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2012

"Graviton" Student Project PDR Summary Paper Team Members: Stepovoy Kiril Rudin Irena Barlevi Barak Yung
"Graviton"
Student Project
PDR Summary Paper
Team Members:
Stepovoy Kiril
Rudin Irena
Barlevi Barak
Yung Omer
Chapnik Amir
Kremerman Jeremy
Faibish Raz
Shafir Aviad
Elroi Oren
Rabich Michael
Academic Advisor:
Uri Peled
Graviton Team
Technion
January 2012
Faibish Raz Shafir Aviad Elroi Oren Rabich Michael Academic Advisor: Uri Peled Graviton Team Technion January
Faibish Raz Shafir Aviad Elroi Oren Rabich Michael Academic Advisor: Uri Peled Graviton Team Technion January

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Summary

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Summary "Graviton" is a long range air to air missile. The

"Graviton" is a long range air to air missile. The project's main objective is to substitute the currently used AIM-120 AMRAAM. In order to achieve better performance, to double the kinematic range 1 without compromising size and weight characteristics too much to stay in compliance with current fighter aircraft carry features.

To achieve the desired result, we have tried different aerodynamic configurations to reduce drag and optimize lift, several thrust profiles for optimal cruise speed and various materials for reduced body and parts weight.

The final configuration has been chosen after analytically calculating the aerodynamic coefficients and using a simulation program in Matlab to numerically obtain the range.

1 Kinematic range - A missile’s kinematic range can be described as the maximum theoretical range at which it can intercept a target.

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1

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Contents

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Contents Summary 1 Introduction 5 "Market Survey" –

Summary

1

Introduction

5

"Market Survey" Missiles available today

6

MICA

6

METEOR

7

R-37 (Arrow)

8

Novator K-100

9

R-77M1 (Adder)

10

AIM-120D AMRAAM

11

Missile Carriage

12

1.

External Carriage:

12

2.

Conformal Carriage:

12

3.

Internal Carriage:

13

Launchers

14

1.

Rail Launcher:

14

2.

Ejection Launcher:

15

Design constraint

16

F-16

16

F-15

17

F-35

19

Summary:

20

The guideline of the GRAVITON design The AMRAAM

21

Aerodynamics

22

Background:

22

Objectives:

23

Aerodynamic coefficients calculation:

23

Validity of the calculations:

24

Geometry of the AMRAAM:

26

Attaining drag reducing configuration:

27

Maneuverability:

35

Propulsion system

37

Theory

37

Calculation and formulas

38

2
2

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Ramjet Engine 42 How it Works? 42 There are different types

Ramjet

Engine

42

How

it Works?

42

There are different types of Ramjet engine:

43

Advantages and disadvantages of the different types

43

Chosen configuration

44

First analysis

44

Assumptions:

44

 

Equations:

45

Results

46

Structure

47

 

Requirements:

47

Method of analysis:

47

Stress analysis for the aero surfaces

47

Strength analysis for

the aero surfaces

48

Weight analysis for the aero surfaces

50

Assumptions we used:

51

Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces:

52

 

AMRAAM

120-A

Fin Geometry

52

AMRAAM

120-A

Wing Geometry

52

Graviton - Fin Geometry

53

Graviton Wing Geometry

53

Structure strength analysis

54

Results:

55

Total Weight

Assessment

55

Temperature

Consideration

56

Simulation

57

Blocks Diagram - Simulation Six DOF

58

The Dynamic Model

59

AMRAAM Missile (Trim Flight 1000m)

61

Graviton Missile (Trim Flight 1000m, Acceleration + 2 Pulses Thruster)

64

Data Comparison

67

AMRAAM: Chase & Head On

68

Graviton vs. AMRAAM: Chase & Head On

68

Special Versions of Graviton:

69

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Graviton Missile (Trim Flight 1000m ,Acceleration Only) 70

Graviton

Missile

(Trim

Flight

1000m ,Acceleration

Only)

70

Graviton Missile (Trim Flight 1000m, Acceleration + 4 Pulses Thruster)

72

Graviton

Missile

(Trim

Flight

1000m,

Ramjet)

75

Developmental Configuration (Trim Flight 1000m)

 

78

Trajectory Flight Design Example:

 

79

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Introduction

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Introduction Since the beginning of time, man has always had dreams

Since the beginning of time, man has always had dreams of flight.

There have been many tales in history of people attempting flight. There is one even in mythology of a father and son team which constructed wings and flew from their prison. Alas, the boy didn't hear his father's warning and flew too close to the son, causing the glue holding the wings together to dissolve and fell down into the never to be seen or heard from again.

Since the beginning of powered flight, it has been utilized in military applications and improving in all aspects.

The AMRAAM was first used at the end of 1992, it has been improving even since and the latest version is rated to have a maximum range of about 100km. In continuation to this tendency, we decided to design a new and improved missile with double the maximum range of the AMRAAM. Due to technological advances, we allowed ourselves to reduce the size of the inner components to accommodate a larger engine.

The final configuration incorporates a larger volume body, optimized aerodynamic profile and an increased engine size and multi-pulse type thrust profile.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 "Market Survey" – Missiles available today Presented here are the

"Market Survey" Missiles available today

Presented here are the missiles which we have found. We have selected our reference missile (the AIM-120 AMRAAM) as the reference point for the project based on the following findings.

MICA

Launch and forget, All weather, Flare resistant, Multi target Purpose/Role MBDA missile systems Manufacturer France
Launch and forget, All weather, Flare resistant, Multi target
Purpose/Role
MBDA missile systems
Manufacturer
France
Country of origin
80+km
Range
Mach 4
Speed
Solid booster with thrust vectoring
Propulsion system
Inertial Guidance (Activa Radar, Imaging IR)
Guidance
12 kg focused splinters HE warhead
Warhead
Unknown
Price
Rafale, Mirage 2000, F16
Launch platform
112kg
Weight
Wingspan Diameter Length 320mm 160mm 3.1m
Wingspan
Diameter
Length
320mm
160mm
3.1m
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

METEOR

Graviton Student Project January 2012 METEOR multi-shot capability against long range maneuvering targets in a heavy

multi-shot capability against long range maneuvering targets in a heavy electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment

Purpose/Role

MBDA missile systems

Manufacturer

Euro Union

Country of origin

100+ km

Range

Mach 4+

Speed

Solid booster

Propulsion system

Active Radar, Inertial Mid-ranged + datalink updates

Guidance

High Explosive Blast-Fragmentation

Warhead

100000000£

Price

Eurofighter, Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen

Launch platform

185 kg

Weight

Wingspan

Diameter

Length

???

178mm

3.65m

Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen Launch platform 185 kg Weight Wingspan Diameter Length ??? 178mm 3.65m 7
7
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

R-37 (Arrow)

Graviton Student Project January 2012 R-37 (Arrow) Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft Purpose/Role

Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft

Purpose/Role

Vympel

Manufacturer

Russia

Country of origin

150-398 km

Range

Mach 6

Speed

Solid rocket

Propulsion system

Inertial + mid-course updates, semi-active + active radar

Guidance

60 kg HE, fragmenting

Warhead

Unknown

Price

MIG-31

Launch platform

600 kg

Weight

Wingspan

Diameter

Length

700mm

380mm

4.2m

Price MIG-31 Launch platform 600 kg Weight Wingspan Diameter Length 700mm 380mm 4.2m 8
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Novator K-100

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Novator K-100 Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft Purpose/Role NPO

Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft

Purpose/Role

NPO Novator & DRDO

Manufacturer

Russia

Country of origin

200+ km

Range

Mach 4

Speed

Solid-propellant tandem rocket

Propulsion system

Inertial + mid-course guidance, active radar

Guidance

50 kg HE fragmentation (KS172)

Warhead

Unknown

Price

Su-27, Su-30, Su-35

Launch platform

724 kg

Weight

Wingspan

Diameter

Length

610mm

400mm

6.01m+

1.4m(booster)

Su-27, Su-30, Su-35 Launch platform 724 kg Weight Wingspan Diameter Length 610mm 400mm 6.01m+ 1.4m(booster) 9
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 R-77M1 (Adder)   multi-purpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft

R-77M1 (Adder)

 

multi-purpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft for fire-and-forget use against a range of aircraft from hovering helicopters to high speed, low altitude aircraft

Purpose/Role

Vympel

 

Manufacturer

Russia

 

Country of origin

160

km

Range

Mach 4.5

 

Speed

Solid fuel rocket motor (R-77), air-breathing ramjet

 

(R-77M1)

 

Propulsion system

Inertial + mid-course guidance, active radar

 

Guidance

 

22 kg HE, fragmenting

 

Warhead

???

Price

MiG-21, MiG-29, MiG-31, Su-27, Su-35…

 

Launch platform

266

kg

Weight

Wingspan

 

Diameter

Length

 

350mm

 

200mm

3.6m

platform 266 kg Weight Wingspan   Diameter Length   350mm   200mm 3.6m 10
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

AIM-120D AMRAAM

Graviton Student Project January 2012 AIM-120D AMRAAM air-to-air missile (AAM) capable of all-weather day-and- night

air-to-air missile (AAM) capable of all-weather day-and- night operations

Purpose/Role

Huges/Raytheon

Manufacturer

USA

Country of origin

75-100 km

Range

Mach 4

Speed

High-performance directed rocket motor

Propulsion system

INS, active radar

Guidance

High explosive blast-fragmentation 23 kg

Warhead

$7000000

Price

Harrier, F15, F16, F18, F22, Eurofighter…

Launch platform

152 kg (335 lbs)

Weight

Wingspan

Diameter

Length

530mm

180mm

3.7m

Launch platform 152 kg (335 lbs) Weight Wingspan Diameter Length 530mm 180mm 3.7m 11
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Missile Carriage

There are 3 types of missile carriages:

Missile Carriage There are 3 types of missile carriages: 1. External Carriage: Conventional external carriage is

1. External Carriage:

Conventional external carriage is the method where missile and bombs are hanging on the outside of the aircraft under its wing.

Advantages: High firepower load-out because of large number of possible stores location on aircraft body and wing.

Disadvantages: Because our missiles are situated outside the plane they cause an increase to the plane RCS (radar cross section) and to the aircraft drag. Other disadvantages include problem in the interaction with the aircraft control system and potentially adverse aero-elasticity.

control system and potentially adverse aero-elasticity. 2. Conformal Carriage: Conformal carriage is the method

2. Conformal Carriage:

Conformal carriage is the method used by the F-15 where missiles

and bombs are attached on the aircraft body.

Advantages: By attaching the missiles on the aircraft body we get a lower RCS and lower drag in comparison to conventional external carriage.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Disadvantages: Disadvantages of this method is the need for specialized stores

Disadvantages: Disadvantages of this method is the need for specialized stores and aircraft attachment for each type of aircraft.

stores and aircraft attachment for each type of aircraft. 3. Internal Carriage: Internal carriage required the

3. Internal Carriage:

Internal carriage required the aircraft to have an inner bay where the

missile/bombs can be stored.

Advantages: since the weapons are located inside the aircraft Internal carriage has the lowest RCS and the lowest Drag.

Disadvantages: Disadvantages include, span constraint to ensure the weapon to fit inside the bay, there’s concerns for the bay acoustics, the bay vibration as well as concern for flow field angularities near the aircraft and concerns about save separation at high dynamic pressure.

and concerns about save separation at high dynamic pressure. The GRAVITON missile should be capable of

The GRAVITON missile should be capable of carrying bye all three types mentioned above.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Launchers

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Launchers There are two types of aircraft missile launchers being used

There are two types of aircraft missile launchers being used to launch AMRAAM missiles:

1. Rail Launcher:

The term rail launcher may be applied to launchers making use of rails, tubes, long ramps, and even tall vertical towers. All provide, to a varying

and even tall vertical towers. All provide, to a varying degree, constraint to the weapon while

degree, constraint to the weapon while it is moving on the launcher, and they thus provide a considerable amount of flight control. For uncontrolled weapons, such as rockets, the rails must be fairly long so that the rocket is constrained for a longer portion of the rocket motor burning time to provide the necessary initial velocity vector control. If the missile is equipped with a guidance system, the rail length can usually be reduced. Long-range weapons, guided or unguided, normally require a longer rail since their initial acceleration is comparatively low relative to short-range weapon. Rail launchers may be fixed or movable. They may serve as ready service storage for missiles and provide facilities for fueling and servicing. The simplicity of design of rail launchers also promotes reliability and ease of maintenance and repair. Airborne launcher rails, because of space and air flow-field problems, are usually very short. As a rule, the greater the speed the missile had achieved at separation from the launcher, the less the air-flow field effects will influence missile flight.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Example: Trapeze launcher : (A trapeze launcher is required for lock-on-

Example: Trapeze launcher: (A trapeze launcher is required for lock-on- before-launch missiles.)

launcher is required for lock-on- before-launch missiles.) 2. Ejection Launcher: Impulse launchers for weapon ejection

2. Ejection Launcher:

Impulse launchers for weapon ejection are employed for both free-fall

for weapon ejection are employed for both free-fall and self-propelled weapons. Their main purpose is to

and self-propelled weapons. Their main purpose is to ensure that the weapon safely clears the delivery vehicle. Ejection is usually accomplished by the expansion of high-pressure gases from a compressed air supply or from ignition of a propellant charge. Because it is used for ejection purposes only, the impulse is small, and the launcher can be built to withstand the shock of launching without the need for excessive structural strength or special devices. Thus, launchers of this type are fairly light and simple in design.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Design constraint Heavy constraints exist on the missile geometry/mass for it

Design constraint

Heavy constraints exist on the missile geometry/mass for it to be compatible with any aircraft. Since we are located in Israel we are interested in making the Graviton compatible with fighters used today and in the near future by the IDF. Those fighters are; the F-16, the F-15 and the F-35.

The Graviton has to replace the AMRAAM, that’s why we can assume it shall be placed at the same pylons the AMRAAM is located today.

By finding those pylons we can make a list of all missile which use that pylon and thus we can take the heaviest missile mass as our mass constraint and the biggest missile geometry as our geometrical constraints, we shall do this for all 3 planes and choose our constraints by comparing the 3 results.

F-16

and choose our constraints by comparing the 3 results. F-16 pylon 9 8 7 7A 6
pylon 9 8 7 7A 6 5R 5 5L 4 3A 3 2 Loc cm
pylon
9
8
7
7A
6
5R
5
5L
4
3A
3
2
Loc cm
0
0,85
1,55
1,55
2,75
3,7
4,5
5,2
6,15
7,35
7,35
8,1
Loc m
0
0,93
1,7
1,7
3
4
4,9
5,7
6,7
8
8
8,8
Cap lb
425
700
3500
450
4500
550
2200
550
4500
450
3500
700
Cap at 9g
lb
425
450
2000
450
2500
550
1200
550
2500
450
2000
450
weapon
a/a
a/a
a/a-
a/a
a/s
pod
Pod
pod
a/s
a/a
a/a-
a/a
a/s
fuel
fuel
fuel
a/s
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 AMRAAM is usually situated at pylons 1-2-8-9 Weight constraint on new

AMRAAM is usually situated at pylons 1-2-8-9

Weight constraint on new missile: 425lb Other air-to-air missile include:

AIM-7 sparrow

AIM-9 sidewinder

IRIS-T

Python-4

AIM-120 AMRAAM

The longest length an air-to-air missile has on the F-16 is 3.7m so we take this length as our length constraint. Wing span constraint: very difficult to calculate since not much information exists on pylon height, and space between pylons, also missile are attached in X-configuration. To avoid making mistakes the sparrow has the biggest wingspan of

0.81m.

F-15

The F-15E has a Total of 15 external stores. McDonnell Douglas has developed a new weapons attachment system for the F-15E, known as tangential carriage.

The F-15E can carry up to 23,000 lb of external fuel or ordnance.

for the F-15E, known as tangential carriage.  The F-15E can carry up to 23,000 lb
for the F-15E, known as tangential carriage.  The F-15E can carry up to 23,000 lb
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012   Left wing Left CFT inboard Right CFT Right Wing inboard
Graviton Student Project January 2012   Left wing Left CFT inboard Right CFT Right Wing inboard
Graviton Student Project January 2012   Left wing Left CFT inboard Right CFT Right Wing inboard
 

Left wing

Left CFT inboard

Right CFT

Right Wing

inboard

AIM-9

STA-2A

   

STA-8A

Sidewinder

STA-2B

STA-8B

AIM-120

STA-2A

STA-3C

STA-7C

STA-8A

AMRAAM

STA-2B

STA-4C

STA-6C

STA-8B

AIM-7 Sparrow

 

STA-3C

STA-7C

 

STA-4C

STA-6C

No information on weapon store weight capability has been found so we assume that for STA-2 and STA-8 the biggest weight found there is that

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 of the AMRAAM 335 lb, and on stations STA-3, STA-4, STA-6,

of the AMRAAM 335 lb, and on stations STA-3, STA-4, STA-6, STA-7 the heaviest weight is that of sparrow 510lb.

The smallest distance between missiles is situated between STA-2A and STA-2B and STA-8A and STA-8B. From measurement that distance is

0.51m

max length constraint is again as the AMRAAM: 3.7m

F-35

max length constraint is again as the AMRAAM: 3.7m F-35 stat 11 10 9 8 7

stat

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

store

a/a

a/a,

a/a,

a/a,

a/a

gun

a/a

a/a,

a/a,

a/a,

a/a

 

a/s

a/s

a/s

a/s

a/s

a/s

Cap.

300

2500

5000

2500

350

1000

350

2500

5000

2500

300

lb

 

Loc m

1,46

1,82

2,77

4,3

4,66

5,35

6,07

6,19

7,64

8,59

9,32

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Weapons on F-35:

AIM-120 AMRAAM

AIM-132 ASRAAM

AIM-9x sidewinder

IRIS-T

MBDA meteor (pending further funding)

JDRADM (after 2020)

Weight constraint for our missile is:

Interior: 350lb

Exterior: 2,500lb

Length constraint:

Interior: as AMRAAM 3,7m

Exterior: as AMRAAM 3,7m

Wing span constraint:

Interior: 44,7 cm

Exterior:53 cm

span constraint:  Interior: 44,7 cm  Exterior:53 cm Summary: All 3 aircrafts are compatible with

Summary:

All 3 aircrafts are compatible with the meteor, that’s why we can assume the meteor mass as our weight constraint and we can assume the AMRAAM C (which fit in the F-35 inner bay) geometry as our geometrical constraints.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 The guideline of the GRAVITON design – The AMRAAM Since the

The guideline of the GRAVITON design The AMRAAM

Since the main objective of the project is a long range air to air missile to replace the currently used AMRAAM, the AMRAAM has been used as a reference/starting point for the design.

has been used as a reference/starting point for the design. Graviton This is a schematic drawing
Graviton
Graviton

This is a schematic drawing showing the relative size of the missile's elements in both the AMRAAM and the Graviton.

The Graviton's characteristics will be explained and discussed at length during each of the projects main subject.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Aerodynamics

Background:

Student Project January 2012 Aerodynamics Background: The aerodynamic design of the Graviton is an enhancement of

The aerodynamic design of the Graviton is an enhancement of the one of the AMRAAM. Therefore, the changes made to the design are not substantial, yet essential in order for the Graviton to meet its objectives.

At first, identification of the crucial aerodynamic components had to be made. In accordance with geometric information derived from various on-line literature 1 , a numerical assessment of the parameters

d C C

,

r w

,

,

r t

,

,

l , n d
l
,
n
d

b AR C

,

,

mac

,

was made. After that, a computational tool

in form of a MATLAB code was made in order to assess the drag and normal force visited upon the missile. Based on results obtained by the program, an aerodynamic design which is expected to be good enough to allow the Graviton to fulfill its mission was suggested.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Objectives:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Objectives: - The aerodynamic design should allow the Graviton to reach

- The aerodynamic design should allow the Graviton to reach a range in pursuit that is double the one of the AMRAAM

-The maneuverability of the Graviton should be 3 times better than the one of the evader

Aerodynamic coefficients calculation:

The missile's Aerodynamic coefficients were calculated using empirical formulas taken from Tactical Missile design 1 st ed. by Eugene L. Fleeman:

were calculated using empirical formulas taken from Tactical Missile design 1 s t ed. by Eugene
were calculated using empirical formulas taken from Tactical Missile design 1 s t ed. by Eugene
were calculated using empirical formulas taken from Tactical Missile design 1 s t ed. by Eugene
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Where:

The

C

D

C

N

,0

total

C

D

,0

C

D

,0

body wave

,

wing wave

,

C

D

,0

body friction

,

C

D

,0

wing friction

,

total

C

N

body

C

N

wing

C

N

tail

C

D

,0

base

C N   wing  C N  tail   C D ,0 

calculation for the tail is similar to the one of the wing, but based on the geometry of the tail.

1

 

2

 

0.5 , the calculation of

For

Slender Wing Theory, and is independent of Mach number.

M

8 / AR

C N wing

is based on

1

 

2

 

0.5 , the calculation of

For

Wing Theory, and is independent of Aspect Ratio.

M

8 / AR

C N wing

is based on Linear

Validity of the calculations:

A representative case was examined in order to verify that the results obtained from the program correlate with credible results from literature.

Given the canard configuration from NASA TM X-2780 report:

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results for those from the official report: C D ,0 achieved
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results for those from the official report: C D ,0 achieved
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results for those from the official report: C D ,0 achieved

Results for

those from the official report:

C D ,0

achieved by the calculation tool were compared with

C D ,0 achieved by the calculation tool were compared with It is notable that both

It is notable that both of the results match, and the accuracy achieved by the MATLAB code is sufficient for primary design.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Geometry of the AMRAAM:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Geometry of the AMRAAM: Identifying the geometry of the AMRAAM was

Identifying the geometry of the AMRAAM was necessary in order to evaluate its performance, and by that defining the goals of the Graviton.

of the AMRAAM was necessary in order to evaluate its performance, and by that defining the
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Attaining drag reducing configuration:

The following graph displays the variation S diameter of the missile d and its nose length

C

ref D ,0

l nose

:

the variation S diameter of the missile d and its nose length  C ref D

as a function of the

the variation S diameter of the missile d and its nose length  C ref D
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012  An increase in diameter increases drag  An increase in

An increase in diameter increases drag

An increase in nose length decreases drag

A suitable combination of increase in diameter and nose length should be found

Close-up on the relevant region of the graph:

be found Close-up on the relevant region of the graph: As we can see, by selecting

As we can see, by selecting

reduce the drag force applied upon the missile. This configuration reduces drag by 7.2%.

d 0.198

 

 

m l

,

n

0.915

 

 

we manage to

m

l

0.915

d 0.198

n

4.6

28
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Comparing the chosen configuration and the original AMRAAM configuration: And in

Comparing the chosen configuration and the original AMRAAM configuration:

Student Project January 2012 Comparing the chosen configuration and the original AMRAAM configuration: And in Close-up:

And in Close-up:

Student Project January 2012 Comparing the chosen configuration and the original AMRAAM configuration: And in Close-up:
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 The volume (Vol. calculation Appendix ***) of the entire missile in

The volume (Vol. calculation Appendix ***) of the entire missile in its new configuration is-

V

new

0.084828

  m

3

Whereas the volume of the original configuration is-

V

original

0.079753

  m

3

Therefore, by increasing diameter and nose length in the right amount, we managed to reduce drag and increase the missile's volume too, which is important for propulsion issues. The new configuration increases volume by 6.36%.

The following graph displays

altitude of 5000m (engine off):

C D ,0

as a function of Mach number at an

The following graph displays altitude of 5000  m  (engine off) : C D ,0
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 It can be seen that especially at supersonic speed. This is

It can be seen that

especially at supersonic speed. This is good because the missile is intended to work at supersonic speed.

C D ,0

is reduced substantially in every Mach number,

The graph below compares

configurations at an altitude of5000  m . This product is proportional to

the drag force applied upon the missile (engine off):

S

C

ref D ,0

for the new and the original

proportional to the drag force applied upon the missile (engine off): S  C ref D
31
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Due to an increase in the missile's diameter, reduction in the

Due to an increase in the missile's diameter,

reduction in the drag force itself at supersonic speed is smaller, yet significant.

S ref

is now bigger and the

We will now examine

at M=2 (engine off):

C

S

C

as a function of angle of attack

NOR ref NOR

,

bigger and the We will now examine at M=2 (engine off): C S  C as
bigger and the We will now examine at M=2 (engine off): C S  C as
32
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Since missile, we note that the normal force hardly changes when

Since

missile, we note that the normal force hardly changes when the drag reducing configuration is used.

S C

ref NOR

is proportional to the normal force generated upon the

The next graph displays

C NOR

C D ,0

5000m (engine off):

The next graph displays C NOR C D ,0 5000  m  (engine off): against

against Mach number at 5 , altitude of

The next graph displays C NOR C D ,0 5000  m  (engine off): against
33
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

The following graphs show

S

ref

C

D ,0

C NOR

,

C D ,0

as a function of Mach

number when the missile's engine is on:

function of Mach number when the missile's engine is on: In this case, the base drag
function of Mach number when the missile's engine is on: In this case, the base drag
function of Mach number when the missile's engine is on: In this case, the base drag

In this case, the base drag is smaller and therefore we receive better results in drag related calculations.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Maneuverability:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Maneuverability: The main requirement is that the Graviton's maneuverability

The main requirement is that the Graviton's maneuverability will be 3 times better than the evader's.

The weight of the

new configuration is173kg .

The following graphs present the required angle of attack that the missile should develop in order to achieve G=10 (10,000m ) , G=30 (

1000m ):

that the missile should develop in order to achieve G=10 ( 10,000  m  )
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 36
Graviton Student Project January 2012 36
36
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Propulsion system

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Propulsion system Theory A rocket engine, or simply "rocket", is a

Theory A rocket engine, or simply "rocket", is a jet engine that uses only propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines and obtain thrust in accordance with Newton's third law.

Rocket engines as a group have the highest exhaust velocities, are by far the lightest, but are the least propellant efficient of all types of jet engines.

Principle of operation:

Rocket engines produce thrust by the expulsion of a high-speed fluid exhaust. This fluid is nearly always a gas which is created by high pressure (10-200 bar) combustion of solid or liquid propellants, consisting of fuel and oxidiser components, within a combustion chamber.

The fluid exhaust is then passed through a supersonic propelling nozzle which uses heat energy of the gas to accelerate the exhaust to very high speed, and the reaction to this pushes the engine in the opposite direction.

In rocket engines, high temperatures and pressures are highly desirable for good performance as this permits a longer nozzle to be fitted to the engine, which gives higher exhaust speeds, as well as giving better thermodynamic efficiency.

(Taken form: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_engine")

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Calculation and formulas The main formulas we used are:

m

p

b

C   A P   r A I g m

F

F

c

t

sp

0

 A P   r A  I  g  m F F c

m

mass capacity

p

propelant density

A

b

Cross section area of the propelant

A

t

Cross section area of nozzle

r

Burn rate

F

T hrust

C

F

T

hrust

coefficient

P

I

c

sp

The p ressure in the burn chamber

The

specific

impulse

g

Gravitation on 0 altitude
0

The specific impulse g  Gravitation on 0 altitude 0 As part of the plan the

As part of the plan the project study first the AMMARAM missile as a reference.

We found a picture of the AMMRAM engine in ATK company site from which we took the dimensions and propellant data:

We found a picture of the AMMRAM engine in ATK company site from which we took
38
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

The data that taken:

Length of burning : 1.498m

Radius : 0.089m

Nozzle diameter: 0.06m

Exit diameter: 0.142m

Data for propellant:

 m    r  0.01   sec
 m   
r  0.01
 
sec

C

*

1550

   sec m   

I sp 250sec

b

1700

1.2

   m kg   

3

 b  1700   1.2    m kg    3

We study about different cross sections of burning area and what kind of Thrust vector we can get from it.

  3 We study about different cross sections of burning area and what kind of
39
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 We had to assume that the AMMRAM had steady thrust and

We had to assume that the AMMRAM had steady thrust and we started to build a program in Matlab that will calculate the thrust according to burn section.

In order to calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following:

calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken
calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken
calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken
calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken
calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken
calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following: All of the above were taken

All of the above were taken from: "Archon םיליט דגנ ריוא-ריוא ליט םייטסילב" final project in the Technion.

According to the burning section area the program calculates the thrust of the engine.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Another calculation is for the nozzle:

A  e  5.6 A t     1.2
A
e
 5.6
A
t
 
  1.2

P

c

(

tables

)

  P

e

37,

C

F 0

1.51

1.2 P c  ( tables )   P e  37, C F 0

In order to improve the range there were two options:

Pulses engine

Bigger engine

There were a few versions of thrust profile:

Acceleration thrust profile only.

2 pulses thrust profile.

4 pulses thrust profile.

We knew from calculations that the best profile is: Accelerate to 1000 m/sec and then cruise at that speed.

(The simulation program gave us the same conclusion)

After all the work of aerodynamic and structure teams the dimensions of the Graviton engine are:

Length of burning : 2.2902m

Radius : 0.198m

Nozzle diameter: 0.0595m

Exit diameter: 0.1926m

P  c P  85  atm    85 Table  A
P
c
P
85
atm
85
Table
A
c
P
e
 10.5
e
A
t
  1.2
*
P A
mC
15.424 1550
c
t
m
A
t
*
 0.002776 
C
P
85 101325
c

A

d

d

e

t

e

0.029146

0.0595

m

0.1926 m

2

m

2

m

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Ramjet Engine Unti l now we’ve been working with a rocket

Ramjet Engine Until now we’ve been working with a rocket propelled engine but since our goal is to achieve a long range air-to-air missile we’ve been intrigued by the ramjet engine. A ramjet engine doesn’t need to carry its oxidizer with him since it takes its oxidizer from the atmosphere around. This results in the ramjet engine only having to carry a fuel rich sustain propellant which allows the ramjet engine to have a higher I sp than a solid booster engine and thus it can enable us to achieve a higher range without having to add to much mass to the missile. Yet a ramjet engine contains a few problems, for example: a ramjet engine has to be propelled to M>1 for it to start working and the cones taking air add to missile drag. A detailed analysis is needed to truly see if a ramjet engine can give us longer range.

How it Works? Ramjet propulsion is relatively simple compared to turbojet propulsion; it has no moving parts. Air enters the inlet at supersonic speed and is decelerated to low subsonic speed at the combustor entrance. Downstream of the combustor is a convergent-divergent nozzle, which accelerates the airflow back to supersonic speed. Because a ramjet is inefficient at low supersonic Mach number, a rocket is required for subsonic launch to boost the missile to the ramjet thrust takeover at about Mach 2.5.

number, a rocket is required for subsonic launch to boost the missile to the ramjet thrust
42
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 There are different types of Ramjet engine: 1. Liquid Fuel Ramjet.

There are different types of Ramjet engine:

1. Liquid Fuel Ramjet. Hydrocarbon fuel (typically) is injected into the combustor ahead of a flame holder which stabilizes the flame resulting from the combustion of the fuel with the compressed air from the intake(s).

2. Solid Fuel Ramjet. It contains a fuel grain with a hollow center core for the inlet airflow.

3. Ducted Rocket. A solid fuel gas generator produces a hot fuel-rich gas which is burnt in the ramcombustor with the compressed air supplied by the intake(s). The flow of gas improves the mixing of the fuel and air and increases total pressure recovery.

Advantages and disadvantages of the different types

Advantages and disadvantages of the different types Type Isp envelopeFlight Energy per Vol. Sensitivity with
Type Isp envelopeFlight Energy per Vol. Sensitivity with combustion chamber liquid Convenience design Solid
Type
Isp
envelopeFlight
Energy per Vol.
Sensitivity with
combustion chamber
liquid
Convenience design
Solid
Safety /Storage
Ducted
Sensitivity with AOA
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Chosen configuration

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Chosen configuration First analysis The initial phase of our analysis is
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Chosen configuration First analysis The initial phase of our analysis is

First analysis The initial phase of our analysis is to make simple calulations under the assumption of an ideal ramjet engine to give us a first idea of a ramjet engine performance, this are the assumptions made during this first analysis:

Assumptions:

Isentropic inlet and nozzle

P

T 02 =T 0A and T 04 =T 0E

γ=1.4

E =P A

Q

R

A

in

T

04

C

p

45

10

3

kJ

kg

0.01166  

2

m

2250

1005

k

kJ

kg k

44
44
 P P  e a
P P
e
a
1 air
1
air

T m    f U U  

e

a

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Equations:

T  m   1  air e a e  m  
T
 m  
1
air
e
a
e
m
U
A
air
a
in
T
04
 1
m
T
f
0 a
f 
m
Q
T
air
R
04
C
T
T
p
0
a
0
a
T
04
U
 
U
e
a
T
0 a

U

a

M



             f  U

f U U   A P P

  e a
e
a
45
45

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Results The thrust vs. time we got:

AMMRAM:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results The thrust vs. time we got: AMMRAM: Graviton: 46
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results The thrust vs. time we got: AMMRAM: Graviton: 46

Graviton:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results The thrust vs. time we got: AMMRAM: Graviton: 46
46
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Structure Requirements: To achieve a lightweight and strong enough structure, in

Structure

Requirements:

To achieve a lightweight and strong enough structure, in order to withstand the different loads that evolve before and during the mission. The aspects, on which we focused, such as structural analysis, came to meet the requirements:

Finding the proper materials and thicknesses respectively of the missile aero surfaces (fins and wings).

Finding the proper materials which would allow us to achieve maximum Volume for the propellant (thinner wall thickness).

Method of analysis:

Stress analysis for the aero surfaces

We used linear strength and elasticity theories, while the fins/wings were referred as cantilever beam, fixed on one end.

Shear stress calculated as:

Bending stress calculated as:

Torsion stress calculated as:

bend

(

( y )

ds

(

V Q y

)

y ) M y

I b

I

tor

( r )

T r

J

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Strength analysis for the aero surfaces

Project January 2012 Strength analysis for the aero surfaces  Moment of inertia was calculated for

Moment of inertia was calculated for circular section and square cross section, to examine the shape of the preferred connection.

For each given geometry we examined three types of metals in order to find which the preferred metal is.

Another result from the strength calculations is the weight for each fin/wing.

The strength calculations were made by taking the equivalent aerodynamic force (which we got from analyzing the aerodynamic coefficients) at flight conditions of 5000 meter altitude and 30G load.

(which we got from analyzing the aerodynamic coefficients) at flight conditions of 5000 meter altitude and
48
48

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 49
Graviton Student Project January 2012 49
49
49

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Location of connector Weight analysis for the aero surfaces For the
Location of connector
Location of connector

Weight analysis for the aero surfaces For the preliminary calculation of the missile weight we used two methods:

Initially, to get an approximate estimation, we assumed a uniform mass distribution along the missile length. Each element was measured by its relative length.

For a more accurate result we divided the missile to its different elements and calculated each element mass according to its ‘typical density’ (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”):

50
50

Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Assumptions we used:  Each fin/wing has a diamond cross section
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Assumptions we used:  Each fin/wing has a diamond cross section

Assumptions we used:

Each fin/wing has a diamond cross section and the thickness distribution is linear from the root to the tip.

The aerodynamic force applied on the fin/wing is uniformly distributed, therefor we referred it as an equal and concentrated force at 0.25 of the fin/wing cord (while Mach<2) and at the center area of the fin/wing (when Mach>2).

The fin/wing has Uniform density.

Factor of safety were taken according to the different element of the missile (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”).

Failure is when the stress reaches yield point (

Structural failure will occur at the maximum stress point of the connection between the fin/wing and body (top or bottom fiber).

y

).

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces : AMRAAM 120-A Fin

Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces:

AMRAAM 120-A Fin Geometry

January 2012 Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces : AMRAAM 120-A Fin Geometry AMRAAM 120-A

AMRAAM 120-A Wing Geometry

January 2012 Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces : AMRAAM 120-A Fin Geometry AMRAAM 120-A
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton - Fin Geometry

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Graviton - Fin Geometry Graviton – Wing Geometry 53
Graviton Student Project January 2012 Graviton - Fin Geometry Graviton – Wing Geometry 53

Graviton Wing Geometry

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Graviton - Fin Geometry Graviton – Wing Geometry 53
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Structure strength analysis During its mission, the missile structure withstands

Structure strength analysis During its mission, the missile structure withstands different types of stresses in consequence of:

withstands different types of stresses in consequence of:  Motor chamber internal pressure.  Bending moment.

Motor chamber internal pressure.

Bending moment.

Buckling from Combined axial compression & bending.

Manufacturing operations such as drilling, machining, bending and even carriage.

such as drilling, machining, bending and even carriage. In order to withstand the different stresses, we

In order to withstand the different stresses, we need to find the proper materials and the required shell thickness.

We then built a program that calculates the required thickness and weight for different materials, so that we could choose the proper materials under our constraints (mainly total weight).

We used a critical design condition (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”) for the weighted thickness criterion:

t =FOS x Max (t MinGage ,t Buckling,Bending ,t Buckling,AxialCompression ,t Bending ,t InternalPressure )

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Results:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Results: FRONT CYLINDER   MOTOR CASE   WEIGHT SHELL THICKNESS

FRONT CYLINDER

 

MOTOR CASE

 

WEIGHT

SHELL THICKNESS

MATERIAL

WEIGHT

 

MATERIAL

[Kg]

[m]

[Kg]

SHELL THICKNESS [m]

6.5224

0.0069

Al7075-T6

62.6875

0.0056

PH 15-7Mo

6.0426

0.0064

Al7178-T6

39.0696

0.0036

D6AC

5.057

0.0034

Ti-6Al-4V

48.3492

0.0078

Ti-6Al-4V

         

Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V

5.057

0.0035

Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (Aged)

39.606

0.0065

(Aged)

   

Graphite-Epoxy

   

Graphite-Epoxy

1.6297

0.0027

60/40ep

9.6289

0.0038

60/40ep

   

Graphite-Polyimide

   

Graphite-Polyimide

1.6192

0.0031

50/50

10.552

0.0048

50/50

Total Weight Assessment

    Graphite-Polyimide 1.6192 0.0031 50/50 10.552 0.0048 50/50 Total Weight Assessment 55
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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Total:

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Total:  According to the preliminary assessment: o For all-Aluminum structure

According to the preliminary assessment:

o

For all-Aluminum structure 143.8 kg.

o

For all-Steel structure 183.3 kg.

From this assessment, and from the knowledge that the motor case is made of steel, we realize that most of the AMRAAM-120A elements (mainly structure) are made of Aluminum or similar lightweight metals (such as Titanium).

According to the calculated values of the GRAVITON:

For Titanium + Graphite/Epoxy structure 176.7 kg.

By choosing to use composite materials for the whole structure, the missile ‘body’ weight can be reduced to 12.8423 kg

Temperature Consideration

Stagnation temperatures per Mach number:

T

0

T

0

M

2

M 4

460.17

1073.73

K

K

Critical temperatures for the examined materials:

Al

7 075

75 0

K

 

St

SAE

4340

1703

K

St

D6AC

1700

K

Ti

6

Al

4

V

1877

K

 

Ti

8

Al

1

M

0

4

V 18

1

3 K

Conclusion: if we choose to build the aero structure from Aluminum, we would have to use thermal coating in order to withstand the critical temperatures.

For the other materials the temperature limitations are negligible.

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Simulation

Graviton Student Project January 2012 Simulation Objective: A tool for estimation and examination of the missile's

Objective: A tool for estimation and examination of the missile's kinematic performance and flight trajectory calculations.

Method: Building a 6 DOF simulation, while initially reducing the number of DOF to accommodate the development steps of the project (in practice, 3 DOF in the XOZ plane, control commands: AOA or rate of pitch angle not by controlling the wing angles).

The simulation program interfaces with the aerodynamics, thrust and structural functions displayed previously.

Program's functionality:

1. Straight and level flight at a specific height.

2. Ballistic or "designed" flight trajectory.

3. Spatial trajectory flight.

4. All three angles & angle rates calculations.

5. Missile velocity calculations in wind, body & inertial axis.

6. Longitudinal & lateral missile acceleration calculations.

7. Aerodynamic forces and moments calculations (i.e. drag, normal force, thrust and gravity in body & inertial axis).

8. Missile mass change is taken into account in the force and moments equations.

9. Calculation and output of the impact range in head-on & chase scenarios.

ž

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Graviton Student Project January 2012

Blocks Diagram - Simulation Six DOF

Project January 2012 Blocks Diagram - Simulation Six DOF M ( t ) , M t
M ( t ) , M t M ( t ) fuel Atmosp- Linear here
M
(
t
) ,
M t M
(
t
)
fuel
Atmosp-
Linear
here
equations
of motion
model
Rotational
equations
of motion
M
(
t
) ,
M t M
(
t
)
fuel
Aerodynamic forces and moments and thrust
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58

3.

4.

Graviton Student Project January 2012

The Dynamic Model

1.

Assumptions

:

Missile Symetric

shape

Truster X Axis Only

NoTorqe By Fuel

&

Truser

'

2.

Force Equation

:


I

I

I

T

y

1

2

I x I  I y z
I
x
I
I
y
z

xy

I

xz

I

yz

T

z

0

0

s Possition

L

T

M

T

N

T

0

M

(

t

)

When

2 2 u  qu  rv  g  q  r  u
2
2
u
qu
rv
g
q
r
u
X
T
x
A
x
d
v
ru
pw
g
M
L
 
r
pq
M
( )
t
v
Lr
Y
y
fu
el
(
t
)
A
dt
w
pv
qu
g
q
pr
w
Lq
Z
z
A

M



M  M 0
M
M
0

( )

t

( )

t

fuel

L

  M    M  M 0 ( ) t ( ) t

Fuel dis from c g

.

[

m

]

Gravity

:

g

g

g

x

y

z

 

g

g

g sin

sin

cos

cos

cos

sin   cos   cos cos        5.

5.

Torqe Equations

I

1

p  L A
p
L
A

:

I 2

d  q  ( I  I ) pr  M ( ) t
d
q
( I
I
)
pr
M
( )
t
L
(
w
pv
qu
Lq
Lpr
)
M
( )
t
L
(
w
Lq )
M
fuel
( )
t
L
g
M
1
2
fuel
z
dt
contribution of themassthatis not atC G
.
the gravitytorqeof the fuel
contribution of
var
ies mass

I

2

d r  ( I  I ) pq  M ( ) t 
d
r
( I
I
)
pq
M
( )
t
L
(
  
v
r
pw
Lr
Lpq
)
M
( )
t
L Lr
(
v
)  M
( )
t
 L  g
 N
2
1
fuel
fuel
y
dt
contribution of themassthatis not atC .
G
the gravitytorqeof the fuel
contributi on of
var
ies mass

A

Euler Equations

:

p

q

sin

tan

r

cos

tan

q

cos

r

sin

 

 

(

q

sin

 

r

cos

) / cos

 
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59

A

Graviton Student Project January 2012

6.

DCM

Inertial Body

&

DCM

Body Inertial

January 2012 6. DCM Inertial Body & DCM Body Inertial 7. DCM Wind Body & DCM
January 2012 6. DCM Inertial Body & DCM Body Inertial 7. DCM Wind Body & DCM

7.

DCM

Wind Body

&

DCM

Body Wind

DCM