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# A natural number is called a prime number (or a prime) if it is bigger than one and has no divisors other than

1 and itself. For example, 5 is prime, since no number except 1 and 5 divides it. On the other hand, 6 is not a prime (it is composite), since 6 = 2 3. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic establishes the central role of primes in number theory: any positive integer n can be expressed as the product ofpowers of primes in a way that is unique except for a possible reordering of the factors. This theorem requires excluding 1 as a prime. There are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method verifying the primality of a given number n is known as trial division. It consists in testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n. More sophisticated algorithms, which are much more efficient than trial division, have been devised to test the primality of large numbers. Particularly fast methods are available for primes of special forms, such as Mersenne primes. As of 2011, the largest known prime number has about 13 million decimal digits. There is no known useful formula that yields all of the prime numbers and no composites. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, the statistical behaviour of primes in the large can be modeled. The first result in that direction is the prime number theorem which says that the probability that a given, randomly chosen number n is prime is inversely proportional to its number of digits, or the logarithm of n. Therefore, the density of prime numbers within natural numbers is 0, but in a sense, primes occur more often than squares of integers. The prime number theorem has been proven at the end of the 19th century using methods of analytic number theory. The unproven Riemann hypothesis dating from 1859 implies a refined statement concerning the distribution of primes. Many questions around prime numbers remain open, many of which can be stated simply. For example, Goldbach's conjecture, which asserts that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes, and the twin prime conjecture, which says that there are infinitely many twin primes (pairs of primes whose difference is 2), have been unresolved for more than a century. Such questions spurred the development of various branches of number theory, focusing on analytic or algebraic aspects of numbers. Primes are applied in several routines in information technology, such as public-key cryptography, which makes use of the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime factors. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other mathematical domains, mainlyalgebra, such as prime elements and prime Twin Prime: A twin prime is a prime number that differs from another prime number by two. Except for the pair (2, 3), this is the smallest possible difference between two primes. Some examples of twin prime pairs are (3, 5), (5, 7), (11, 13), (17, 19), (29, 31) and (41, 43). Sometimes the term twin prime is used for a pair of twin primes; an alternative name for this is prime twin.ideals.