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Polymer Materials Science: Fundamentals of Polymer Physics Winter semester 2009/10

Solutions III
1a)

N ( x, t ) = x 2 N ( x, t ) = x 2

1 x x2 exp 4Dt 2 D t 2Dt 1 1

2 1 1 x2 x2 x exp exp + 4Dt 2Dt 4Dt 2 D t 2Dt 2 2 2 2 1 1 x x x exp exp D 2 N ( x, t ) = + 3 5 4Dt 4D t 4Dt x 2 D 2 t 2 2 2 1 1 1 x x x exp exp N ( x, t ) = + 3 2 4Dt 4Dt t 2 D 2 t t 4Dt

Comparison of the last two lines which represent right - and left-hand side, resp., of FICKs second law show immediately that this law is fulfilled by N ( x, t ) . q.e.d. 1b)
N ( x, t ) = 1 2 Dt exp x2 4Dt

0,4

0,3

Example: D = 1 cm /s

N(x) / cm

-1

0,2

t= 1s t = 10 s t = 100 s

0,1

0,0 -50 0 50

x / cm

1c)

x = 0: x 0:

N ( 0, t ) =

1 2 Dt

lim N ( 0, t ) =
t 0

Substitution t 1/z2 :

lim N ( x, t ) = lim
t 0 z

z 2 D lim
z

exp

x2 z2 = 4D 1

1 2 D =0

lim
z

z x2 z2 exp 4D

1 2 D

zx x2 z2 exp 4D D

Together with

conditions are fulfilled for the verification of lim N ( x, t ) = ( x ) .


t 0

N ( x, t )dx = 1

what is valid for all t because of the normalization, all q.e.d.

2a) We can count the events from the following table for heads UP and DOWN, resp.: Flip # 1 2 3 4 1 UP UP UP UP 2 UP UP UP DOWN 3 UP UP DOWN UP 4 UP UP DOWN DOWN 5 UP DOWN UP UP 6 UP DOWN UP DOWN 7 UP DOWN DOWN UP 8 UP DOWN DOWN DOWN 9 DOWN UP UP UP 10 DOWN UP UP DOWN 11 DOWN UP DOWN UP 12 DOWN UP DOWN DOWN 13 DOWN DOWN UP UP 14 DOWN DOWN UP DOWN 15 DOWN DOWN DOWN UP 16 DOWN DOWN DOWN DOWN and find totally 16 events, thereof 6 ones with 2 and only 2 UPS. Hence the probability for getting two UPs is 3/8. To count the cases of exactly 2 UPs we can also proceed in the following way: There are 4 possibilities to get one UP. In each of this cases, there are 3 possibilities left for the second UP giving 12 double UPs. However, here we have regarded each case twice; for example case #4 results if the first UP is at 1st and second UP is at 2nd flip, as well as if the first UP is at 2nd and second UP is at 1st flip. Hence we have to divide by the number of permutations of all UPs within one configuration which is here 2, and get the value 6 as above. 2b) For n flips there are 2n different possible events. The number of cases with exactly k UPs is estimated analogous to the second method from the former example: There are n possibilities for placing the first UP. Then there are (n-1) possibilities left for the second UP, (n-2) for the third and so on, until (n-k+1) for the kth UP giving a total number of n(n-1)(n-2)...(n-k+1) configurations. However, again a lot of configurations give the same case because a permutation of the UPs represents the same case. Among k UPs there are k! permutations. This results in
n ( n 1) ( n 2 ) ... ( n k + 1) k! = n n! = k !( n k ) ! k

different cases having k times heads up in n flips. Now we have to divide the number of favourable cases by that of possible cases giv1 n ing a probability of n . q.e.d. 2 k