is stable, i.e. whether the system remains relatively intact and the associated time trajectories converge to a reasonable operating point.

425

Transient Stability

determining wheter the fault trajectory at the clearance point is outside or inside of the stability region of the post-contingency s.e.p.

426

Given the complexity of power system models, the most reliable analysis

tool for these types of studies is full time domain simulations.

Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

jxC

427

The ODE for the simplest generator d-axis transient model and

neglecting AVR and generator limits is:

V2

where

428

The objective is to determine how much time an operator would have to connect the capacitor bank BC after a severe contingency, simulated here as a sudden increase in the value of the reactance X , so that the

system recovers.

the contingency is severe, as the s.e.p. disappears.

Full time domain simulations are carried out to study this problem for the parameter values M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, E = 1, Pd = 0.7, k = 0.25, BC = 0.5.

429

1.4

1.2 V2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

tf tc

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 53

430

6

5 V2

tc

3

tf

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 54

431

Direct Methods

have been proposed based on Lyapounovs stability theory.

certain characteristics to obtain a direct measure of the stability region

A(xs ) associated with the post-contingency s.e.p. xs . A systems energy is usually a good Lyapounov function, as it yields a

stability measure.

432

Direct Methods

The rolling ball example can used to explain the basic behind these

techniques:

u.e.p.2

v m h

u.e.p.1

s.e.p.

There are 3 equilibrium points: one stable (valley bottom), two unstable

(hill tops).

433

Direct Methods

(TEF):

The potential energy at the s.e.p. is zero, and presents local maxima at the u.e.p.s (WP 1 and WP 2 ). The closest u.e.p. is u.e.p.1 since WP 1 < WP 2 .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 57

434

Direct Methods

The stability of this system can then be evaluated using this energy: if W < WP 1 , the ball remains in the valley, i.e. the system is stable, and will converge to the s.e.p. as t .

depending on friction (inconclusive test).

If W > WP 1 , the ball might or might not converge to the s.e.p., When the balls potential energy WP (t) reaches a maximum with respect to time t, the system leaves the valley, i.e. unstable

condition.

435

Direct Methods

large.

In this case, the stability boundary A(xs ) corresponds to the ridge where the u.e.p.s are located and WP has a local max. value. The smaller the friction in the system, the larger the difference between the ridge and A(xs ). For zero friction, A(xs ) is dened by WP 1 .

436

Direct Methods

The direct stability test is only a necessary but not sufcient condition: (x, xs ) < c (x, xs ) > c

potential energy function.

x A(xs )

Inconclusive!

437

Direct Methods

For the simple generator-innite bus example, neglecting limits and AVR:

Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL jxth

System

V1 1

V2 2

V 0

= = r 0 1 EV = PL sin D M X

= XG + XL + Xth

438

Direct Methods

The kinetic energy in this system is dened as: WK = And the potential energy is: WP = (Tc Tm )d (Pc Pm )d in p.u. for r 0 EV ( (PG PL )d PL )d X s s

1 M 2 2

E V B(cos cos s ) PL ( s )

where s is the s.e.p. for this system.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 62

439

Direct Methods

PG

unstable stable unstable

E V X

u2

u1

max

WF WF 2 WF 1

min max

u2

u1

440

Direct Methods

Hence, the system Lyapounov function of TEF is: T EF = (x, xs ) = ([, ]T , [s , 0]T ) 1 = M 2 E V B(cos cos s ) 2 PL ( s ) Thus, using similar criteria as in the case of the rolling ball: If T EF < WP 1 system is stable. If T EF > WP 1 inconclusive for D > 0 (friction). If T EF > WP 1 unstable for D = 0 (unrealistic).

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 64

441

Direct Methods

Criterion or EAC):

PG

pre-contingency

post-contingency

PL

contingency (fault)

(0) = spre

(tc ) spost

u1 post

fault clearing time

442

Direct Methods

(tc )

Aa

=

spre (tc )

=

spre

spost

Ad

=

(tc ) spost

(PGpost PL )d EV PL d Xpost

=

(tc )

443

Direct Methods

444

innite bus of 1 p.u. voltage through two identical parallel transmission lines of 20% reactance and negligible resistance. The generator is delivering 300 MW at a 0.9 leading power factor when a 3-phase solid fault occurs in the middle of one of the lines; the fault is then cleared by opening the breakers of the faulted line.

Assuming a 100 MVA base, determine the critical clearing time for this

generator if the damping is neglected and its inertia is assumed to be

445

Pre-contingency or initial conditions: PGpre QL EV sin spre = PL = Xpre V2 EV = + cos spre Xpre Xpre

446

300 MW PL = 100 MVA E 3 = sin spre 0.25 QL = 3 tan(cos1 0.9) E 1 + cos spre 1.4530 = 0.25 0.25

447

Eipre

Eipre Erpre

Erpre

= E cos spre = = =

spre

= =

448

where, using a Y- circuit transformation due to the fault being in the middle of one of the parallel lines:

jXf ault j0.15 j0.2 E V 0 j0.1 j0.1

449

= = =

(tcc ) spre (tcc )

=

0.503

= =

3((tcc ) 0.503) + 2.394(cos (tcc ) cos(0.503)) 3(tcc ) + 2.394 cos (tcc ) 3.6065

450

Post contingency conditions: Xpost PGpost = = = 3 = = = spost 0.15 + 0.2 = 0.35 EV sin Xpost 4.446 sin 4.446 sin spost 42.44 0.7407 rad

451

spost

Ad

=

(tcc ) 2.4

=

(tcc )

= 4.446(cos 2.4 cos (tcc )) 3(2.4 (tcc )) = 3(tcc ) + 4.446 cos (tcc ) 3.9215

452

Aa

= Ad = 3(tcc ) + 2.394 cos (tcc ) 3.6065 = 3(tcc ) + 4.446 cos (tcc ) 3.9215

(tcc )

453

454

220 200 180 160 140

[deg]

120 100 80 60 40 20

0.05

0.1

0.15

t [s]

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

455

150

[deg]

100

50

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

10

[deg]

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

456

For a clearing time of tc = 0.28 s, the system is unstable; hence tcc 0.275 s:

2500 2000

[deg]

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

40

30

[deg]

20

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t [s]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

457

the EAC method based on an equivalent inertia

M = M1 M2 /(M1 M2 ), and damping D = M D1 /M1 = M D2 /M2 . For the generator-load example neglecting the internal generator

impedance and assuming an instantaneous AVR:

PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

458

be:

WK WP

1 M 2 2 = B(V1 V2 cos V10 V20 cos 0 ) 1 1 2 2 2 + B(V2 V20 ) + B(V12 V10 ) 2 2 V2 QG ln Pd ( 0 ) + Qd ln V20 =

V1 V10

The stability of this system can then be studied using the same energy evaluation previously explained for T EF = (x, x0 ) = WK + WP .

459

Thus for V1 = 1, XL = 0.5, Pd = 0.1, and Qd = 0.25Pd , the potential energy WP (, V2 ) that denes the stability region withr espect

to the s.e.p. is:

8 7 6 5

WP

4 3 2 1

0 400 200

u.e.p. saddle

0 200

s.e.p. node

1 0.5 400 0

2 1.5

V2

460

neglecting limits, the energy proles are:

0.2

Wp Wk+Wp

0.1

T EF

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

t [s]

461

energy point.

Thus, the critical clearing time is: tcc 1.42 s A similar value can be obtained through trial-and-error.

462

The advantages of using Lyapounov functions are: Allows reduced stability analysis. Can be used as an stability index. The problems are: Lyapounov functions are model dependent; in practice, only

approximate energy functions can be found.

Inconclusive if test fails. The post-perturbation system state must be known ahead of time, as

the energy function is dened with respect to the corresponding s.e.p.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Angle Stability - 86

463

trial-and-error techniques.

These types of studies can now be done on-line even for large systems. The idea is to determine whether a set of realistic contingencies make

the system unstable or not (contingency ranking), and thus determine maximum transfer limits or ATC in certain transmission corridors for given operating conditions.

464

size of the stability region, leading to the denition of a true ATC value.

1

HB

0.9

OP

HB

0.8 0.7

ETC

ATC

TRM

0.6

V2

0.5

TTC

Worst Contingency

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pd

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

465

Critical clearing times are not really an issue with current fast acting

protections.

Simplied direct methods such as the Extended Equal Area Criterion (Y.

Xue et al., Extended Equal Area Criterion Revisited, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3, Aug. 1992, pp. 1012-1022) have been proposed and tested for on-line contingency pre-ranking, and are being implemented for practical applications through an E.U. project.

466

found in L.S. Vargas and C. A. Canizares, Time Dependence of Controls to Avoid Voltage Collapse, IEEE Transaction son Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 4, November 2000, pp. 1367-1375.

This paper discusses the May 1997 voltage collapse event of the main

power system in Chile.

467

rush hour trafc in the capital. The blackout began at about 7:20 pm, and power was back in about a third of the affected areas at 9:00 pm.

to 5 million people or one third of the countrys population. Television reports said power went out as far as Puerto Montt, a city some 600 miles south of Santiago, and in areas the same distance to the north.

Source Reuters

468

Main system characteristics: Extension: 756626 km2 . Inhabitants: 14.5 mil. National consumptions: 33531 GWh. National peak load: 5800 MW. Installed capacity: 8000 MW. Frequency: 50 Hz. Trans. Level: 66/110/154/220/500 kV. Four interconnected systems: SING, SIC, AISEN, MAGALLANES

469

470

Initial state of SIC system: 2500 MW load. Power ow south-north near 1000 MW (900 MW through 500 kV lines

and 100 MW through 154 kV lines).

Events: Line 154 kV trips. Major generator in the south hits reactive power limits and losses

voltage control.

bank near Santiago.

471

472

The line trip and generator limits yield a voltage collapse associated with

a limit-induced bifurcation problem:

473

PV curves:

474

The connection of the capacitor bank after the generator limits are

reached did not save the system, as the faulted system trajectories had left the stability region of the post contingency operating point.

475

If the capacitor bank is connected before the generator limits are reached,

the system would have been saved, as the faulted system trajectories were still within the stability of the post-contingency operating point.

476

Denitions. Basic Concepts. Practical applications, controls and protections. Italian Blackout (28/10/2003) European Blackout (4/11/2006)

477

Terms and Denitions, Denitions and Classication of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003:

Frequency Stability

Voltage Stability

Transient Stability

Short Term

Long Term

478

steady frequency following a severe system upset resulting in a signicant imbalance between generation and load.

system stability for sudden changes in the generation-load balance.

479

Generator

PG + jQG jx G jxL

PL + jQL

V1 1 +

V2 2

Kv s

V10

480

Neglecting losses and electromagnetic dynamics, the generator with a very simple AVR and no limits can be modeled using a d-axis transient

model:

G G E

= G = r 0 1 (Pm PG DG G ) = M = Kv (V10 V1 )

481

The load can be simulated using simplied mixed models and constant

power factor:

2 V2

= 2 = =

1 (PL Pd ) DL

1 (QL kPD )

Qd

482

The transmission system yields the power ow equations (X = XL = XG ): PG = = QL = = QG = E V2 PL = sin(G 2 ) X V1 V2 sin(1 2 ) XL V22 E v2 + cos(2 G ) X X V22 V1 V2 + cos(2 1 ) XL XL V12 V1 V2 cos(1 2 ) XL XL

483

Dene: = G 2 = 1 2 = G = 2

484

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 9

485

And the equilibrium equations: 0 0 0 0 0 0 = = = = = = E V2 Pm sin DG X E V2 sin Pd DL X V10 V1 V22 E V2 + cos kPd X X E V2 V1 V2 sin sin XL X 1 E V2 V1 V2 1 2 V2 cos + cos XL X X XL

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Frequency Stability - 10

486

generator-load imbalances in the system.

487

equilibrium equations.

Hence, these equations can be replaced by the following 4 power ow equations, with 4 unknowns (E , V2 , , ): 0 0 0 0 = = = = E V2 sin Pd X V22 E V2 kPd + cos X X V10 V2 sin Pd XL V22 V10 V2 kPd + cos XL XL

488

Simulating a 50% generation and load reduction, respectively, for M = 0.1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, Kv = 10, XL = 0.5, XG = 0.5, V10 = 1, Pd0 = 0.7, k = 0.25. Initial solution: E V2 V1 = = = = = = 0 0.7266 1.3463 0.7826 1.0000 0.4636

489

1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5

50% generator drop

1 1.5 2

50% load drop

2.5 3 3.5

E V2 V1

6 7 8 9 10

t [s]

490

voltage increase.

larger load voltage increase, as the reactive power demand drops.

The system reaches new s.e.p.s in both cases, as expected. Observe that the AVR keeps the generator terminal fairly stable and close to its set value V10 .

491

typical.

frequency relays in generators and loads.

automatically through controls and/or protections.

492

(ACE) regulators, may be used to regulate power exchanges among control areas by controlling the frequency deviations on the interties.

Examples of frequency instabilities are: The Italian blackout of Tuesday, October 28, 2003 (Material courtesy

of Prof. Alberto Berizzi, Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

courtesy of Prof. Edmund Handschin, University of Technology, Dortmund, Germany).

493

494

495

3:10.47 ETrans (operator of interties between Switzerland and rest of Europe) lets the GRTN (Italian operator) know of the Mettlen-Lavorgo line trip (1320 MW) and the overloading of the Sils-Soazza line (1650 MW), and requests a 300 MW demand reduction to relief the overload. 3:18.40 ETrans contacts EGL (Switzerland operator) requesting the tripping of a transformer in Soazza. 3:21.00 GRTN reduces the power imports by 300 MW.

496

3:22.03 ATEL (Swiss energy company) changes the connection of the transformer at Lavorgo. 3:25.22 Protections trip the Sils-Soazza line (1783 MW). This is basically the beginning of the cascading events that follow, severing Italy from the rest of Europe and leading to the collapse of the Italian system.

497

498

499

Frequency in Italy:

500

501

502

503

504

505

System Capacity GW Nordel UPS/IPS UKTSOA Nordel 94 337 85 600 Peak Load GW 66 215 66 390 Energy TWh 405 1285 400 2530 Population Mio. 24 280 65 450

506

450 million people served 2530 TWh used 600 GW installed capacity at 500 e/kW = 300 Ge 230.000 km HV network at 400 000 e/km = 90 Ge Approx. 5.000.000 km MV+LV network 1500 e investment per EU citizen Largest man-made system

507

508

509

schedding.

510

50.1 f [Hz] 50.0 49.9 49.8 49.7 49.6 49.5 49.4 49.3 49.2 49.1 49.0 48.9

22:10:00 22:10:10 22:10:20 22:10:30 22:10:40 22:10:50 22:11:00

frequency

511

512

Contents

513

Overview

into two classes of tools:

514

Overview

515

Overview

typically well-tested and computationally efcient.

educational and research purposes.

commercial softwares are closed, i.e. do not allow changing the source

code or adding new algorithms.

516

Overview

For research purposes, the exibility and the ability of easy prototyping

are often more crucial aspects than computational efciency.

At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are

typically aimed to a specic aspect of power system analysis.

for continuation power ow analysis.

517

Overview

C anf FORTRAN are very fast but requires keen programming skills and

are not suitable for fast prototyping.

Modelica, have become more and more popular for both research and educational purposes.

At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are

typically aimed to a specic aspect of power system analysis.

518

Overview

Matlab-based power system analysis tools: Power System Toolbox (PST) MatPower Voltage Stability Toolbox (VST) Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) Educational Simulation Tool (EST) Power system Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

519

Overview

Package EST MatEMTP MatPower PAT PSAT PST SPS VST PF CPF OPF SSA TD EMT GUI GNE

520

Overview

The features illustrated in the table are: power ow (PF) continuation power ow and/or voltage stability analysis (CPF-VS) optimal power ow (OPF) small signal stability analysis (SSA) time domain simulation (TD) graphical user interface (GUI) graphical network editor (GNE).

521

Overview

commercial and closed product, thus Matlab kernel and libraries cannot be modied nor freely distributed.

both the toolbox and the platform on which the toolbox runs should be free (Richard Stallman).

522

UWPFLOW

bifurcations related to system limits or singularities in the system Jacobian.

The program also generates a series of output les that allow further

analyses, such as tangent vectors, left and right eigenvectors at a singular bifurcation point, Jacobians, power ow solutions at different loading levels, voltage stability indices, etc.

523

UWPFLOW Features

recover from a variety of limits, including S limits.

Steady state models of generators and their control limits (AVR and

Primemover limits) are included.

Voltage dependent load models for voltage stability analysis are also

included.

524

UWPFLOW Features

variations) or IEEE common format may be used.

Detailed and reliable steady state models of SVC, TCSC and STATCOM

models, and their controls with the corresponding limits are included.

Italy), can be modeled and simulated in the program.

525

UWPFLOW Features

The program is able to compute the minimum real eigenvalue and the

related right and left eigenvectors and several voltage stability indices.

The program generates a wide variety of output ASCII and MATLAB (.m)

les as well as IEEE common format data les.

526

UWPFLOW Usage

Like any other UNIX program, i.e., command-line options (-option) with redirection of output (>) from screen into les:

uwpflow [-options] input_file [[>]output_file]

uwpflow -h

527

UWPFLOW Example

100 MW 150 MW 150 MW

60 MVAr Area 1

v3<d3

150 MW 56 MVAr

Bus 2

1.020

V2 2

Bus 3

50 MVAr

50 MW 40 MVAr 100 MW

528

UWPFLOW Example

Bus Name Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

PG

(p.u.) 1.5 0 0.5

PL

(p.u.) 0 1.5 0.5

QL

(p.u.) 0 0.56 0.40

bus model:

529

UWPFLOW Example

HDG UWPFLOW data file, WSCC format 3-area example April 2000 BAS C C AC BUSES C C | SHUNT | C |Ow|Name |kV |Z|PL |QL |MW |Mva|PM |PG |QM |Qm |Vpu BE 1 Area 1 138 1 150 60 0 0 0 150 0 0 1.02 B 1 Area 2 138 2 150 56 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00 B 1 Area 3 138 3 50 40 0 50 0 100 0 0 1.00

530

UWPFLOW Example

C C AC LINES C C M CS N C |Ow|Name_1 |kV1||Name_2 |kV2|||In || R | X | G/2 | B/2 |Mil| L 1 Area 1 138 Area 2 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 1 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 L 1 Area 2 138 Area 3 1381 15001 .01 .15 C C SOLUTION CONTROL CARD C C |Max| |SLACK BUS | C |Itr| |Name |kV| |Angle | SOL 50 Area 1 138 0. END

531

UWPFLOW Example

C C UWPFLOW load and generation "direction" file C for 3-area example C C BusNumber BusName DPg Pnl Qnl PgMax [ Smax 1 0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0 0 2 0 0.0 1.5 0.56 0 0 3 0 0.5 0.5 0.40 0 0

532

UWPFLOW Example

echo -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k echo -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s echo - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 echo - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

533

UWPFLOW Example

rem -1- Run base case power flow uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k rem -2- Obatin PV curves and maximum loading uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -cthreearea.m -m -ltmp.l -s rem - with bus voltage limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -7 -k0.1 rem - with current limits enforced uwpflow 3area.wsc -K3area.k -c -ltmp.l -8 -k0.1

534

UWPFLOW Example

PV curves (threearea.m):

Profiles 150

100

50 kVArea 3 kVArea 2 kVArea 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 L.F. [p.u.] 1 1.2 1.4

138 138 138

1.6

535

UWPFLOW Example

option):

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

536

Matlab Overview

engineering analysis.

Is vector/matrix based. A variable is by default a matrix. Is an interpreted language, thus can be slow for heavy applications. Is not open source. The GNU-Octave project provides a good alternative:

http://www.octave.org

537

Matlab Example

Stability section starting from slide 279): :

PG + jQG jxL PL + jQL

V1 1

V2 2

538

Matlab Example

= = 1

with

x = [, , V2 ]T p = V10

y = QG = Pd

539

Matlab Example

For QG = QGmin,max : V2 0

with

1 M

= QGmin,max

x = [, , V2 ]T p = QGmin,max

540

Matlab Example

Assume XL = 0.5, M = 1, DG = 0.01, DL = 0.1, = 0.01, k = 0.25. The time domain integration can be solved with the help of M ATLAB.

541

Matlab Example

function dx = example(t,x) global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 if t <= 1 XL = 0.5; else XL = 0.6; end delta = x(1); omega = x(2); V2 = max(x(3),0); dx(1,1) = omega - (V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-Pd)/DL; dx(2,1) = (Pd-V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-DG*omega)/M; dx(3,1) = (-V2*V2/XL+V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL-k*Pd)/tau;

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 30

542

Matlab Example

clear all global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 XL = 0.5; M = 0.1; DL = 0.1; DG = 0.01; tau = 0.01; k = 0.25; Pd = 0.7; V10 = 1; x0 = [0.4636; 0.0000; 0.7826]; tmax = 2; [t,x] = ode23(example,[0 tmax],x0);

543

Matlab Example

Graphical commands:

figure plot(t,x(:,1),b-) hold on plot(t,x(:,2),g--) plot(t,max(x(:,3),0),c-.) plot([0 tmax],[V10 V10],r:) legend(delta,omega,V2,V1) xlabel(t [s]) ylim([-1 6])

544

Matlab Example

6

V2 V1

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 33

545

Matlab Example

function dx = example(t,x) global M DL DG tau k Pd V10 if t <= 1, XL = 0.5; else, XL = 0.6; end delta = x(1); omega = x(2); V2 = max(x(3),0); V10 = 1; Q = V10*V10/XL - V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL; if Q > 0.5 a = 1/XL; b = -V2*cos(delta)/XL; c = -0.5; V10 = (-b + sqrt(b*b - 4*a*c))/2/a; end dx(1,1) = omega - (V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-Pd)/DL; dx(2,1) = (Pd-V10*V2*sin(delta)/XL-DG*omega)/M; dx(3,1) = (-V2*V2/XL+V10*V2*cos(delta)/XL-k*Pd)/tau;

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 34

546

Matlab Example

6

V2 V1

0 Voltage collapse 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

t [s]

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 35

547

PSAT Features

PSAT has been thought to be portable and open source. PSAT runs on the commonest operating systems PSAT can perform several power system analysis:

1. Continuation Power Flow (CPF); 2. Optimal Power Flow (OPF); 3. Small signal stability analysis; 4. Time domain simulations.

548

PSAT Features

functions in order to optimize performances.

extend PSAT ability to solve CPF and OPF problems, respectively.

549

Synoptic Scheme

Input

Simulink Models Other Data Format Saved Results

Conversion Utilities

Settings

Interfaces

GAMS Static Analysis Optimal Power Flow UWpflow Continuation Power Flow Dynamic Analysis Small Signal Stability Time Domain Simulation

PSAT

Command History

Plotting Utilities

Output

Text Output

Save Results

Graphic Output

550

PSAT Features

supports a variety of static and dynamic models.

and controls, regulating transformers, FACTS, wind turbines, and fuel cells.

551

PSAT Features

additional tools, as follows: 1. User-friendly graphical user interfaces; 2. Simulink library for one-line network diagrams; 3. Data le conversion to and from other formats; 4. User dened model editor and installer; 5. Command line usage.

552

PSAT Features

Function Continuation power ow Optimal power ow Small signal stability analysis Time domain simulation GUIs and Simulink library Data format conversion User dened models Command line usage Matlab yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes GNU/Octave yes yes yes yes no yes no yes

553

Getting Started

>> psat

which will create all structures required by the toolbox and open the main GUI.

by means of menus, buttons and/or short cuts.

554

Getting Started

555

Simulink Library

PSAT allows drawing electrical schemes by means of pictorial blocks. The PSAT computational engine is purely Matlab-based and the Simulink

environment is used only as graphical tool.

is currently not providing a Simulink clone.

556

Simulink Library

PSAT-Simulink Library:

557

Other Features

variety of tools, such as a set of Data Format Conversion (DFC) functions and the capability of dening User Dened Models (UDMs).

The set of DFC functions allows converting data les to and from formats

commonly in use in power system analysis. These include: IEEE, EPRI, PTI, PSAP, PSS/E, CYME, MatPower and PST formats. On Matlab platforms, an easy-to-use GUI handles the DFC.

558

559

The UDM tools allow extending the capabilities of PSAT and help

end-users to quickly set up their own models.

Once the user has introduced the variables and dened the DAE of the

new model in the UDM GUI, PSAT automatically compiles equations, computes symbolic expression of Jacobians matrices and writes a Matlab function of the new component.

Then the user can save the model denition and/or install the model in

PSAT.

If the component is not needed any longer it can be uninstalled using the

UDM installer as well.

560

561

PSAT is provided with a command line version. This feature allows using

PSAT in the following conditions: 1) If it is not possible or very slow to visualize the graphical environment (e.g. Matlab is running on a remote server). 2) If one wants to write scripting of computations or include calls to PSAT functions within user dened programs. 3) If PSAT runs on the GNU/Octave platform, which currently neither provides GUI tools nor a Simulink-like environment.

562

differential algebraic equations, as follows:

x = f (x, y, p) 0 = g(x, y, p)

Rn ; y are the algebraic variables y Rm ; p are the independent variables p R ; f are the differential equations f : Rn Rm R Rn ; and g are the algebraic equations g : Rm Rm R Rm .

where x are the state variables x

563

PSAT uses these equations in all algorithms, namely power ow, CPF,

OPF, small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation.

The algebraic equations g are obtained as the sum of all active and

reactive power injections at buses:

where gpm and gqm are the power ows in transmission lines, M is the

T T set of network buses, Cm and [gpc , gqc ]T are the set and the power

564

Component Models

independently of the rest of the program as a set of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations, as follows:

xc Pc Qc

where xc are the component state variables, yc the algebraic variables (i.e.

V and at the buses to which the component is connected) and pc are independent variables. Then differential equations f are built concatenating fc of all components.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

Software Tools - 53

565

Component Models

which is used for both static and dynamic analyses.

structure, which contains data, parameters and the interconnection to the grid.

566

Lets consider the exponential recovery load (ERL). The set of differential-algebraic equations are as follows: xc1 xc2 Pc Qc = xc1 /TP + P0 (V /V0 )s P0 (V /V0 )t = xc1 /TP + P0 (V /V0 )t

where and P0 , Q0 and V0 are initial powers and voltages, respectively, as given by the power ow solution.

Observe that a constant PQ load must be connected at the same bus as the ERL to determine the values of P0 , Q0 and V0 .

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha June 26, 2008 Software Tools - 55

567

Component Data:

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variable Description Bus number Power rating Active power voltage coefcient Active power frequency coefcient Real power time constant Reactive power time constant Static real power exponent Dynamic real power exponent Static reactive power exponent Dynamic reactive power exponent Unit int MVA kV Hz s s -

Sn Vn fn TP TQ s t s t

568

elds are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

con: exponential recovery load data. bus: Indexes of buses to which the ERLs are connected. dat: Initial powers and voltages (P0 , Q0 and V0 ). n: Total number of ERLs. xp: Indexes of the state variable xc1 . xq: Indexes of the state variable xc2 .

569

PSAT Example

This section illustrates some PSAT features for static and dynamic

stability analysis by means of the IEEE 14-bus test system.

http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/fmilano/

570

PSAT Example

Bus 13

|V| = 1.047 p.u. <V = 0.2671 rad

Bus 14 Bus 10

|V| = 1.0318 p.u. <V = 0.2622 rad |V| = 1.0207 p.u. <V = 0.2801 rad

Bus 12

|V| = 1.0534 p.u. <V = 0.2664 rad

Bus 11

|V| = 1.0471 p.u. <V = 0.2589 rad

Bus 09

|V| = 1.0328 p.u. <V = 0.2585 rad

Bus 07

|V| = 1.0493 p.u. <V = 0.2309 rad

Bus 06

|V| = 1.07 p.u. <V = 0.2516 rad

Bus 04

Bus 08

|V| = 1.09 p.u. |V| = 1.012 p.u. <V = 0.2309 rad <V = 0.1785 rad

Bus 05 Bus 01

|V| = 1.06 p.u. <V = 0 rad |V| = 1.016 p.u. <V = 0.1527 rad

Breaker

Bus 02

|V| = 1.045 p.u. <V = 0.0871 rad

Breaker Bus 03

|V| = 1.01 p.u. <V = 0.2226 rad

571

PSAT Example

Power ow report:

572

PSAT Example

573

PSAT Example

574

PSAT Example

Nose curves at bus 14 for different contingencies for the IEEE 14-bus test

system:

Base Case

1 0.8

Voltage [p.u.]

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4 c

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

575

PSAT Example

576

PSAT Example

Contingency

BCP

[MW]

M LC

[MW] 445.8 399.5 332.8

ALC

[MW] 186.8 148.6 73.85

Because of the denitions of generator and load powers PG and PL , one has c = + 1.

577

PSAT Example

Time domain simulation: It has been used a 40% load increase with respect to the base case

loading, and no PSS at bus 1. A Hopf bifurcation occurs for the line 2-4 outage resulting in undamped oscillations of generator angles.

A similar analysis can be carried on the same system with a 40% load

increase but considering the PSS of the generator connected at bus 1. In this case the system is stable.

578

PSAT Example

1.002 1.0015 1.001

Generator Speeds [p.u.]

10

15

Time [s]

20

25

30

579

PSAT Example

10 8 6 4 2 Imag 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.8

0.6 Real

0.4

0.2

0.2

580

Project 1

Reproduce the examples illustrated in the following slides: Voltage Stability: Slides 341-350 (using UWPFLOW) Angle Stability: Slides 444-456 (using Matlab) Frequency Stability: 479-489 (using Matlab) The software UWPFLOW is freely available at:

http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/claudio/software/pow.html

581

Project 1

Voltage stability (slides 341-350): Write the 3area.wsc data le in the EPRI data format (the format

is fully described in the UWPFLOW documetation).

described in the UWPFLOW documentation.

slides.

582

Project 1

Voltage stability (slides 341-350): Run a base case power ow, a continuation power ow with and

without enforcing voltage and current limits. Compute also the singular value index.

curves and the singular value index using Matlab.

583

Project 1

Angle stability (slides 444-456): Write a Matlab function with the system differential equations. Use a Matlab script le to initialize and solve the time domain simulation (function ode23). Using a trial-and-error technique nd the clearing time tc of the system for D = 0.1, D = 0.05 and D = 0.2. For each value of the damping D, provide plots of the rotor angle and the rotor speed .

584

Project 1

Frequency stability (slides 479-489): Write a Matlab function with the system differential equations. Use a Matlab script le to initialize and solve the time domain simulation (function ode23). Run the time domain integration for a 25%, 50% and 60% generation drop at t = 1 followed by a 25%, 50% and 60% load drop at t = 5,

respectively.

For each value of the generation and load drop, provide plots of , , E , V2 and V1 .

585

Project 2

Reproduce the results for the IEEE 14-bus tests system illustrated in the

paper: F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, accepted for publication on the IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, March 2005, 8 pages.

http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/fmilano/

586

Project 2

The IEEE 14-bus test system is provided wintin the PSAT main distribution (folder tests). For the base case power ow, the continuation power ow and the

optimal power ow routines, use the le:

For the time domain simulations without PSS, use the le:

d 014 dyn l14.mdl

For the time domain simulations with PSS, use the le:

d 014 pss l14.mdl

587

Project 2

Hints: For static analyses (PF, CPF, OPF), disable loading dynamic

components by checking the box Discard dynamic components in the GUI Settings (within the menu Edit in the main window).

close box (within the Simulink block mask) of the breaker of the line that one wants to keep out.

588

Project 2

Hints: For OPF analysis, disable the base case powers in the GUI for OPF

Settings and set the weighting factor to 1 (maximization of the ditance to voltage collapse).

components box and do not allow the conversion to PQ buses when the program asks for.

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