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COMM 371 (Spring 2012) Study Guide for Exam II

Lecture #5 (Weeks 6 & 7) (CHAPTER 5) Chapter 5: Identity and Intercultural Communication (pp. 205-213 only; Martin & Nakayama) Identity, Stereotypes, and Prejudice -Why do we necessarily categorize and generalize? Explain. To make sense out of the overwhelming amount of information we receive, we necessarily categorize and generalize, sometimes relying on stereotypes -What are stereotypes? Be able to define and explain. Widely held beliefs about some group. Stereotypes help us know what to expect from others. Stereotypes help us know what to expect from others. -What is a model minority? Be able to define and explain. A stereotype that characterizes all Asians and Asian Americans as hardworking and serious and so a good minority. -Are there only negative stereotypes? Explain. No, the model minority is a positive stereotype. -How do stereotypes create unrealistic expectations for individuals? Be able to explain. Even positive stereotypes can be damaging in that they create unrealistic expectations for individuals. Simply because someone is Asian American (or pretty, or smart) does not mean that he or she will excel in school or be outgoing and charming. -When do stereotypes become detrimental? Explain. Stereotypes become particularly detrimental when they are negative and are held rigidly. -Are our stereotypes generally conscious or unconscious? Unconscious. We pick up stereotypes in many ways, including from the media. Because stereotypes often operate at an unconscious level and so are persistent, people have to work consciously to reject them. -What is prejudice? Be able to define and explain. Prejudice is a negative attitude toward a cultural group based on little or no experience. -What is the difference between a stereotype and prejudice? Be able to explain and identify differences. It is a prejudgment of sorts. Whereas stereotypes tell us what a group is like, prejudice tells us how we are likely to feel about that group -What are the four (4) functions which prejudice serve (e.g., ego-defensive function)? Be able to list, describe, and identify each in a scenario. Utilitarian function People hold certain prejudices because they can lead to rewards. Ego-defensive function People hold certain prejudices because they dont want to believe unpleasant things about themselves (i.e., protect us). Value-expressive function People hold certain prejudices because they serve to reinforce aspects of life that are highly valued. Religious attitudes often function in this way. Knowledge function People hold certain prejudices because such attitudes allow them to organize and structure their world in a way that makes sense to them in the same way that stereotypes help us organize our world. Identity and Communication -What happens when we assume knowledge about another persons identity based on his or her membership in a particular cultural group (p. 209)? When we do so, we are ignoring the individual aspect. Taking a dialectical perspective can help us recognize and balance both the individual and the cultural aspects of anothers identity. Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT)

-What are the three (3) assumptions of EVT discussed in class? Explain each. 1. Human interaction is driven by expectations. 2. Expectations for human behavior are learned. 3. Evaluations of deviation are mediated by the reward value of the communicator. -What are the three (3) aspects to stereotyping? Be able to explain each. 1). categorization, usually based on identifiable characteristics (e.g., sex or ethnicity). 2). attributes (positive or negative) ascribed to members of that category. 3). set of attributes ascribed to ANY individual member of that category. -What are four conditions necessary in order for contact to be positive? Be able to list and describe each. 1. Equal status (within the situation, not necessarily coming into the situation). 2. Common goals (active goal-oriented effort). 3. Intergroup cooperation (must be interdependent effort without intergroup competition) 4. Institutional support (explicit social sanction; support of authorities, law, or custom).

Lecture #6 (Week 8) (CHAPTER 6) pg. 218 Chapter 6: Language and Intercultural Communication (Martin & Nakayama) Social Scientific Perspective on Language -What does the social scientific perspective focus on? The social science perspective focuses on the individual aspects of language use: the components of language, language perception and thought, and on the way cultural groups use language in different ways. -What are the four (4) components of language? See Table 6-1. Semantics: The study of meaning-how individual words communicate the meanings we intend. Syntactics: The study of the structure, or grammar-the rules for combining words into meaningful sentences. Order or words is important. Pragmatics: The study of how meaning is constructed in relation to receivers, how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities. Phonetics: The study of the sound system of language-how words are pronounced, which units of sounds are meaningful. Language and Perception -What is the nominalist position? Be able to define. According to the nominalist position, perception is not shaped by the particular language we speak. Language is simply an arbitrary outer form of thought. Thus, we all have the same range of thoughts, which we express in different ways with different languages. This means that any thought can be expressed in any language, although some may take more or fewer words. -What is the relativistic position? Be able to define. According to the relativist position, the particular language we speak, especially the structure of that language, determines our thought patterns, our perceptions of reality, and, ultimately, important cultural components. This position is best represented by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. -How are the nominalist and relativists positions different from each other? -What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Be able to define and provide an example. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language defines our experience. Recent Research Findings -What are the three (3) areas of research that investigate the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Be able to explain each. (1) childrens language acquisition, (2) cross- cultural differences in language, and (3) cognitive development of children who are deaf. Cultural Variations in Communication Style

-What is problematic about some cultures not distinguishing between the formal and informal you? Be able to understand how the United States differs on this issue. Interpretive Perspective on Language Elaborated versus Understated Styles -What does the elaborated-understated dimension refer to? Explain. -What is an understated style? Be able to define and identify The understated style values succinct, simple assertions, and silence. Amish people often use this style of communication. A common refrain is, If you dont have anything nice to say, dont say anything at all. Free selfexpression is not encouraged. Silence is especially appropriate in ambiguous situations; if one is unsure of what is going on, it is better to remain silent. -What is an elaborated style? Be able to define and identify. The elaborate style involves the use of rich, expressive language in everyday talk. For example, the Arabic language has many metaphorical expressions used in everyday speech. In this style, a simple assertive statement means little; the listener will believe the opposite Critical Perspective on Language -What does the critical perspective focus on? Explain. The language usedthe words and the meanings that are communicated depends not only on the context but also on the social relations that are part of that interaction. Co-Cultural Communication -What is co-cultural theory? Be able to describe its purpose. The co-cultural communication theory, proposed by communication scholar Mark Orbe (1998), describes how language works between dominant and nondominant groupsor co-cultural groups. Groups that have the most power (whites, men, heterosexuals) consciously or unconsciously formulate a communication system that supports their perception of the world. The Power Effects of Labels -What is meant by Discourse is tied closely to social structure (p. 239)? Explain. Discourse is tied closely to social structure, so the messages communicated through the use of labels depend greatly on the social position of the speaker. If the speaker and listener are close friends, then the use of particular labels may not lead to distancing in the relationship or be offensive. But if the speaker and listener are strangers, then these same labels might invoke anger or close the lines of communication. -Why do some people feel trapped or misrepresented by labels? Explain. -How do labels establish different kinds of relationships between speaker and listener? Be able to provide an example. Moving Between Languages Multiculturalism -What is bilingual? Be able to define. -What is multilingual? Be able to define. -What is interlanguage? Be able to define. Language and Identity Code Switching -What is code switching? Be able to define, describe, and identify. Code switching is a technical term in communication that refers to the phenomenon of changing languages, dialects, or even accents. People code switch for several reasons: (1) to accommodate the other speakers, (2) to avoid accommodating others, or (3) to express another aspect of their cultural identity -What are the three (3) reasons people code switch? Describe each. Lecture #7 (Week 9) (CHAPTER 7) Chapter 7: Nonverbal Codes and Cultural Space (Martin & Nakayama)

Thinking Dialectically about Nonverbal Communication: Defining Nonverbal Communication -What is cultural space? Be able to define. Cultural spaces are the social and cultural contexts in which our identity formswhere we grow up and where we live (not necess arily the physical homes and neighborhoods, but the cultural meanings created in these places) Comparing Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Recognizing Nonverbal Behavior -What are some similarities between verbal and nonverbal communication? Be able to describe. Both verbal and nonverbal communication are symbolic, communicate meaning, and are patterned that is, they are governed by contextually determined rules. -What are some differences between verbal and nonverbal communication? Be able to describe. Learning Nonverbal Behavior -How do we learn nonverbal meanings and behaviors? Coordinating Nonverbal and Verbal Behaviors -How can nonverbal behaviors: (a) reinforce, (b) substitute, or (c) contradict verbal behaviors? Be able to explain. What Nonverbal Behavior Communicates - What is (nonverbal) expectancy violation theory? Be able to describe its main assumptions. The Universality of Nonverbal Behavior Recent Findings -What four (4) research areas have the universality of nonverbal communication focuses on? Be able to explain each area. (1) the relationship of human behavior to that of primates ( particularly chimpanzees), (2) nonverbal communication of sensory- deprived children who are blind or deaf, (3) facial expressions, and (4) universal functions of nonverbal social behavior. -What are facial expressions? Be able to define. -Although research may indicate universalities in nonverbal communication, what variations exist in relation to evoking stimuli? Nonverbal Codes Facial Expressions -What were the findings of Ekman and Friesens (1987) facial expression study? -What are some of the criticism of Ekman and Friesens study? Proxemics -What are contact cultures? Be able to define and identify in a scenario. contact cultures as those societies in which people stand closer together while talking, engage in more direct eye contact, use face-to-face body orientations more often while talking, touch more frequently, and speak in louder voices. He suggested that societies in South America and southern Europe are contact cultures, whereas those in northern Europe, the United States, and the Far East are noncontact cultures -What are noncontact cultures? Be able to define and identify in a scenario. in which people tend to stand farther apart when conversing, maintain less eye contact, and touch less often. -Be able to indicate whether the U.S. is a contact or noncontact culture. Eye Contact -What is eye contact? Be able to define. -What does avoiding eye contact communicate in many societies (i.e., cultures)? -What do most U.S. Americans do when listening and speaking to someone? When they speak with others, most U.S. Americans look away from their listeners most of the time, looking at their listeners perhaps every 10 to 15 seconds. When a speaker is finished taking a turn, he or she looks directly at the listener to signal completion. Paralinguistics -What is paralinguistics? Be able to define.

Paralinguistics refers to the study of paralanguagevocal behaviors that indicate how something is said, include speaking rate, volume, pitch, and stress, among others. -How does paralinguistics often lead people to negatively evaluate speakers in intercultural communication contexts? Explain. Chronemics -What is chronemics? Be able to define. Chronemics concerns concepts of time and the rules that govern its use. There are many cultural variations regarding how people understand and use time -What is the difference between monochromic and polychromic time orientations? Be able to define, describe characteristics, and provide examples of cultures associated with each. People who have a monochronic concept of time regard it as a commodity: time can be gained, lost, spent, wasted, or saved. In this orientation, time is linear, with one event happening at a time. In general, monochronic cultures value being punctual, completing tasks, and keeping to schedules. Most university staff and faculty in the United States maintain a monochronic orientation to time. In contrast, in a polychronic orientation, time is more holistic, and perhaps more circular: Several events can happen at once. Many international business negotiations and technical assistance projects falter and even fail because of differences in time orientation. -What are the five (5) types of nonverbal behaviors we use when communicating with strangers? Be able to explain each. Physical appearance: provides nonverbal cues that others use to make judgments about us (e.g., hair color, clothes). Proxemics: refers to space, helps us regulate intimacy Kinesics: the way we move our bodies, tells strangers how we define relationships Paralanguage: the way we use our voices, tells strangers how we define relationships. Haptics: the degree to which we touch and allow others to touch us -What are the four (4) spatial zones as indicated by Hall (1966)? What distances are associated with each and with whom are they generally used. Intimate distance 0 - 1.5 feet Intimates and close associates (often not in public) Personal distance 1.5 - 4 feet Often with close friends Social distance 4 - 12 feet General public (i.e., acquaintances) Public 12 - 25 feet Formal occasions, public speaking.