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Senior Science 8.

2 Water for Living

Section 1 Water is Essential

Section 1

Water is Essential

Focus - Water is essential for the health of humans and other living things 8.2.1.a 8.2.1.b Identify the relative amount of water in a variety of living things Describe the importance of water as a solvent in the bloodstream cells transpiration stream Discuss ways in which plants optimise water uptake Discuss ways, using examples, that plants reduce water loss such as thick outer coating (cuticle) on leaves reduced leaves dropping leaves in times of drought Discuss ways, using examples, that animals reduce water loss such as: excrete uric acid instead of urea nocturnal behaviour reduced activity lying in the shade burrowing underground

8.2.1.c 8.2.1.d

8.2.1.e

8.2.1.i 8.2.1.ii 8.2.1.iii 8.2.1.iv

Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate that substances dissolve in water and to identify the solute and solvent in each case Plan, choose equipment or resources for and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the amount of water present in a variety of fruits, vegetables and meat Perform a first-hand investigation to identify adaptations of some plants that assist in reducing water loss Gather, process and analyse information to identify the different ways in which a range of terrestrial animals reduce water loss

P Wilkinson 2002-04

Describing aqueous mixtures


A mixture consists of two or more substances that can be separated by physical means. Examples Dirty water a mixture of dirt and water; the dirt can be separated by filtration. Sugar solution a mixture of sugar and water; the sugar can be separated by evaporating the water. A liquid solution is a mixture in which a solid, liquid or gas (the solute) dissolves in a liquid substance (the solvent). A solution: contains dissolved substances (particles) and these particles are spread out evenly throughout the liquid. Also, The particles are extremely small (cannot be seen with the naked eye). The particles can remain suspended indefinitely. The particles cannot be separated by filtration A solute is the substance that dissolves in the solvent. A solvent is a liquid in which the solute dissolves. A solution where the solvent is water is called an aqueous mixture. A solute is soluble if it dissolves completely in a solvent A substance is insoluble if it will not dissolve in a solvent. If two liquids mix they are said to be miscible.

Notes Questions
1. Which of the following mixtures are solutions? Oil and water; Dirty water; sea water; air; mayonnaise; alcohol and water; paint 2. Explain why a solution is a mixture. 3. Suggest a reason why the diagram opposite could represent a solution.

4. Copy and then complete the following table Solute Salt Sugar, flavours and other Solvent water Coca cola Beer 3 Solution

P Wilkinson 2002-04

8.2.1.i

Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the range of substances that will dissolve in water and to identify the solute and solvent in each case

Solutes and Solvents


Aim To identify the solute and solvent in a range of substances that dissolve in water.

Risk Analysis Before any practical task is performed, a risk analysis should be completed. This means an assessment of sources of risk needs to be made. Factors to consider include physical, chemical and biological factors.
NB See Humans at Work Section 1 for more details

Method 1. Organise the following equipment: 6 medium test tubes test tube rack solids (solutes) - sodium chloride, Phenolphthalein, iodine, copper sulfate, polystyrene foam liquids (solvents) - water, methylated spirits, acetone Spatula 2. Mix small quantities of each of the solutes separately with each of the solvents. 3. Determine if a solution is formed. 4. Record the solubility of the solute using a table similar to the one below; (ie if the solute is soluble, slightly soluble or insoluble). Results Solvent
Sodium Chloride Water Phenolphthalein

Solute

Conclusion Write an appropriate conclusion Discussion / Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name two safe working practices for a science laboratory. [2 marks] Outline how students did not waste resources doing this experiment. [2 marks] Name a biological risk. [1 mark] Outline a physical risk. [2 marks] Describe a chemical risk. [3 marks] Explain why there might be a need to repeat some combinations of solvents and solutes in the experiment. [2 marks]

P Wilkinson 2002-04

Marking criteria for investigation


Marking Criteria Perform planned practical (12.1) [3 marks] At all times
Carry out planned procedure safely Use safe working practices

Mark range Mostly 2 Few criteria 1 Scaffold partly used 2 Most criteria 3 1 Few criteria 1 Occasionally 1 3 Sufficient criteria 2 [3 marks] Scaffold used 3 All criteria 5

Data collection (12.2)


Accuracy of measurements Sufficient data collected

[2 marks]

Presents information (13.1)


Neat Uses Laboratory report scaffold

Results table (13.1)


[5 marks]

Ruled Column headings Units & Column headings Accurate data recorded

Conclusion (14.1) Discussion

[2 marks]

Totally consistent 2

Logical 1

[12 marks]

Notes Questions
5. Write ONE complete sentence for each of the following groups of words. Each sentence must use every word from the group Each sentence must be a correct scientific statement a. b. c. d. e. Salt, solvent Dissolved, water, when Soluble, solution, is Solid, insoluble, which Solution, sugar, methylated spirits (careful!)

6. The following are all solutions: each contains a solute dissolved in a solvent. a. For each solution: i. Name the solute ii. Name the solvent. b. Present all this information in a table. SOLUTION 1 SOLUTION 2 SOLUTION 3 SOLUTION 4 A cup of coffee Sea water Blood Water that travels through plants

P Wilkinson 2002-04

8.2.1.ii 8.2.1.a Part A

Plan, choose equipment or resources for and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the amount of water present in a variety of fruits, vegetables and meat Identify the relative amount of water in a variety of living things Planning an investigation

A scientific investigation must be planned so that valid and reliable data is collected. One important aspect of planning is describing and trailing the method to be used. The method needs to be repeatable. Planning involves a number of points: A discussion about various issues related to performing the investigation. To discuss means to identify issues and provide points for and against these issues. A risk analysis A written method using a text type called a procedure scaffold. Pre planning questions The following questions are to help in a discussion about various issues related to performing the investigation. After these issues are considered, a draft method can be written. 1. Identify ONE fruit that would be suitable ie cheap and easy to get. 2. Which of the questions below make it clear what needs to be done in the investigation. How much water is in a fruit? How much of the fruit is water? What is the percentage of water in the fruit? What is the amount of water in the fruit expressed as a percentage of total weight? a. Identify problems with some of these questions b. Explain which question is the best. 3. Outline some ways that could be used to remove the water from the fruit. What can you do to the fruit to let the water escape? 4. In order to get the % of water by total weight two measurements need to be made. What is measured before and what is measured after? 5. In this experiment use the same pieces of fruit BEFORE (with water) and AFTER (without water). Therefore, in this investigation the material being tested will be destroyed. This is acceptable since the fruit being tested should be cheap and plentiful. In some scientific investigations the material is very important and would only be destroyed in extreme circumstances. Name TWO examples of such materials. Identify the situation where such materials might occur.
P Wilkinson 2002-04

6. How many pieces of fruit will be used in this experiment (1, 2, 3, 5, 10 )? 7. How many times will the experiment be repeated to get reliable data? 8. How does the experimenter know that all the water has been removed from the fruit? Discuss the sequence: Weigh Heat Weigh Heat Weigh Heat Weigh. How long would the sequence be continued. 9. Explain why an oven could be used. 10. Explain why a weighing machine could be used. 11. Explain why a scalpel or pin would be useful. 12. Name a container that would be acceptable to hold the fruit. Risk analysis Safe working practices involve care to be taken When using scalpels and pins. By wearing correct footwear in the laboratory. By being careful where bags are placed in the laboratory. By concentrating on the task to be completed and reducing distraction. Write a sentence for TWO of the above safe working practices. The procedure scaffold The procedure scaffold has three main parts: 1. An statement outlining the aim or purpose of the investigation Generally a single sentence 2. Materials needed for the investigation This may be a list. This may be left out in some cases. 3. A sequence of steps in a logical order. Preferably in point form One idea per point Numbers can be used to show 1st, 2nd 3rd etc The order is usually important Words such as now, next and after this can be used. Many steps should begin with command words such as add, stir, and weigh. There is enough detail so that the investigation can be repeated.

P Wilkinson 2002-04

Write-up of aim, method Once pre-planning occurs the draft method can be written and the experiment performed. 1. Heading Write a heading for the investigation. 2. Pre planning questions Write down a summary of the various ideas and issues raised in response to the pre planning questions above. 3. Write a draft method using the Laboratory Report Scaffold and the following headings a. Write the purpose or aim of the investigation. b. Write a list of materials or equipment needed c. Write a method in point form. d. Draw ONE diagram.

Marking Criteria Planning investigation (11.2) 1. Heading for investigation [15 marks]
[1] [2]

Mark range Good / Yes 1 2 1 1


[2] [2] [2]

Poor / No 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

2. Summary of issues raised in discussion 4. Aim of investigation


[1]

3. Appropriate headings used in written report [1] 5. Appropriate list of equipment selected. 6. Procedures are listed in logical steps. 7. Each step is numbered and in a sentence 8. Instructions are clear. 9. Diagram.
[3] [1]

2 2 2 1 3 2

P Wilkinson 2002-04

Part B

Performing the experiment

Write-up of results, conclusion 1. 2. Perform the investigation Use your method or an edited version to perform the investigation. Record your results. Construct a table to show the original weight and weight loss. Show your calculations of percentage weight loss for each food type. % of water in food = % weight loss = original weight final weight x 100 original weight 1 Graph these measurements using a column graph. Write a conclusion.

3.

Discussion / Questions Outline what happens to the waste material after the experiment [2 marks] Describe how this investigation could be repeated for other fruits, meat, and vegetables. [3 marks]

Marking Criteria Perform planned practical (12.1) [3 marks] At all times



Mark range Mostly 2 Few criteria 1 Most criteria 3 Few criteria 1 Occasionally 1 3 Sufficient criteria 2

Carry out planned procedure safely Use safe working practices

Data collection (12.2)


Accuracy of measurements Sufficient data collected % calculation completed

[2 marks]

Results table (13.1)


Ruled Column headings Units & Column headings Accurate data recorded

[5 marks]

All criteria 5

Conclusion (14.1)

[2 marks]

Totally consistent 2

Logical 1

Discussion questions

P Wilkinson 2002-04

8.2.1.b

Describe the importance of water as a solvent in the bloodstream cells transpiration stream

Water as a solvent
What to do Read the information on water and its uses in living things Answer the questions Describe the importance of water as a solvent in the bloodstream, cells and the transpiration stream. Every living thing is made up of cells. Living cells are made up from many different substances, but the most important and abundant is water. The weight of a living organism is between 60% and 99% water therefore most organisms can withstand very little water loss. Both plant and animal cells are dependent on water. Water allows cells to maintain their shape and to function. 1. Polarity Each water molecule has a formula H2O a water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one, oxygen atom. The oxygen atom attracts (negative) electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atom. This causes one end of the water molecule to be negatively charged and the other end positively charged the molecule is said to be polar. Cohesiveness Water molecules are polar. Therefore the negative end of one molecule attracts the positive end of the other. This attraction between the polar water molecules results in the molecules sticking together cohesive. It allows water to move up the conducting tissue of plants and allows some insects to move across the surface of a pond without sinking. High Specific Heat Because polar molecules attract each other, energy is needed to separate them. This allows water to absorb more heat (high specific heat) than most other liquids. This means that water can absorb and transfer heat. This is important to cells where chemical reactions release large amounts of energy (heat), which might cause cells to overheat. Water as a Solvent The most important biological property of water is its ability to act as a solvent. A large number of substances (sugars, gases, organic acids) dissolve in water. As well, water, generally does not react with the solutes.

2.

3.

4.

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Uses of water in living things


Bloodstream - Multicellular animals need to transport materials around their bodies; eg digested food from the small intestine; urea from the liver & kidneys and carbon dioxide to the lungs. Since water is a good solvent it dissolves many substances like glucose, urea, salts, oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is an ideal fluid for transporting these substances. Blood plasma is 90% water. The substances dissolve in the water and are carried in solution around the body. Water is also necessary for substances to enter the bloodstream. Eg the lung surface needs to be moist so that oxygen can dissolve and move across to red blood cells.

Cells - Water is essential for all the cells reactions. Many of these reactions only occur when the two reacting substances are dissolved (in water). For example seeds will not germinate without a certain amount of water in the seed. Also, within the cell, water is still necessary for transport and moves substances around the cell. [In plant cells, water is necessary in making the cell turgid (stiff). When the vacuoles of plant cells are full of water, they cause the cells to push against the cell walls.]

Transpiration Stream - Multicellular plants need to transport materials around their bodies. Salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the roots and delivered to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This is only possible because these substances are soluble in water. [Water is also essential for photosynthesis.]

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Notes Questions
7. Research What is a cell? 8. What is the main substance in cells? 9. How much water would there be in a living organism that weighed 100kg? 10. Why do cells need water? 11. Water has a number of properties that contribute to making it an important molecule for living organisms. 12. What type of atoms (elements) make up a water molecule? 13. Why is water a polar molecule? 14. What causes water molecules to be cohesive (stick together)? 15. What type of substances will dissolve in water? 16. Research What is the bloodstream? 17. Name three substances transported around the body. 18. Why can blood transport many of these substances? 19. Why is water essential for chemical reactions in cells? 20. Research What is the transpiration stream? 21. Name one substance transported by the transpiration stream.

8.2.1.c 8.2.1.d

Discuss ways in which plants optimise water uptake Discuss ways, using examples, that plants reduce water loss such as Thick outer coating (cuticle) on leaves Reduced leaves Dropping leaves in times of drought

Plants obtaining water


What to do Using the information below, answer the following 1. Discuss ways in which plants optimise water uptake. 2. Discuss ways, using examples, that plants reduce water loss It may be necessary to do further research to write a complete discussion.

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In plants, water moves from the soil, into the root, through the stem, then the leaves and finally into the air via stomata. On a hot day, a large tree absorbs hundreds of litres of water from the soil. Very little of this is used for photosynthesis. Most (99%) is evaporated from the leaves. Water absorption occurs via the root hairs. The root hairs greatly increase the surface area in contact with water bearing soil. The 2nd column needs to be reorganised to match the 1st column. Plant feature Reason for plant feature Extensive root systems Reduces need to constantly absorb water via roots. Roots may produce a chemical To direct water towards the roots eg Hakea that stops the growth of other plants nearby. Succulents store water in fleshy This reduces the competition for scarce water. leaves (eg saltbush) Well-spaced plants To collect and store water Leaves shaped special way Decreases competition for water Transpiration is defined as the loss of water from the leaves. Transpiration is important because it causes water to be pulled through the plant. The process of transpiration is very wasteful of water. depending on their need for water and external conditions. Plants control their water loss

Cacti store water in stem Most water loss occurs through the stomata. Plants mainly control water loss by opening and closing stomata (on the underside of the leaf) Plants that live in dry or desert environments have a variety of special adaptations to help reduce water loss. These adaptations are necessary for the plant to survive with little or no water. Leaves of plants in dry areas are often small Stems covered with spines or needles, such a covering helps reduce grazing by animals Stomata are often found on the underside of a leaf. As a result the stomata are protected from the direct heat of the sun. Other plants curl their leaves that have a hairy surface creating an inner cavity. This increases humidity and reduces evaporation. It also protects the leaf from the drying effects of the wind. The leaves of plants in dry climates have fewer stomata when compared to plants from wetter climates. Eucalypts display another adaptation. They hang their leaves vertically, edge-on to the sun. This means little of the surface is exposed to the heat of the suns rays.

P Wilkinson 2002-04

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8.2.1.iii

Perform a first-hand investigation to identify adaptations of some plants that assist in reducing water loss Gather, process and analyse information to identify the different ways in which a range of terrestrial animals reduce water loss Discuss ways, using examples, that animals reduce water loss such as: excrete uric acid instead of urea nocturnal behaviour reduced activity lying in the shade burrowing underground

8.2.1.iv 8.2.1.e

Writing the method of a first-hand investigation


In order to write a valid, experimental method, certain principles of experimental design need to be known. Why do experiments? When planning a first-hand investigation the following principles should be considered. A first-hand investigation is designed to discover new information. Experimenters are interested in the truth. The experiment must be able to be repeated by other scientists. 1. Outline the information that was discovered in the experiment to determine the amount of water present in a variety of fruits, vegetables and meat. 2. Identify TWO reasons why this experiment could be repeated. The writing genre To communicate the objectivity of the experiment the tradition is to never use the words I or WE. It is normal to write in past tense using complete sentences. Writing the method The method is a description of steps to be followed and the materials used. When writing the method the following topics should be considered. V G C M A N S Variables Groups Control Measurements Activity Number Safety

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Variables In an experiment the effect of one variable on another is investigated. The independent variable is the variable deliberately changed by the experimenter. The dependent variable is the variable that could change because of the change in the independent variable. Controlled variables The dependent variable and the independent variable can change. All other variables are kept the same throughout the experiment these are called the controlled variables. 3. In this investigation on water content: a] Identify the independent variable b] Identify the dependent variable [1 mark] [1 mark]

c] Name 2 variables that could have been controlled. [2 mks] G Groups Groups occur because the independent variable is changed for different groups. The only difference between the groups at the start of the experiment is the difference in the independent variable. In all other aspects the groups are the same. 4. How many groups are there in the water content investigation? C Control There are two types of groups the Control Group and the Experimental Group. The control is the reference against which experimental groups are compared. The control allows the experimenter to determine if the changes made to the experimental group actually cause the dependent variable to change. 5. Outline the purpose of a control. 6. Is there a control in this experiment?

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Measurements There are two types of measurement Qualitative: This measurement does not involve numbers. It uses words to compare eg green, greener; more, less; slower, faster Quantitative: This measurement involves numbers. They should be carefully measured. Errors should be recorded and considered in the Discussion section of the Laboratory Report. It can be very important to clearly describe how and what to measure in the method. 7. Identify the type of measurement in the water content investigation. 8. Identify what was measured in this investigation.

Activity A scientific investigation can occur using a number of different activities. Types of activities include: An experimental investigation Survey Model building Literature search, or other second hand investigation The method should be written so that Steps are outlined in a logical order. There is enough detail so that the investigation can be repeated. Number Reliability depends on the number of results obtained. In some investigations only three results may be necessary. In other investigations many hundreds of results are necessary before reliability is certain. It is possible that a single unusual event could occur. A large number of results reduces the influence of an unusual event on the overall results and the conclusion. 10. How many results should be recorded for each fruit to obtain a reliable result? 11. Would you consider your investigation reliable? Explain. 12. Would have van Helmonts conclusion changed if he planted many more trees?

Safety Identifying and minimising hazards must be considered for all investigations Identifying and using safe work practices is essential. 13. Identify TWO hazards that should be considered before performing this investigation. 14. Identify TWO safe working practices required for this investigation.

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OVERHEAD

OVERHEAD

OVERHEAD

OVERHEAD

Water as a Solvent Bloodstream - Multicellular animals need to transport materials around their bodies; eg digested food from the small intestine; urea from the liver & kidneys and carbon dioxide to the lungs. Since water is a good solvent it dissolves many substances like glucose, urea, salts, oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is an ideal fluid for transporting these substances. Blood plasma is 90% water and carries these substances in solution around the body. Water is also necessary for substances to enter the bloodstream. Eg the lung surface needs to be moist so that oxygen can dissolve and move across to red blood cells. Cells - Water is essential for all the cells reactions. Many of these reactions only occur when the two reacting substances are dissolved. For example seeds will not germinate without a certain amount of water in the seed. Within the cell water is still necessary for transport and moves substances around the cell. [In plant cells, water is necessary in making the cell turgid (stiff). When the vacuoles of plant cells are full of water, they cause the cells to push against the cell walls.] Transpiration Stream - Multicellular plants need to transport materials around their bodies. Salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the roots and delivered to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This is only possible because these substances are soluble in water. [Water is also essential for photosynthesis.]

P Wilkinson 2002-04

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