2012
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Summary
"Graviton" is a long range air to air missile. The project's main objective is to substitute the currently used AIM120 AMRAAM. In order to achieve better performance, to double the kinematic range ^{1} without compromising size and weight characteristics too much to stay in compliance with current fighter aircraft carry features.
To achieve the desired result, we have tried different aerodynamic configurations to reduce drag and optimize lift, several thrust profiles for optimal cruise speed and various materials for reduced body and parts weight.
The final configuration has been chosen after analytically calculating the aerodynamic coefficients and using a simulation program in Matlab to numerically obtain the range.
^{1} Kinematic range  A missile’s kinematic range can be described as the maximum theoretical range at which it can intercept a target.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Contents
Summary 
1 
Introduction 
5 
"Market Survey" – Missiles available today 
6 
MICA 
6 
METEOR 
7 
R37 (Arrow) 
8 
Novator K100 
9 
R77M1 (Adder) 
10 
AIM120D AMRAAM 
11 
Missile Carriage 
12 
1. External Carriage: 
12 
2. Conformal Carriage: 
12 
3. Internal Carriage: 
13 
Launchers 
14 
1. Rail Launcher: 
14 
2. Ejection Launcher: 
15 
Design constraint 
16 
F16 
16 
F15 
17 
F35 
19 
Summary: 
20 
The guideline of the GRAVITON design – The AMRAAM 
21 
Aerodynamics 
22 
Background: 
22 
Objectives: 
23 
Aerodynamic coefficients calculation: 
23 
Validity of the calculations: 
24 
Geometry of the AMRAAM: 
26 
Attaining drag reducing configuration: 
27 
Maneuverability: 
35 
Propulsion system 
37 
Theory 
37 
Calculation and formulas 
38 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Ramjet 
Engine 
42 
How 
it Works? 
42 
There are different types of Ramjet engine: 
43 

Advantages and disadvantages of the different types 
43 

Chosen configuration 
44 

First analysis 
44 

Assumptions: 
44 

Equations: 
45 

Results 
46 

Structure 
47 

Requirements: 
47 

Method of analysis: 
47 

Stress analysis for the aero surfaces 
47 

Strength analysis for the aero surfaces 
48 

Weight analysis for the aero surfaces 
50 

Assumptions we used: 
51 

Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces: 
52 

AMRAAM 120A Fin Geometry 
52 

AMRAAM 120A Wing Geometry 
52 

Graviton  Fin Geometry 
53 

Graviton – Wing Geometry 
53 

Structure strength analysis 
54 

Results: 
55 

Total Weight 
Assessment 
55 
Temperature 
Consideration 
56 
Simulation 
57 

Blocks Diagram  Simulation Six DOF 
58 

The Dynamic Model 
59 

AMRAAM Missile (Trim Flight 1000m) 
61 

Graviton Missile (Trim Flight 1000m, Acceleration + 2 Pulses Thruster) 
64 

Data Comparison 
67 

AMRAAM: Chase & Head On 
68 

Graviton vs. AMRAAM: Chase & Head On 
68 

Special Versions of Graviton: 
69 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Graviton 
Missile 
(Trim 
Flight 
1000m ,Acceleration 
Only) 
70 

Graviton Missile (Trim Flight 1000m, Acceleration + 4 Pulses Thruster) 
72 

Graviton 
Missile 
(Trim 
Flight 
1000m, 
Ramjet) 
75 

Developmental Configuration (Trim Flight 1000m) 
78 

Trajectory Flight Design Example: 
79 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Introduction
Since the beginning of time, man has always had dreams of flight.
There have been many tales in history of people attempting flight. There is one even in mythology of a father and son team which constructed wings and flew from their prison. Alas, the boy didn't hear his father's warning and flew too close to the son, causing the glue holding the wings together to dissolve and fell down into the never to be seen or heard from again.
Since the beginning of powered flight, it has been utilized in military applications and improving in all aspects.
The AMRAAM was first used at the end of 1992, it has been improving even since and the latest version is rated to have a maximum range of about 100km. In continuation to this tendency, we decided to design a new and improved missile with double the maximum range of the AMRAAM. Due to technological advances, we allowed ourselves to reduce the size of the inner components to accommodate a larger engine.
The final configuration incorporates a larger volume body, optimized aerodynamic profile and an increased engine size and multipulse type thrust profile.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
"Market Survey" – Missiles available today
Presented here are the missiles which we have found. We have selected our reference missile (the AIM120 AMRAAM) as the reference point for the project based on the following findings.
MICA
Graviton Student Project January 2012
METEOR
multishot capability against long range maneuvering targets in a heavy electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment 
Purpose/Role 
MBDA missile systems 
Manufacturer 
Euro Union 
Country of origin 
100+ km 
Range 
Mach 4+ 
Speed 
Solid booster 
Propulsion system 
Active Radar, Inertial Midranged + datalink updates 
Guidance 
High Explosive BlastFragmentation 
Warhead 
100000000£ 
Price 
Eurofighter, Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen 
Launch platform 
185 kg 
Weight 
Wingspan 
Diameter 
Length 
??? 
178mm 
3.65m 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
R37 (Arrow)
Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft 
Purpose/Role 
Vympel 
Manufacturer 
Russia 
Country of origin 
150398 km 
Range 
Mach 6 
Speed 
Solid rocket 
Propulsion system 
Inertial + midcourse updates, semiactive + active radar 
Guidance 
60 kg HE, fragmenting 
Warhead 
Unknown 
Price 
MIG31 
Launch platform 
600 kg 
Weight 
Wingspan 
Diameter 
Length 
700mm 
380mm 
4.2m 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Novator K100
Shooting down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft 
Purpose/Role 
NPO Novator & DRDO 
Manufacturer 
Russia 
Country of origin 
200+ km 
Range 
Mach 4 
Speed 
Solidpropellant tandem rocket 
Propulsion system 
Inertial + midcourse guidance, active radar 
Guidance 
50 kg HE fragmentation (KS–172) 
Warhead 
Unknown 
Price 
Su27, Su30, Su35 
Launch platform 
724 kg 
Weight 
Wingspan
Diameter
Length
610mm
400mm
6.01m+
1.4m(booster)
Graviton Student Project January 2012
R77M1 (Adder)
multipurpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft for fireandforget use against a range of aircraft from hovering helicopters to high speed, low altitude aircraft 
Purpose/Role 

Vympel 
Manufacturer 

Russia 
Country of origin 

160 
km 
Range 

Mach 4.5 
Speed 

Solid fuel rocket motor (R77), airbreathing ramjet 

(R77M1) 
Propulsion system 

Inertial + midcourse guidance, active radar 
Guidance 

22 kg HE, fragmenting 
Warhead 

??? 
Price 

MiG21, MiG29, MiG31, Su27, Su35… 
Launch platform 

266 
kg 
Weight 

Wingspan 
Diameter 
Length 

350mm 
200mm 
3.6m 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
AIM120D AMRAAM
airtoair missile (AAM) capable of allweather dayand night operations 
Purpose/Role 
Huges/Raytheon 
Manufacturer 
USA 
Country of origin 
75100 km 
Range 
Mach 4 
Speed 
Highperformance directed rocket motor 
Propulsion system 
INS, active radar 
Guidance 
High explosive blastfragmentation 23 kg 
Warhead 
$7000000 
Price 
Harrier, F15, F16, F18, F22, Eurofighter… 
Launch platform 
152 kg (335 lbs) 
Weight 
Wingspan 
Diameter 
Length 
530mm 
180mm 
3.7m 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Missile Carriage
There are 3 types of missile carriages:
1. External Carriage:
Conventional external carriage is the method where missile and bombs are hanging on the outside of the aircraft under its wing.
Advantages: High firepower loadout because of large number of possible stores location on aircraft body and wing.
Disadvantages: Because our missiles are situated outside the plane they cause an increase to the plane RCS (radar cross section) and to the aircraft drag. Other disadvantages include problem in the interaction with the aircraft control system and potentially adverse aeroelasticity.
2. Conformal Carriage:
Conformal carriage is the method used by the F15 where missiles
and bombs are attached on the aircraft body.
Advantages: By attaching the missiles on the aircraft body we get a lower RCS and lower drag in comparison to conventional external carriage.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Disadvantages: Disadvantages of this method is the need for specialized stores and aircraft attachment for each type of aircraft.
3. Internal Carriage:
Internal carriage required the aircraft to have an inner bay where the
missile/bombs can be stored.
Advantages: since the weapons are located inside the aircraft Internal carriage has the lowest RCS and the lowest Drag.
Disadvantages: Disadvantages include, span constraint to ensure the weapon to fit inside the bay, there’s concerns for the bay acoustics, the bay vibration as well as concern for flow field angularities near the aircraft and concerns about save separation at high dynamic pressure.
The GRAVITON missile should be capable of carrying bye all three types mentioned above.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Launchers
There are two types of aircraft missile launchers being used to launch AMRAAM missiles:
1. Rail Launcher:
The term rail launcher may be applied to launchers making use of rails, tubes, long ramps, and even tall vertical towers. All provide, to a varying
degree, constraint to the weapon while it is moving on the launcher, and they thus provide a considerable amount of flight control. For uncontrolled weapons, such as rockets, the rails must be fairly long so that the rocket is constrained for a longer portion of the rocket motor burning time to provide the necessary initial velocity vector control. If the missile is equipped with a guidance system, the rail length can usually be reduced. Longrange weapons, guided or unguided, normally require a longer rail since their initial acceleration is comparatively low relative to shortrange weapon. Rail launchers may be fixed or movable. They may serve as ready service storage for missiles and provide facilities for fueling and servicing. The simplicity of design of rail launchers also promotes reliability and ease of maintenance and repair. Airborne launcher rails, because of space and air flowfield problems, are usually very short. As a rule, the greater the speed the missile had achieved at separation from the launcher, the less the airflow field effects will influence missile flight.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Example: Trapeze launcher: (A trapeze launcher is required for lockon beforelaunch missiles.)
2. Ejection Launcher:
Impulse launchers for weapon ejection are employed for both freefall
and selfpropelled weapons. Their main purpose is to ensure that the weapon safely clears the delivery vehicle. Ejection is usually accomplished by the expansion of highpressure gases from a compressed air supply or from ignition of a propellant charge. Because it is used for ejection purposes only, the impulse is small, and the launcher can be built to withstand the shock of launching without the need for excessive structural strength or special devices. Thus, launchers of this type are fairly light and simple in design.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Design constraint
Heavy constraints exist on the missile geometry/mass for it to be compatible with any aircraft. Since we are located in Israel we are interested in making the Graviton compatible with fighters used today and in the near future by the IDF. Those fighters are; the F16, the F15 and the F35.
The Graviton has to replace the AMRAAM, that’s why we can assume it shall be placed at the same pylons the AMRAAM is located today.
By finding those pylons we can make a list of all missile which use that pylon and thus we can take the heaviest missile mass as our mass constraint and the biggest missile geometry as our geometrical constraints, we shall do this for all 3 planes and choose our constraints by comparing the 3 results.
F16
Graviton Student Project January 2012
AMRAAM is usually situated at pylons 1289
Weight constraint on new missile: 425lb Other airtoair missile include:
AIM7 sparrow
AIM9 sidewinder
IRIST
Python4
AIM120 AMRAAM
The longest length an airtoair missile has on the F16 is 3.7m so we take this length as our length constraint. Wing span constraint: very difficult to calculate since not much information exists on pylon height, and space between pylons, also missile are attached in Xconfiguration. To avoid making mistakes the sparrow has the biggest wingspan of
0.81m.
F15
The F15E has a Total of 15 external stores. McDonnell Douglas has developed a new weapons attachment system for the F15E, known as tangential carriage.
The F15E can carry up to 23,000 lb of external fuel or ordnance.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Left wing 
Left CFT inboard 
Right CFT 
Right Wing 

inboard 

AIM9 
STA2A 
STA8A 

Sidewinder 

STA2B 
STA8B 

AIM120 
STA2A 
STA3C 
STA7C 
STA8A 
AMRAAM 
STA2B 
STA4C 
STA6C 
STA8B 
AIM7 Sparrow 
STA3C 
STA7C 

STA4C 
STA6C 
No information on weapon store weight capability has been found so we assume that for STA2 and STA8 the biggest weight found there is that
Graviton Student Project January 2012
of the AMRAAM 335 lb, and on stations STA3, STA4, STA6, STA7 the heaviest weight is that of sparrow 510lb.
The smallest distance between missiles is situated between STA2A and STA2B and STA8A and STA8B. From measurement that distance is
0.51m
max length constraint is again as the AMRAAM: 3.7m
F35
stat 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
store 
a/a 
a/a, 
a/a, 
a/a, 
a/a 
gun 
a/a 
a/a, 
a/a, 
a/a, 
a/a 
a/s 
a/s 
a/s 
a/s 
a/s 
a/s 

Cap. 
300 
2500 
5000 
2500 
350 
1000 
350 
2500 
5000 
2500 
300 
lb 

Loc m 
1,46 
1,82 
2,77 
4,3 
4,66 
5,35 
6,07 
6,19 
7,64 
8,59 
9,32 
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Weapons on F35:
AIM120 AMRAAM
AIM132 ASRAAM
AIM9x sidewinder
IRIST
MBDA meteor (pending further funding)
JDRADM (after 2020)
Weight constraint for our missile is:
Interior: 350lb
Exterior: 2,500lb
Length constraint:
Interior: as AMRAAM 3,7m
Exterior: as AMRAAM 3,7m
Wing span constraint:
Interior: 44,7 cm
Exterior:53 cm
Summary:
All 3 aircrafts are compatible with the meteor, that’s why we can assume the meteor mass as our weight constraint and we can assume the AMRAAM C (which fit in the F35 inner bay) geometry as our geometrical constraints.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
The guideline of the GRAVITON design – The AMRAAM
Since the main objective of the project is a long range air to air missile to replace the currently used AMRAAM, the AMRAAM has been used as a reference/starting point for the design.
This is a schematic drawing showing the relative size of the missile's elements in both the AMRAAM and the Graviton.
The Graviton's characteristics will be explained and discussed at length during each of the projects main subject.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Aerodynamics
Background:
The aerodynamic design of the Graviton is an enhancement of the one of the AMRAAM. Therefore, the changes made to the design are not substantial, yet essential in order for the Graviton to meet its objectives.
At first, identification of the crucial aerodynamic components had to be made. In accordance with geometric information derived from various online literature ^{1} , a numerical assessment of the parameters
d C C
,
r w
,
,
r t
,
,
b AR C
,
,
mac
,
was made. After that, a computational tool
in form of a MATLAB code was made in order to assess the drag and normal force visited upon the missile. Based on results obtained by the program, an aerodynamic design which is expected to be good enough to allow the Graviton to fulfill its mission was suggested.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Objectives:
 The aerodynamic design should allow the Graviton to reach a range in pursuit that is double the one of the AMRAAM
The maneuverability of the Graviton should be 3 times better than the one of the evader
Aerodynamic coefficients calculation:
The missile's Aerodynamic coefficients were calculated using empirical formulas taken from Tactical Missile design 1 ^{s}^{t} ed. by Eugene L. Fleeman:
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Where:
The
C
D
C
N
,0
total
C
D
,0
C
D
,0
body wave
,
wing wave
,
C
D
,0
body friction
,
C
D
,0
wing friction
,
total
C
N
body
C
N
wing
C
N
tail
C
D
,0
base
calculation for the tail is similar to the one of the wing, but based on the geometry of the tail.
1
2
0.5 , the calculation of
For
Slender Wing Theory, and is independent of Mach number.
M
8 / AR
C N wing
is based on
1
2
0.5 , the calculation of
For
Wing Theory, and is independent of Aspect Ratio.
M
8 / AR
C N wing
is based on Linear
Validity of the calculations:
A representative case was examined in order to verify that the results obtained from the program correlate with credible results from literature.
Given the canard configuration from NASA TM X2780 report:
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Results for
those from the official report:
C D ,0
achieved by the calculation tool were compared with
It is notable that both of the results match, and the accuracy achieved by the MATLAB code is sufficient for primary design.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Geometry of the AMRAAM:
Identifying the geometry of the AMRAAM was necessary in order to evaluate its performance, and by that defining the goals of the Graviton.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Attaining drag reducing configuration:
The following graph displays the variation S diameter of the missile d and its nose length
C
ref D ,0
l nose
:
as a function of the
Graviton Student Project January 2012
An increase in diameter increases drag
An increase in nose length decreases drag
A suitable combination of increase in diameter and nose length should be found
Closeup on the relevant region of the graph:
As we can see, by selecting
reduce the drag force applied upon the missile. This configuration reduces drag by 7.2%.
d 0.198
m l
,
n
0.915
we manage to
m
l
0.915
_{d} ^{} 0.198
n
4.6
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Comparing the chosen configuration and the original AMRAAM configuration:
And in Closeup:
Graviton Student Project January 2012
The volume (Vol. calculation Appendix ***) of the entire missile in its new configuration is
V
new
0.084828
m
3
Whereas the volume of the original configuration is
V
original
0.079753
m
3
Therefore, by increasing diameter and nose length in the right amount, we managed to reduce drag and increase the missile's volume too, which is important for propulsion issues. The new configuration increases volume by 6.36%.
The following graph displays
altitude of 5000m (engine off):
C D ,0
as a function of Mach number at an
Graviton Student Project January 2012
It can be seen that
especially at supersonic speed. This is good because the missile is intended to work at supersonic speed.
C D ,0
is reduced substantially in every Mach number,
The graph below compares
configurations at an altitude of5000 _{m} _{} _{} . This product is proportional to
the drag force applied upon the missile (engine off):
S
C
ref D ,0
for the new and the original
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Due to an increase in the missile's diameter,
reduction in the drag force itself at supersonic speed is smaller, yet significant.
S ref
is now bigger and the
We will now examine
at M=2 (engine off):
C
S
C
as a function of angle of attack
NOR ref NOR
,
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Since
missile, we note that the normal force hardly changes when the drag reducing configuration is used.
S C
ref NOR
is proportional to the normal force generated upon the
The next graph displays
C NOR
C D ,0
5000m (engine off):
against Mach number at 5 , altitude of
Graviton Student Project January 2012
The following graphs show
S
ref
C
D ,0
C NOR
,
C D ,0
as a function of Mach
number when the missile's engine is on:
In this case, the base drag is smaller and therefore we receive better results in drag related calculations.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Maneuverability:
The main requirement is that the Graviton's maneuverability will be 3 times better than the evader's.
The weight of the
new configuration is173kg .
The following graphs present the required angle of attack that the missile should develop in order to achieve G=10 (10,000 _{m} _{}_{)} , G=30 (
1000 m _{} _{)}_{:}
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Propulsion system
Theory A rocket engine, or simply "rocket", is a jet engine that uses only propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines and obtain thrust in accordance with Newton's third law.
Rocket engines as a group have the highest exhaust velocities, are by far the lightest, but are the least propellant efficient of all types of jet engines.
Principle of operation:
Rocket engines produce thrust by the expulsion of a highspeed fluid exhaust. This fluid is nearly always a gas which is created by high pressure (10200 bar) combustion of solid or liquid propellants, consisting of fuel and oxidiser components, within a combustion chamber.
The fluid exhaust is then passed through a supersonic propelling nozzle which uses heat energy of the gas to accelerate the exhaust to very high speed, and the reaction to this pushes the engine in the opposite direction.
In rocket engines, high temperatures and pressures are highly desirable for good performance as this permits a longer nozzle to be fitted to the engine, which gives higher exhaust speeds, as well as giving better thermodynamic efficiency.
(Taken form: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_engine")
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Calculation and formulas The main formulas we used are:
m
p
b
C A P r A I g m
F
F
c
t
sp
0
m
mass capacity

p propelant density 
A 
b Cross section area of the propelant 
A 
t Cross section area of nozzle 
r Burn rate 

F 
T hrust 
C 
F T hrust coefficient 
P
I
c
sp
The p ressure in the burn chamber
The
specific
impulse
g
Gravitation on 0 altitude
0
As part of the plan the project study first the AMMARAM missile as a reference.
We found a picture of the AMMRAM engine in ATK company site from which we took the dimensions and propellant data:
Graviton Student Project January 2012
The data that taken:
Length of burning : 1.498m
Radius : 0.089m
Nozzle diameter: 0.06m
Exit diameter: 0.142m
Data for propellant:
_{}
C
*
1550
sec m
I _{s}_{p} 250sec
b
1700
1.2
m kg
3
We study about different cross sections of burning area and what kind of Thrust vector we can get from it.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
We had to assume that the AMMRAM had steady thrust and we started to build a program in Matlab that will calculate the thrust according to burn section.
In order to calculate the burn section vs. time we used the following:
All of the above were taken from: "Archon םיליט דגנ ריואריוא ליט םייטסילב" final project in the Technion.
According to the burning section area the program calculates the thrust of the engine.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Another calculation is for the nozzle:
P
c
(
tables
)
P
e
37,
C
F 0
1.51
In order to improve the range there were two options:
Pulses engine
Bigger engine
There were a few versions of thrust profile:
Acceleration thrust profile only.
2 pulses thrust profile.
4 pulses thrust profile.
We knew from calculations that the best profile is: Accelerate to 1000 m/sec and then cruise at that speed.
(The simulation program gave us the same conclusion)
After all the work of aerodynamic and structure teams the dimensions of the Graviton engine are:
Length of burning : 2.2902m
Radius : 0.198m
Nozzle diameter: 0.0595m
Exit diameter: 0.1926m
A
d
d
e
t
e
0.029146
0.0595
m
0.1926 m
2
m
2
m
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Ramjet Engine Until now we’ve been working with a rocket propelled engine but since our goal is to achieve a long range airtoair missile we’ve been intrigued by the ramjet engine. A ramjet engine doesn’t need to carry its oxidizer with him since it takes its oxidizer from the atmosphere around. This results in the ramjet engine only having to carry a fuel rich sustain propellant which allows the ramjet engine to have a higher I _{s}_{p} than a solid booster engine and thus it can enable us to achieve a higher range without having to add to much mass to the missile. Yet a ramjet engine contains a few problems, for example: a ramjet engine has to be propelled to M>1 for it to start working and the cones taking air add to missile drag. A detailed analysis is needed to truly see if a ramjet engine can give us longer range.
How it Works? Ramjet propulsion is relatively simple compared to turbojet propulsion; it has no moving parts. Air enters the inlet at supersonic speed and is decelerated to low subsonic speed at the combustor entrance. Downstream of the combustor is a convergentdivergent nozzle, which accelerates the airflow back to supersonic speed. Because a ramjet is inefficient at low supersonic Mach number, a rocket is required for subsonic launch to boost the missile to the ramjet thrust takeover at about Mach 2.5.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
There are different types of Ramjet engine:
1. Liquid Fuel Ramjet. Hydrocarbon fuel (typically) is injected into the combustor ahead of a flame holder which stabilizes the flame resulting from the combustion of the fuel with the compressed air from the intake(s).
2. Solid Fuel Ramjet. It contains a fuel grain with a hollow center core for the inlet airflow.
3. Ducted Rocket. A solid fuel gas generator produces a hot fuelrich gas which is burnt in the ramcombustor with the compressed air supplied by the intake(s). The flow of gas improves the mixing of the fuel and air and increases total pressure recovery.
Advantages and disadvantages of the different types
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Chosen configuration
First analysis The initial phase of our analysis is to make simple calulations under the assumption of an ideal ramjet engine to give us a first idea of a ramjet engine performance, this are the assumptions made during this first analysis:
Assumptions:
Isentropic inlet and nozzle
P
T _{0}_{2} =T _{0}_{A} and T _{0}_{4} =T _{0}_{E}
γ=1.4
_{E} =P _{A}
Q
R
A
in
T
04
C
p
45
10
3
kJ
kg
0.01166
2
m
2250
1005
k
kJ
kg k
T m f U U
e
a
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Equations:
U
a
M
f U U A P P
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Results The thrust vs. time we got:
AMMRAM:
Graviton:
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Structure
Requirements:
To achieve a lightweight and strong enough structure, in order to withstand the different loads that evolve before and during the mission. The aspects, on which we focused, such as structural analysis, came to meet the requirements:
Finding the proper materials and thicknesses respectively of the missile aero surfaces (fins and wings).
Finding the proper materials which would allow us to achieve maximum Volume for the propellant (thinner wall thickness).
Method of analysis:
Stress analysis for the aero surfaces
We used linear strength and elasticity theories, while the fins/wings were referred as cantilever beam, fixed on one end.
Shear stress calculated as:
Bending stress calculated as:
Torsion stress calculated as:
bend
(
( y )
ds
(
V Q y
)
y ) M y
I b
I
tor
( r )
T r
J
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Strength analysis for the aero surfaces
Moment of inertia was calculated for circular section and square cross section, to examine the shape of the preferred connection.
For each given geometry we examined three types of metals in order to find which the preferred metal is.
Another result from the strength calculations is the weight for each fin/wing.
The strength calculations were made by taking the equivalent aerodynamic force (which we got from analyzing the aerodynamic coefficients) at flight conditions of 5000 meter altitude and 30G load.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Weight analysis for the aero surfaces For the preliminary calculation of the missile weight we used two methods:
Initially, to get an approximate estimation, we assumed a uniform mass distribution along the missile length. Each element was measured by its relative length.
For a more accurate result we divided the missile to its different elements and calculated each element mass according to its ‘typical density’ (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”):
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Assumptions we used:
Each fin/wing has a diamond cross section and the thickness distribution is linear from the root to the tip.
The aerodynamic force applied on the fin/wing is uniformly distributed, therefor we referred it as an equal and concentrated force at 0.25 of the fin/wing cord (while Mach<2) and at the center area of the fin/wing (when Mach>2).
The fin/wing has Uniform density.
Factor of safety were taken according to the different element of the missile (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”).
Failure is when the stress reaches yield point (
Structural failure will occur at the maximum stress point of the connection between the fin/wing and body (top or bottom fiber).
y
).
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Weight calculation results for the aero surfaces:
AMRAAM 120A Fin Geometry
AMRAAM 120A Wing Geometry
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Graviton  Fin Geometry
Graviton – Wing Geometry
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Structure strength analysis During its mission, the missile structure withstands different types of stresses in consequence of:
Motor chamber internal pressure.
Bending moment.
Buckling from Combined axial compression & bending.
Manufacturing operations such as drilling, machining, bending and even carriage.
In order to withstand the different stresses, we need to find the proper materials and the required shell thickness.
We then built a program that calculates the required thickness and weight for different materials, so that we could choose the proper materials under our constraints (mainly total weight).
We used a critical design condition (according to “Eugene L. Fleeman / Tactical Missile design”) for the weighted thickness criterion:
t =FOS x Max (t MinGage ,t Buckling,Bending ,t Buckling,AxialCompression ,t Bending ,t InternalPressure )
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Results:
FRONT CYLINDER 
MOTOR CASE 

WEIGHT 
SHELL THICKNESS 
MATERIAL 
WEIGHT 
MATERIAL 

[Kg] 
[m] 
[Kg] 
SHELL THICKNESS [m] 

6.5224 
0.0069 
Al7075T6 
62.6875 
0.0056 
PH 157Mo 
6.0426 
0.0064 
Al7178T6 
39.0696 
0.0036 
D6AC 
5.057 
0.0034 
Ti6Al4V 
48.3492 
0.0078 
Ti6Al4V 
Ti8Al1Mo1V 

5.057 
0.0035 
Ti8Al1Mo1V (Aged) 
39.606 
0.0065 
(Aged) 
GraphiteEpoxy 
GraphiteEpoxy 

1.6297 
0.0027 
60/40ep 
9.6289 
0.0038 
60/40ep 
GraphitePolyimide 
GraphitePolyimide 

1.6192 
0.0031 
50/50 
10.552 
0.0048 
50/50 
Total Weight Assessment
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Total:
According to the preliminary assessment:
o 
For allAluminum structure 143.8 kg. 
o 
For allSteel structure 183.3 kg. 
From this assessment, and from the knowledge that the motor case is made of steel, we realize that most of the AMRAAM120A elements (mainly structure) are made of Aluminum or similar lightweight metals (such as Titanium).
According to the calculated values of the GRAVITON:
For Titanium + Graphite/Epoxy structure 176.7 kg.
By choosing to use composite materials for the whole structure, the missile ‘body’ weight can be reduced to 12.8423 kg
Temperature Consideration
Stagnation temperatures per Mach number:
T
0
T
0
M
2
M 4
460.17
1073.73
K
K
Critical temperatures for the examined materials:
Al 
7 075 75 0 K 

St 

SAE 
4340 
1703 
K 

St 

D6AC 1700 
K 

Ti 

6 
Al 
4 V 1877 K 

Ti 

8 
Al 
1 M 0 
4 
V 18 
1 
3 K 
Conclusion: if we choose to build the aero structure from Aluminum, we would have to use thermal coating in order to withstand the critical temperatures.
For the other materials the temperature limitations are negligible.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Simulation
Objective: A tool for estimation and examination of the missile's kinematic performance and flight trajectory calculations.
Method: Building a 6 DOF simulation, while initially reducing the number of DOF to accommodate the development steps of the project (in practice, 3 DOF in the XOZ plane, control commands: AOA or rate of pitch angle – not by controlling the wing angles).
The simulation program interfaces with the aerodynamics, thrust and structural functions displayed previously.
Program's functionality:
1. Straight and level flight at a specific height.
2. Ballistic or "designed" flight trajectory.
3. Spatial trajectory flight.
4. All three angles & angle rates calculations.
5. Missile velocity calculations in wind, body & inertial axis.
6. Longitudinal & lateral missile acceleration calculations.
7. Aerodynamic forces and moments calculations (i.e. drag, normal force, thrust and gravity in body & inertial axis).
8. Missile mass change is taken into account in the force and moments equations.
9. Calculation and output of the impact range in headon & chase scenarios.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
Blocks Diagram  Simulation Six DOF
3.
4.
Graviton Student Project January 2012
The Dynamic Model
1. 
Assumptions 
: 

Missile Symetric 
shape 


Truster X Axis Only 


NoTorqe By Fuel 
& Truser 
' 

2. 
Force Equation 
: 
I
I
I
T
y
1
2
xy
I
xz
I
yz
T
z
0
0
s Possition
L
T
M
T
N
T
0
M
(
t
)
When
M
( )
t
( )
t
fuel
L
Fuel dis from c g
.
[
m
]
Gravity
:
g
g
g
x
y
z
g
g
g sin
sin
cos
cos
cos
5.
Torqe Equations
I
1
:
I 2
I
2
A
Euler Equations
:



p 

q 

sin 
tan 
r 
cos 


tan 




q 

cos 
r 

sin 



( 
q 

sin 

r 
cos ) / cos 
A
Graviton Student Project January 2012
6.
DCM
Inertial Body
&
DCM
Body Inertial
7.
DCM
Wind Body
&
DCM
Body Wind
DCM
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.