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INTRODUCTION

Sims Power Systems extends Simulink with tools for modeling and simulating basic electrical circuits and detailed electrical power systems. These tools let us model the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electrical power, as well as its conversion into mechanical power. SimPowerSystems is well suited to the development of complex, self-contained power systems, such as those in automobiles, aircraft, manufacturing plants, and power utility applications. Together, SimPowerSystems and Simulink provide an efficient environment for multidomain modeling and controller design. By connecting the electrical parts of the simulation to other Simulink blocks, we can rapidly draw the circuit topology and simultaneously analyze the circuits interactions with mechanical, thermal, and Control systems.

Three-phase transformers (One power Transformer and Two distribution Transformers) of 150 MVA, 110/220 kV; 500 KVA, 11/0.433 kV; and 1000kVA, 11/0.433 kV are modelled using MATLAB. The parameters used for the simulation of these two distribution transformers through MATLAB were obtained from IT-BHU Substation A Three Phase 110/220 kV power system included a 150 km transmission line, as shown in Fig.1, has been used to produce the required test and training patterns. The simulation was done by means of SimPowerSystems (MATLAB) software.

Table 1 represents the associated data with this power system. The combination of condition system shown in Table 2, have been produced using this system to train the WNN (Wavelet and ANN). Faults are located at different points of transmission line. Also, they involve inrush current and over excitation condition with different voltage angles and with different loads. Here secondary current is converted to primary side to make a common base. Breakers are connected to different positions for obtaining data for above different conditions of power transformer. Differential current is obtained by subtracting the secondary current to primary current.

TABLE 1

150 MVA, 50 Hz

500 pu

Condition system

Internal fault : Transformer secondary is shorted and single phase-ground faults and double phase-ground faults and three phase faults Inrush : At different voltage angles by closing the breaker connected Over-excitation : At different over voltages

Since the network has to distinguish among five kinds of signals, 4sets of example signals (cases) have been obtained for this purpose. These cases are normal, internal fault current, magnetizing inrush and over- excitation condition

1. Normal case: Power system is simulated for different voltage angles and for different loads. 2. Internal fault : Transformer terminal faults like Single phase to ground, double phase to ground ,three phase to ground and phase to phase faults 3. Inrush condition: In this condition transformer secondary is open circuited. Circuit breaker is connected at primary side, which is primarily open and shorted after two cycle. 4. Over-excitation: For obtaining this condition the load side connected circuit breaker is opened at alternate cycles.

Following figures 2 show the power system models for creating the data at different conditions.

Fig 2(d) Over-excitation condition Following figures 3 show the differential currents of transformer at different conditions.

Fig-3 (a) Normal condition Simulated event of Three phase transformer (SimPowerSystems)

Fig- 3 (b) internal fault condition Simulated event of three phase transformer (SimPowerSystems)

Fig-3 (c) Inrush condition Simulated event of three phase transformer (SimPowerSystems)

Fig-3 (d) Over-excitation condition Simulated event of three phase transformer (SimPowerSystems) Different cases of Normal, Fault, and Inrush and over Excitation cases are simulated. The fundamental frequency of the current is 50Hz .The differential current waveforms generated from using MATLAB software has a sampling frequency of 2 KHz. There are 40 samples/ cycle.

Design and Development of WNN (Combined Wavelet and ANN) For Differential Relaying: WAVELET ANALYSIS:

There are two aspect had to consider for Wavelet analysis 1. The differential current waveforms generated from using MATLAB software have a sampling frequency of 2 KHz. There are 40 samples/ cycle. 2. Another aspect had to be consider is no. Of current samples which will be applied to the feature extractor (DWT) .Here half of the data cycle used as a moving window that means 20 samples. This data would be updated by incorporating the latest sample and discarding the oldest sample

The DWT plots of differential current below demonstrate the importance of having DWT as the feature extractor of the Neural Network classifier. Through using the features of the DWT extracted from differential current data, the DWT can help with the discriminating of different data clusters and groups , thus, benefit the predictive and detective system. Normal Condition: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current with 100% load

Fig: 1 (a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for Normal condition Aamax = Naa 1.251 Damax = 0.3341 Daavg = 0.0028 Nda = 0.3969

Fig: 1 (b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for Normal condition Abmax = Nab 1.2592 Dbmax = 0.1174 Dbavg = -0.0024 Ndb = 0.3109

Fig:1 (c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for Normal condition Acmax = 1.2517 Acavg = 0.2187 Nac = 4.6876 Dcmax = 0.0395 Dcavg = -3.9e^-4 Ndc = 0.0945

Internal Fault condition: Single Phase to ground fault: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current with single phase( A-Phase) to ground fault with zero resistance

Fig:2(a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for Single phase (APhase) to ground fault Aamax = 928.92 Aaavg = 169.74 Naa = 1900 Damax = 21.38 Daavg = -4.697 Nda = 80.85

Fig:2(b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for Single phase (A-Phase) to ground fault Abmax = 1.4100 Dbmax = 0.0542 Abavg = 0.0414 Nab = 4.7942 Dbavg = 5.42e^-4 Ndb = 0.1207

Fig:2(c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for Single phase (APhase) to ground fault Acmax = 1.4162 Dcmax = 0.0402 Acavg = 0.0349 Nac = 14.11 Dcavg = -1.92e^-4 Ndc = 0.1445

Two phase fault: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current with two phase (R-Y) fault with 10 resistance

Fig:3(a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for Two phase (A-Phase to B-Phase) fault with 10 resistance Aamax = Aaavg = Naa = 813.15 222.2 1980 Damax = 13.626 Daavg = -0.4434 Nda = 33.829

Fig:3(b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for Two phase (A-Phase to B-Phase) fault with 10 resistance Abmax = Nab 7.657 Dbmax = 27.06 Dbavg = 0.4416 Ndb = 33.843

Fig:3(c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for Two phase (A-Phase to B-Phase) fault with 20 resistance Acmax = 1.486 Dcmax = 0.0402 Acavg = 0.0351 Nac = 15.093 Dcavg = -1.61e^-4 Ndc = 0.0972

Three Phase Fault: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current with three phase (R-Y-B) fault with 20 resistance

Fig:4(a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for Three phase (R-Y-B) fault with 20 resistance Aamax = 840.01 Damax = 54.95 Aaavg = 162.54 Naa = 1780 Daavg = -4.339 Nda = 158.18

Fig:4(b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for Three phase (R-Y-B) fault with 20 resistance Abmax = Nab 37.52 Dbmax = 33.33 Dbavg = -3.430 Ndb = 115.7

Fig:4(c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for Three phase (R-Y-B) fault with 20 resistance Acmax = 598.2 Acavg = 0.2569 Nac = 5360 Dcmax = 111.6 Dcavg = -1.08 Ndc = 285.0

Inrush condition: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current of 3 phases with 60 degrees

Fig:5(a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for Inrush condition at 60 degrees Aamax = 855.2 Aaavg = 162.45 Naa = 1600 Damax = 43.24 Daavg = 0.6338 Nda = 57.89

Fig:5(b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for Inrush condition at 60 degrees Abmax = Nab 15.55 Dbmax = 19.88 Dbavg = -0.621 Ndb = 35.66

Fig:5(c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for Inrush condition at 60 degrees Acmax = 9.5401 Dcmax = 13.08 Acavg = -86.11 Nac = 1080 Dcavg = 1.254 Ndc = 23.89

Over Excitation condition: The following fig shows the plots of the coefficients of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of differential current of 3 phases with 140% of voltage

Fig:6(a) DWT of A-Phase differential current measured for 140% of voltage Aamax = 216.90 Aaavg = -19.116 Naa = 561.05 Damax = 9.121 Daavg = -0.762 Nda = 22.0412

Fig:6(b) DWT of B-Phase differential current measured for 140% of voltage Abmax = Nab 223.55 Dbmax = 12.25 Dbavg = 0.2803 Ndb = 27.84

Fig:6(c) DWT of C-Phase differential current measured for 140% of voltage Acmax = 196.62 Acavg = 15.17 Nac = 505 Dcmax = 22.87 Dcavg = 0.164 Ndc = 43

In all DWT processes performed above, the Db-6 type mother wavelet (Daubechies6) has been used. Also, the decomposition level of the DWT of these signals has been kept at 2 In Mat lab, the some commands were used to calculate the DWT coefficients. The maximum, normalisation and average values of detail and approximation coefficients are used to train the neural network

d1 max = maximum value of d1[n] = max[d1[n]] d1norm=normalisationvalue of d1[n] =norm[d1[n]] d1avg =average value of d1[n] = avg[d1[n]] a1max = maximum value of a1[n] = max[a1[n]] a1norm=normalisation value of a1[n] =norm[a1[n] a1avg =average value of a1[n] = avg[a1[n]] For each phase 6 input values so for three phase 18 input values are used to train the neural network

TEST RESULTS OF PROPOSED ANN A software nntool (graphical user interface) in MATLAB SIMULINK has been used for training process. Since the network has to distinguish among four kinds of signals, 4 sets of example signals (cases) have been obtained for this purpose. These cases are normal, internal fault, magnetizing inrush and over- excitation. The training functions and parameters are given in Table-1. Table-1 Training function and parameters Adaption learning function Hidden layer transfer function Epochs Goal Max-fail Mem_redu Min_grad Mu LEARNGM TANSIG Training function Output function mc Mu-max Show Time Learning Rate Performance function layer TRAINGDA transfer TANSIG

LEARNGD-Gradient descent weight and bias learning function TRAINGDA- Gradient descent back propagation with adaptive learning rate

For each Power transformer and distribution transformer 740 training sets of samples (580 sets for training and 160 sets for testing purpose) generated by SimPowerSystems in MATLAB. Signals are sampled at the sampling rate of 40 samples per cycle (over a data window of half cycle). The Wavelet transform has been used to analyze the transients in the power transformers. The data obtained from the simulations are given to the

MATLAB(Wavelet Analysis) software to calculate DWT coefficients of the signals.. This 580 training sets of coefficients contain 4 different conditions of power transformer (normal, magnetizing inrush, over-excitation, internal fault ) 100 sets of coefficients have been taken for normal, 240 sets of coefficients taken for internal fault, 140 sets of coefficients excitation condition. After enough experimentation a network with 40 neurons in the hidden layer apart from 18 inputs and 4 outputs has been found suitable for monitoring the different conditions of power transformer. The outputs of the network have a unique set (e.g., 1000 = normal, 0100=internal fault, 0010= inrush, 0001 =over-excitation,). This network i.e. with 4 outputs monitors all the conditions occurring in the power transformer and it issues the trip signal only in case of internal fault condition i.e. when output is 0100. taken for inrush, 100 sets of coefficients taken for over

Trained

?

? r

Good

Process Terminated

Fig:8 Flowchart of ANN Training Concerning the ANN architecture, parameters such as the number of inputs to the network and the number of neurons in the hidden layer were decided empirically.

Performance Results for Power Transformer (110/220KV, 150MVA): This training process involves experimentation with various network configurations. It has been discovered that ANN with less number of input and hidden layer perform satisfactorily using the BP training algorithm. The learning process was terminated after 2000 cycles. The training error after 2000 epochs was 0.000097 for the proposed network and was within acceptable limit. The network responds in a very adequate way, performing the discrimination among normal, inrush, over-excitation,

and internal fault currents correctly for all cases. The competitive model and their performance are being discussed here. Table 2 show the different ANN topologies and their corresponding errors. On the basis of performance, networks have been classified as very good, good, or not good. By very good performance the authors mean that the network can be trained to achieve the error goals and can respond adequately to the test by good the same can be achieved by increasing the Table2 Performance of network architectures with 18 inputs, 4 outputs, and Variable neurons in the hidden layer (Training epochs: 2000) ANN topology Training error Training time (seconds) 18_10_4 18_20_4 18_30_4 18_40_4 18_50_5 0.000567 0.000798 0.000581 0.000097 0.000598 71 61 50 37 70 G NG NG VG NG Performance

NG = not good; VG = very good; G = good. number of iterations. It has been found that a net with 18 inputs, 40 nodes in hidden layer, and 4 outputs is capable of reducing the error up to 0.000097, which is quite accurate for this problem. Figure 20 shows the learning error over 2000 cycles of the architecture (18-40-4), which is continuously decreasing, whereas the same of the other topology shows zigzag behaviour. Therefore, for these cases the performance is not good. The response can be improved further by undertaking further extensive training, but it is realized that the same is not desired. By Using the detail and approximate coefficients to train the NN the training time is taken less and for testing it takes only few milliseconds. The outputs for test and trained patterns are shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. The learning errors for other topologies have been shown in in fig.

Fig:9 Learning error for 18_40_4 topology The plot shows the mean squared error of the network starting at a large value and decreasing to a smaller value. In other words, it shows that the network is learning. The plot has three lines, because the 580 input and targets vectors are randomly divided into three sets. 60% of the vectors are used to train the network. 20% of the vectors are used to validate how well the network generalized. Training on the training vectors continues as long the training reduces the network's error on the validation vectors. After the network memorizes the training set (at the expense of generalizing more poorly), training is stopped. This technique automatically avoids the problem of over fitting, which plagues many optimization and learning algorithms. Finally, the last 20% of the vectors provide an independent test of network generalization to data that the network has never seen

Table 3 Trained output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architecture A 1 P A 2 P Outputs 3 A P A 4 P

0.9776 0.00034

1 0.0040 0 0.996

0 0.00267

0 0.00094 0 0.00478 0

Table 4 Tested output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architecture 1 2 Outputs 3 4

1 0.0039 0 0.991

0 0.0040 1 0.0059

0 0.0266 0 0.00117

1 0

1 0.000125 0 0 0.99900 1

0.0005517 0 0.0035

Fig:10(d) Learning error for 18_50_4 topology Response of Relay to Internal fault:

1 0 1

0 0.2

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.10

0.125

0.150

0.175

Fig:11 Response of relay From these results, it can be seen that 10 ms after the occurrence of a fault, the protection technique developed correctly identifies internal fault.The outputs show the satisfactory result for the architectures. The ANN recognizes the fault in all cases and gives the trip signal output within half of cycle after the internal fault occurrence.

Performance Results for Distribution Transformer (11/0.433KV, 500KVA): Table 5: Performance of network architectures with 18 inputs, 4 outputs, and Variable neurons in the hidden layer ANN topology Training error Training time (seconds) 18_10_4 18_20_4 18_30_4 18_40_4 18_50_4 0.0089 0.011 0.0092 0.010 0.0080 71 79 84 89 90 G NG NG NG G Performance

In above topologies 18_50_4 error is less than other topologies. The trained and tested output of the 18_50_4 topology shown in Table and the learning error of the 18_50_4 topology . Table 6 Trained output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architectur e 1 A P A 2 P Outputs 3 A P A 4 P

Normal

18_40_4

0.9427

1 8.83e-5

0 0.002

Internal Fault

18_40_4

0.179

0 0.942

1 0.0063

Inrush

18_40_4

0.0344

0 0.0034

0 0.997

Over Excitation

18_40_4

0.048

0 1.09e-5

0 8.208e-5 0

Table 7:Tested output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architecture A 1 P A 2 P Outputs 3 A P A 4 P

18_40_4 18_40_4

0.89 0.172

1 0.067 0 0.947

0 0.003 1 0.0048

0 9.8e-5 0 2.67e-7

0 0

18_40_4 18_40_4

0.0035 0.168

0 0.0004 0 2.654

0 0.91 0 0.074

1 0.023 0 0.94

0 1

Performance Results for Distribution Transformer (11/0.433KV, 1 MVA): Table 8: Performance of network architectures with 18 inputs, 4 outputs, and Variable neurons in the hidden layer ANN topology Training error Training time (seconds) 18_10_4 18_20_4 18_30_4 18_40_4 18_50_5 0.0017 0.0047 0.0039 0.0033 0.0068 69 76 86 84 91 VG G G G G Performance

In above topologies 18_10_4 error is less than other topologies. The trained and tested output of the 18_10_4 topology shown in Table and the learning error of 18_10_4 topology is shown in fig 23 Table 9: Trained output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architecture A 1 P A 2 P Outputs 3 A P A 4 P

0 0 0 1

Table 10: Tested output for the architecture Types of Cases ANN Architecture A 1 P A 2 P Outputs 3 A P A 4 P

0.842

1 0.157

0 0 0 1

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