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CHAPTER 6 FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION 6.1 The Methods and Substances Used in Food Technology 1.

__________________ foods are foods that have been altered from their original form and are packed in plastic bags, boxes, cans, jars, packets or bottles. 2. Food processing may involve a) addition of chemicals or _____________________ to make them last longer. b) removal or loss of nutrients due to ________________ and refining processes. 3. Chemicals Used in Food Processing Chemicals Preservatives Colouring Functions Kill harmful microorganisms Extend the ______________________ of food. Reduce spoilage of food. Examples salt sugar benzoic acid

Adds _______________ to food.

carotene tartrazine activated carbon


Removes unwanted colour in food so that the food looks cleaner. Adds flavour to food Makes food tastier.


Vanilla Spices (MSG) Starch Gelatin Sugar Honey Aspartame Mannitol Ascorbic acid Tocopherols


Improves the ______________ of food. Binds food together.


Makes food sweeter

Prevents food from oxidizing.

Makes the different substances in food combine.


4. Technology Used in Food Processing and Packaging Technology Canning Method Food is cooked and put into sterile cans. The cans are sealed and sterile at _______ C Food is heated to above 100C for a few seconds to a few minutes. Milk is heated to ______C for 30 seconds or heated to 72Cbfor 15 seconds. Dehydration ____________ is removed from food by drying the food in the sun or oven, smoking, using dryers, or by adding _________ or sugar. Food is refrigerated at 0C to 5C. The food is refrigerated at -18C to -40 C Advantage Food can be kept for a longer period. Microbes and their __________ are killed. Food can be kept up to a few years. The taste and the nutrients are maintained. Disadvantage Nutrients and vitamins in canned food are destroyed. The taste of food treated in this way is different from the original taste. Spores of bacteria are not killed. The food can be kept for a _________ Period only. The taste and flavour of the food are changed.

______ treatment

The food can be kept for a longer period.

Refrigeration/ Cooling Freezing

Vitamins in the food and the taste of the food are _______________.

Bacteria and their spores are not ___________.

The freshness of the food is Bacteria and their spore maintained and the food are ________________ can be kept longer. Vitamins in the food are _____________. The lost of flavour and nutritional value of the food is minimal and the shelf-life is ___________. The food will become sterile and can last for a longer time. There is some change in the appearance of the food. Some vitamins may be destroyed in the process. This method is limited to certain types of food.

Food is frozen and its water content is sublimed into _____________in a vacuum. Food is sealed in plastic and then radiated. Vacuum Packaging

All the _________ is sucked All ______________ that out and sealed immediately in required oxygen to survive a plastic bag. are killed.

5. Effects of the Use of Chemicals in Excessive Amounts Food Additive Preservatives Colouring Bleach Flavouring Sweetener Harmful effects Disturb the human _____________ system; cause rashes, foetal abnormality, tightness in the chest for asthmatics. Cancer, infertility, food __________________ _____________, food poisoning. Cancer, brain _____________, tightness in the chest for asthmatics. Cancer, rashes, hives Stunted growth, damage to the liver and kidneys, rashes, hives. 6.2 Ways to Improve Food Production 5.

6. Efficient land management

4. Education and guidance for farmers

Ways to increase the quality and quantity of food 1. The use of quality breeds 3. The optimum use of land and irrigated areas.


1. The use of quality breeds: Through ______________ breeding to produce desired quality animals or plants. 2. The use of modern technology : help to increase quality and quantity of food production. Methods: a) The use of organic and _________________ fertilizers. b) The use of man-made hormones to ________________ growth. c) The use of new techniques such as hydroponics, ______________________ d) The use of modern machinery. e) The use of biotechnology. 3

3. Education and guidance for farmers: Educate farmers on how to use __________________ _______________and modern technology to increase yields. 4. Research and Development : Agencies and institutions conduct R&D on _____________ production. 5. Optimum use of land and irrigated areas : Encourage farmers to use ________________ land for agriculture. 6. Efficient land management : To produce higher yields and ensure that the land remains ___________ and to prevent soil erosion. 7. __________________________ food : Genetic engineering is used to produce genetically modified organisms that have desired characteristics. 6.3 The Contribution of Technology in Food production. 1. Among the institutions and agencies involved in R&D of food production are : a) MARDI b) MPOB c) Department of _____________________ d) Department of ________________ e) Malaysian Cocoa Board f) Local universities 6.4 Selecting Processed Food 1. The Food Act 1983 and ___________________________ 1985 are introduced to protect the public against health hazards and fraud in the preparation, sale and consumption of food as well as other issues related to food. 2. According to the Food Regulations 1985, a ________________ label should include . a) the common name of the food. b) the _________________ value of the food c) the ingredients, additives or ________________ used d) the manufacturing and _____________________ date e) the name and address of the _____________________ f) the weight, volume and quantity of contents. g) the designation of food h) the brand i) the storage _________________