Sei sulla pagina 1di 78

Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. You are advised to spend 90 minutes on this section.

1 Figure 1 shows a vernier calipers used to measure external diameter of a hollow cylinder.

(a) (i) Name the part labelled X. [1 mark] (ii) What is the function of X? [1 mark] (b) The external diameters of the cylinder at four different places are shown in the table below. External diameter/cm Relative deviation % 2.04 2.05 2.04 2.06 0.37 (i) Why is the external diameter measured four times? [1 mark] (ii) What is the purpose of calculating the relative deviation? [1 mark] 2 The blocks P and Q in Figure 2 have the same mass. They are immersed in boiling water for a long time. P and Q are then transferred into beakers X and Y respectively as shown in Figure 3.

The mass of water in both beakers X and Y is 0.25 kg and the initial temperature of the water in each beaker is the same. Specific heat capacity of P is 900 J kg-1C-1 ; Specific heat capacity of Q is 390 J kg-1C-1 ; Specific heat capacity of water is 4 200 J kg-1C-1 (a) (i) State the initial temperature of the blocks. [1 mark] (ii) Why is the final temperature of the water in beaker X higher than that in beaker Y? [1 mark] (b) (i) Calculate the rise in temperature of the water in beaker Y if block Q release 8 400 J of heat energy. [2 marks] (ii) State one assumption which you have made in (b)(i). [1 mark] 3 Figure 4 shows an airport radar transmitting microwave signals. Microwaves are transmitted to determine the position of aeroplanes.

(a) Microwaves are a type of

waves. [1mark]

(b) The radar transmits a signal at a velocity of 3.0 x 108 m s-1 towards the aeroplane P and detects the reflected signal 4.0 x 10-4 s later. Calculate the distance of P from the radar transmitter at that time. [3 marks] (c) The radar detects the same signal after reflection by another aeroplane, Q. The signal from Q arrives later than the signal from R (i) Compare the distances of P and Q from the radar. [1 mark] (ii) State how the difference of the distance of P and Q from the radar is determined at any time. [1 mark]

4 Figure 5 shows a mother observing the legs of her son in the pool. His legs appear to be shorter because of a light phenomenon.

(a) (i) Name the light phenomenon involved. [1 mark] (ii) Explain how this phenomenon occurs. [2 marks] (iii) In Figure 6, draw a ray diagram from point P to the eye to show how the legs appear shorter. [2 marks]

(b) The depth of water is 0.4 m. Calculate the distance of the image of the foot at point P from the surface of the water. [Refractive index of water = 1.33] [2 marks] 5 Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 show a spring balance supporting a metal block K in three situations.

(a) Compare the readings of the spring balance in Figure 7 and Figure 8. [1 mark] (b) Name three forces that act on K when it is partially or totally in water. [2 marks] (c) State and explain the relationship between the forces in (b). [2 marks] (d) Name the principle involved in (c). [1 mark] (e) (i) What will happen to the reading of the spring balance in Figure 9 if the water is replaced with salt solution? [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for your answer. [1 mark] 6 Figure 10 is a stroboscopic photograph shows two steel balls in a state of free-fall. Both balls are dropped simultaneously from the same height.

(a) Observe the photograph and state two similarities between the positions of the balls. [2 marks] (b) Name one physical quantity which causes the balls to fall. [1 mark] (c) Based on the positions of the free-falling balls, there is a physical quantity that is constant. (i) Name the quantity. [1 mark] (ii) What is the value of the quantity and its unit? [1 mark] (iii) State how the mass of a ball affect the value of the physical quantity stated in (c)(i). [1 mark]

(d) A ball is thrown vertically upwards at a certain velocity. W What happens to the motion of the ball as it moves upwards? [1 mark] (ii) Give one reasons for your answer. [1 mark] 7 Figure 11 shows a light dependent resistor (LDR), resistors R and S, a light emmiting diod (LED), a transistor and a battery that will be connected to form a circuit. The LED emmits lights when it is in a bright surroundings. 4

(a) (i) State one function of a transistor. [1 mark] (ii) Complete the circuit in Figure 11 so that the LED emmits light in a bright surroundings. [1 mark] (iii) Give one reason why LED emmits light in a bright surroundings. [1 mark] (b) What modification is required to the circuit so that the LED will emmits light when the surroundings become dark? [1 mark] (c) An alarm is needed which emmits sound when there is a fire. Two modifications have to be made to the circuit in (a)(ii) by replacing electronic components. (i) State one electronic component which needs to be replaced. Give a reason for your answer. [2 marks] (ii) Name two electronic components that are needed to replace the unsuitable components. [2 marks] (iii) In the space below, draw a circuit diagram to show the new circuit. [2 marks] 8 Figure 12 and Figure 13 show two ways in which a gardener moves a wheelbarrow on a muddy road.

(a) On Figure 12 and Figure 13, indicate and label: (i) the direction of force F exerted by the gardener on the handle of each wheelbarrow to make it move. [2 marks] (ii) the direction of the vertical component FY, of the force in (a)(i). [2 marks] (b) (i) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii), which of the ways is more suitable on the muddy road? [1 mark] (ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (b)(i).[2 marks] (c) The wheel of the wheelbarrow exerted pressure on the muddy road. The resultant force exerted by the wheel on the road surface is 500 N and the area of the wheel in contact with the road is 2 x 10-3 m2. (i) What does the word pressure mean? [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the pressure exerted on the surface of the muddy road. [2 marks] (iii) State one modification that could be made to the wheelbarrow to reduce the pressure exerted on the road. Explain your answer. [2 marks] Section B [20 marks] Answer any one questions in this section. You are advised to spend 30 minutes on this section. 1 Figure 14 shows two identical spherical plasticine balls before being released from the same height. Figure 15 shows the state of the plasticine balls when they hit the wood and the sponge. It was observed that the plasticine stopped more quickly when it hit the wood.

(a) (i) What does the word momentum mean? [1 mark] (ii) Observe Figure 14 and Figure 15. Compare the shape of the plasticine balls, the surface of the wood and the surface of the sponge before and when the plasticine balls hit the surfaces. Relate the changes in shapes of the plasticine balls and the surfaces to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] (b) Explain the changes in energy that occur from the moment the plasticine ball is released until it reaches the position in Figure 15. [4 marks] (e) An earth-monitoring satellite falls into the earth's atmosphere at a high velocity and reaches a high temperature. This is caused by the earth's gravitational force and air resistance. Using the appropriate physics concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to protect the satellite and its equipment: (i) from extreme heat, (ii) from breaking up on landing. [10 marks] 2 Figure 16 and Figure 17 show photographs of two circuit. Each circuit contains four identical bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells.

(a) (i) State the energy transformations that take place in the bulb. [1 mark] (ii) Draw a circuit diagram for each photograph. [3 marks] (b) Observe the photographs in Figure 16 and Figure 17. Compare the brightness of the bulbs.

Relate the brightness of the bulbs between Figure 16 and Figure 17 to deduce a concept in physics with regard to the potential difference and the current flow for the bulbs in series and parallel circuits. [6 marks] (c) Figure 18 shows a model of an incubator used to hatch eggs. The temperature in the incubator must be maintained around 390C. Every part of the eggs must receive uniform heat. The eggs are hatched in about 20 days.

Using an appropriate concept in physics, explain the modification required to the above incubator so as to efficiently hatch about 200 eggs. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one questions in this section. It You are advised to spend 30 minutes on this section. 3 You are representing the country in carrying out a research project on the weather at the North Pole. The surrounding temperature is between -40C to -8C. One item of the equipment to be taken for your research is a thermometer. (a) State the principle used in a liquid-glass thermometer. [1 mark] (b) State how a liquid-glass thermometer can be used to measure the body temperature of a sick person. Explain heat transfer that takes place at each stage of measurement. [4 marks] (c) The table shows the characteristics of six types of thermometers P, Q, R, S, T and U. Thermometer Liquid Glass walled Diameter of Glass-bore stem Crossused bulb capillary tube section P mercury thin big thick and curved Q R S T U mercury mercury alcohol alcohol alcohol thick thin thick thin thick small small big small small thin and plane thin and curve thick and plane thick and curved thin and plane

Additional information:

Freezing point of mercury = -39C Boiling point of mercury = 360C Freezing point of alcohol = -112C Boiling point of alcohol = 78C Based on the table above; (i) Explain the suitable characteristics of the thermometer so that it can be used to measure temperatures at the North Pole. (ii) Decide which thermometer is most suitable to be taken for your research and give reasons. [10 marks] (d) A thermometer which is not calibrated has a mercury column of length 8.0 cm when the temperature is 0C and 20.0 cm when the temperature is 100C. The mercury column is 5.0 cm when put in liquid X. (i)Determine the temperature of liquid X in Kelvin. (ii) State a thermometric property used when making of a thermometer. [5 marks] As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of a certain radioactive isotope that could be used to detect the thickness of paper in a paper factory. (a) What does the term isotope mean? [1 mark] (b) The table below shows the characteristics of five isotopes. Isotope Characteristics of isotope State of matter Emmited Half-life Penetrating radiation power Strontium-90 Solid Beta 28 years Medium Cobalt-60 Solid Gamma 5 years High Xenon-133 Gas Beta 5 days High Water containing H-3 Liquid Beta 12 years Medium Rolonium-210 Solid Alpha 140 days Low Based on the table above; (i) Explain the suitable characteristics of the isotopes so that it ca be used to measure the thickness of paper in a paper industry. (ii) Select the most suitable isotope to be used in detecting the thickness of paper in the factory and give your reason. [10 marks] (c) Suggest briefly the arrangement of the paper thickness detector apparatus and state how radioactivity is used to detect the thickness of the paper. [3 marks] (d) Sketch a graph of activity against time to illustrate how radioactive materials decay Use your graph to explain how the half-life is determined. [4 marks] (e) The half-life of cobalt-60 is 5 years. Calculate the time taken for the activity of this isotope to decay to 12.5% of its initial value. [2 marks] Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. You are advised to spend 90 minutes on this section. 1 Figure 1.1 shows the meniscus of oil in a measuring cylinder. P, Q and R are three eye positions while measuring the volume of the oil. (a) Which position of the eye is correct while taking the reading of the volume of oil? [1 mark]

(ii) Give one reason for the answer in (a)(i). [1 mark] (b) The oil in the measuring cylinder is replaced with 30 cm of mercury. (i) In Figure 1.2, draw the meniscus of the mercury in the measuring cylinder. [1 mark]

(ii) Explain what causes the shape of the meniscus of mercury you have drawn in (b)(i). [1 mark] 2. Figure 2.1 shows a man standing on a stationary boat. He then jumps out of the boat onto the jetty. The boat moves away from the jetty as he jumps.

(a) State the physics principle that is involved in the movement of the boat as the man jumps onto the jetty. [1 mark] (b) Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty when the man jumps. [1 mark] (c) The mass of the man is 50 kg and he jumps at a velocity of 2 m s-1. The mass of the boat is 20 kg. Calculate the velocity of the boat as the man jumps. [2 marks] (d) Name one application of the physics principle stated in (a) in an exploration of outer space. [1 mark] 3. Figure 3.1 shows the arrangement of apparatus in an experiment to determine the relationship between the extension e of a spring T with weight W. The relationship of e with W is shown in the graph in Figure 3.2.

10

(a) A law states that; The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied if the elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded. (i) Name this law. [1 mark] (ii) Mark with a cross (x) the elastic limit of the spring on the graph in Figure 3.2 [1 mark] (b) The spring stores energy when it is extended. Calculate the energy stored in the spring when it is extend by 4 cm. (c) Another spring, identical to spring T, is added to the arrangement in Figure 3.1. This new arrangement is shown in Figure 3.3. The experiment is then repeated.

Sketch the graph of W against e for this experiment on the graph in Figure 3.2. [1 mark] 4. Figure 4.1 shows in image of letters FIZI when viewed through a glass of water.

11

water

Figure 4.1 (a) State the light phenomenon that causes the image of FIZI to be enlarged. [1 mark] (b) What is the change in size of the image if the water is replaced with a transparent liquid of a greater density? [1 mark] (c) The glass of water is replaced with a lens M with focal length of 10 cm. The distance between the book cover and the centre of the lens is 8 cm. It is observed that the image FIZIK is enlarged. (i) Name the type of lens M. [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the distance of the image from lens M. [2 marks] (iii) In the space below sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is formed.[2 marks] 5. Figure 5.1 shows a feather and a water droplet falling from the same height. The mass of the feather and water droplet is the same and both are dropped simultaneously at time t = 0.

The graph in Figure 5.2 shows the motion of the feather and the water droplet from time t= 0.

12

(a) Name one force acting on the feather and the water droplet. [1 mark] (b) Using Figure 5.1, compare the surface area of the feather and the water droplet. [1 mark] (c) Using the graph in Figure 5.2, compare the changes in velocity of the feather and the water droplet. [3 marks] (d) Using your answers in (b) and (c), state the relationship between the surface area and the final velocity. [1 mark] (e) The feather and the water droplet are dropped in a vacuum. Sketch a velocity-time graph to show the motion on both objects.

6 Figure 6.1 shows the arrangement of apparatus in Young's double slit experiment. A while light source is passed through a coloured filter to produce a monochromatic light. Figure 6.2 shows the pattern of the fringe formed on the screen when a red filter is used. The experiment is repeated by using a blue filter and the fringes formed are shown in Figure 6.3.

13

(a) What is meant by a monochromatic light? [1 mark]

(b) Using the pattern of the fringes in Figures 6.2 and 6.3, state two observations about the distances between consecutive fringes for the red light and blue light. 1. 2. [2 marks] (c) Compare the wavelengths of red light to blue light. [1 mark] (d) Compare the wavelengths of red light and blue light with the distances between consecutive fringes in (b). [1 mark] (e) Name the wave phenomenon which forms the pattern of the fringes in Figures 6.2 and 6.3. [1 mark] (f) A white light is used without the coloured filter and the double slit is replaced with a diffraction grating. A spectrum is formed on the screen as shown in Figure 6.4.

14

Explain briefly how the spectrum is formed. [2 marks] 7 Ali wishes to design a security system in his house as shown in Figure 7.1. When a person crosses the infrared beam at night, the infrared sensor will send a signal to a logic gate which then lights up a spotlight. The spotlight has a 240 V alternating current (a.c) supply and will only light up at night.

The circuit that could help Ali to develop the security system is shown in Figure 7.2.

(a) If the potential difference across resistor W is 2 V, what is the potential difference across the infrared sensor? [1 mark] (b) Component X has a high resistance when the surroundings are dark and a low resistance in bright surroundings. Name the component X. [1 mark] (c) Component S is a switch that connects the 240 V ax spotlight circuit. (i) What type of switch is component S? [1 mark] (ii) Why is component S necessary in the circuit? [1 mark] (d) The following truth table shows the operation of a logic gate in the circuit in Figure 7.2. Key: Dark surroundings Bright surroundings high input voltage at P, logic'1' low input voltage at P, logic '0'

15

Person crossing the path Nobody crossing the path Switch S is on Switch S in off Surroundings Bright Bright Dark Dark

high input voltage at Q, low input voltage at Q, high output voltage at R, low output voltage at R,

logic'1' logic '0' logic'1' logic '0' Output R

Input P Input voltage at P 0

Output Q Person crossing Input voltage at Q No 0 Yes No Yes

(i) Using the given key, complete the truth table above. [1 marks] (ii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in Figure 7.1. [1 mark] (iii) Sketch the symbol of the logic gate in (d)(ii). [1 mark] 8 Figure 8.1 shows an immersion heater with specification of 240 V, 1 000 W

(a) Name one suitable material to be used to a heating element in the immersion heater. [1 mark] (b) The immersion heater is connected to a 240 V supply. Calculate (i) the current that passes through the immersion heater. [2 marks] (ii) the resistance of the immersion heater. [2 marks] (c) A student conducts an experiment to compare the heating effect of immersion heaters P, Q and R. The volume and initial temperature of the water is fixed. Table 8.1 shows the result of the experiment. Immersion Potential Current/A Time for the water to start boiling/ heater difference/V minute P 240 6.0 8.0 Q 240 5.0 10.0 R 240 4.0 9.0 Table 8.1 (i) State the energy change that occurs when the immersion heater switched on. [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the energy supplied by each of the immersion heaters P, Q and R to start boiling the water. [4 marks] (iii) Using your answer in (c)(ii), suggest which immersion heater is the most suitable to heat water. Give one reason for your answer. [2 marks] Section B

16

[20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. The time suggested to complete this section is 30 minutes. 1. Figures 1.1. and 1.2 show the parallel rays of light directed toward the curved mirrors, J and K CP is the radius of curvature, and F is the focal point of the mirrors.

(a) What is meant by focal point? [1 mark] (b) Using Figures 1.1 and 1.2, compare the curvature of mirrors J and K and the effects on reflected rays. State the relationship between the curvature of the mirrors and their focal lengths. [5 marks] (c) Figure 1.3 shows a cross section of a parabolic reflector used in a car headlamp. The headlamp has two bulbs, X and Y Bulb X is located at the focal point of the reflector while bulb Y is above bulb X.

Explain what happens to the light rays from the bulb when only: W bulb X is switched on, (ii) bulb Y is switched on. You may use diagrams to illustrate your answers. [4 marks] You are given two pieces of plane mirror measuring 5 cm x 6 cm to make a periscope. (i) Using these mirrors and other materials, describe how you would make the periscope. [4 marks] (ii) Explain why the image observed through the periscope using plane mirrors are not very clear. [2 marks] (iii) Suggest modification that can be made to the periscope to produce clearer and bigger images. [4 marks] Production of nuclear energy and the detection of the volume of a material are two examples of the use of radioactive materials in industry. Table 2.1 shows an equation of a reaction and the total atomic mass before and after a nuclear fission.

17

Nuclear fission Before reaction Equation Total atomic mass


239 1 94 Pu + 0 n

After reaction
145 93 56 Ba + 38 Sr 1 +2 0 n + Energy

240. 06082 a.m.u. 239.85830 a.m.u. Table 2.1 Table 2.2 shows an equation of a reaction and the total atomic mass before and after a nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion Before reaction After reaction 2 4 1 Equation H+ 3 H 1 1 2 He + 0 n + Energy Total atomic mass 5.03013 a.m.u. 5.01043 a.m.u. Table 2.2 (a) What is meant by a nuclear fission? [1 mark] (ii) Using only the information given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2, compare nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Hence, state the relationship between mass and energy released. [5 marks] (b) Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction. Describe how the chain reaction happens in a nuclear fission of an atom of uranium. [4 marks] (c) A paint-producing factory wants to develop a volume control system which can ensure the quantity of paint in every tin is within a specific range. The tins of paint are transported on a conveyor belt as shown in Figure 2.1. If the volume of the paint is less or more than the specific range of volume, the tin will be separated automatically.

Using your knowledge on radioactivity and Figure 2.1, explain; (i) the radioactive material and equipment required to develop the volume control system, (ii) how the equipment is assembled, (iii) how the system works. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. The time suggested to complete this section is 30 minutes. 3 (a) Figure 3.1 shows a food container used for keeping food warm. The container is able to maintain the temperature of food for a long time. The container can be moved from one place to another.

18

Table 3.1 shows the characteristics of materials which could be used to make the food container. Characteristic Material Density/kg m-3 P Q R S T 2710 910 1050 2600 3800 Melting point/ C Specific heat capacity/ kg-1C-1 910 1600 1300 670 800 Thermal conductivity J High Low Low Low High

660 27 240 1200 2020 Table 3.1 (i) What is meant by melting point? [1 mark] (ii) You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the materials in Table 3.1 which could be used to make the food container as in Figure 3.1. Explain the suitability of each characteristic in Table 3.1 and hence, determine which material is most suitable to be used to make the food container. Justify your choice. [10 marks] (b) 500 g of hot water at 90 OC is poured into a glass and left to cool down to room temperature at 30 C. (c) Sketch the temperature-time graph for the cooling process of the hot water. Use your graph to explain this process. [4 marks] (ii) Calculate the quantity of heat lost from the hot water. The specific heat capacity of water is 4 200 J kg-1C-1. [2 marks] (iii) Hot water is poured into a glass which has a small crack. It is observed that the size of the crack increases. Explain this observation. [3 marks] 4 (a) Figure 4.1 shows circuits J, K, L, M and N each containing an ideal transformer. Diodes in the circuits are used for the purpose of rectification.

19

Key: Np = Number of turns in primary coil Ns = Number of turns in secondary coil (i) What is meant by rectification? [1 mark] (ii) Explain the working principle of a transformer. [4 marks] (iii) You are asked to make a 12 V battery charger. Study the circuits, J, K, L, M and N in Figure 4.1 and consider the following aspects: - type of transformer - ratio of the number of turns in primary coil to secondary coil 20

- type of rectification - characteristic of output current Explain the suitability of the above aspects and hence, determine the most suitable circuit to make the battery charger. [10 marks] (b) Figure 4.2 shows a circuit consisting of a transformer, an ammeter and two light bulbs. The ammeter reading is 0.5 A and both bulbs light up with normal brightness.

(i) What is the output voltage of the transformer? (ii) Calculate the efficiency of the transformer. [5 marks] Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. You are advised to spend 90 minutes on this section. 1 Figure 1.1 shows the scale of an ammeter.

(a) Name the physical quantity measured by the ammeter. [1 mark] (b) In the space below, draw the symbol for an ammeter. [1 mark] (c) What is the value of the smallest division on the scale? [1 mark] (d) State the function of the mirror located under the scale. [1 mark] 2 Two similar loudspeakers are placed 0.8 m apart. They emit a coherent sound wave.

21

A girl walks slowly parallel to the two loudspeakers at a distance 3.2 min front of the loudspeakers. She hears a loud sound and weak sound alternately- Figure 2.1 shows the positions of the loud and weak sounds. (a) What is meant by a coherent wave? [1 mark] (b) The distance between three positions of the loud sound is 4.5 m, as shown in Figure 2.1. Calculate the wavelength of the sound wave. [3 marks] (c) The loud sound is heard due to the constructive interference of the sound waves. State how the constructive interference occurs. [1 mark] 3 Figure 3.1 shows a student standing 3 m from a plane mirror in a room. The student can see the image of the wall clock located 2 m behind him.

Figure 3.2 shows the top view of the student in the room.

(a) Name the light phenomenon that enables the student to see the image of the wall clock in the plane mirror. [1 mark] (b) What is the distance between the student and the image of the wall clock? [1 mark] (c) The student then moves 1 m towards the plane mirror. What is the distance between the student and the image of the wall clock? [1 mark] (d) The time shown by the wall clock is 9 a.m. 22

By drawing the hands of the clock in Figure 3.3, complete the image of the wall clock in the plane mirror as seen by the student. [1 mark]

(e) The student moves to position X. He can see the image of the lamp in the plane mirror. In Figure 3.4, draw a ray diagram to show how the student can see the image of the lamp. Figure 3.4 [2 marks]

(a) Sweating is one of the ways our body maintains the body temperature of about 37C. Sweat is largely made up of water and it comes from sweat glands as shown in Figure 4.1.

When sweat evaporates, it takes heat away from our body. (i) What is meant by evaporation? [1 mark] (ii) Using kinetic theory of matter, explain how evaporation takes away heat from our body. [2 marks] (b) State two environmental factors that affect the rate of evaporation of sweat. 1. 2. [2 marks] (c) While playing badminton, 0.05 kg of sweat was evaporated from Ahmad's body. Calculate the quantity of heat lost from his body due to the evaporation. The latent heat of vaporisation of sweat is 2.3 x 106 J kg-1. [2 marks] Figure 5.1 shows a piece of paper hanging from a retort stand. When air flows from the nozzle of an air pump, the paper changes its position as shown in Figure 5.2.

23

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

(a) Compare the position of the paper in Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2. [1 mark] (b) F is a force that causes the paper to change its position. In box X, on Figure 5.2, indicate and label the direction of F that acts on the paper. [1 mark] (c) Explain how F is produced. [2 marks] (d) (i) Compared to the position of the paper in Figure 5.2, how does the position of the paper change when the air flows faster? [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (d)(i). [1 mark] (e) Name the principle that causes the observation in Figure 5.2. [1 mark] (f) Name one piece of apparatus in a school laboratory which uses the principle in (e). [1 mark] 6. A student studies the effect of the movement of a lift on the readings of a weighing scale. The mass of the student is 50 kg. In this study, the student stands on a weighing scale in a lift as shown in Figure 6. 1.

He records the readings of the weighing scale when the lift is at rest, moving up with acceleration, moving up with uniform velocity, moving down with uniform velocity and moving down with deceleration. The reading of the weighing scale in the study are shown in Table 6.1. Movement of the lift Readings of the weighing scale/kg At rest 50 Moving up with acceleration 60 Moving up with uniform velocity 50 Moving down with uniform velocity 50 Moving down with deceleration 60 Table 6.1

24

(a) The mass of the student is 50 kg. What is the weight of the student in newtons? [1 mark] (b) State two types of movement of the lift when the reading on the weighing scale is equal to the mass of the student. 1. 2. [2 marks] (c) F is the resultant force that acts on the student. R is the normal reaction of the weighing scale on the student. m is the mass of the student. g is the gravitational acceleration. Write a general equation to show the relationship between F, R, m and g. [1 mark] (d) When the lift moves up with acceleration, the normal reaction is greater than his weight. Explain why. [2 marks] (e) (i) What is observed on the reading of the weighing scale when the lift moves down with acceleration? [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (e)(i). [1 mark] (a) A grazing pasture was polluted with radioactive waste from a nuclear reactor. A researcher carried out a study on the radioactive content in the milk collected from the cows in that area. He discovered the radioactive content in every litre of the milk was 1600 counts per minute. The researcher continued to measure the radioactivity in the milk from that area in 10 day intervals. The results of the study are shown in Table 7.1. Time/ day 0 10 Radioactivity/ counts per minute 1600 600 Table 7.1 20 240 30 100 40 40 [2 marks]

(i) On the graph paper below, draw a graph of radioactivity against time.

25

(ii) Using the graph in (a)(i), determine the half-life of the radioactive material in the milk. Show on the graph how you determined the half-life. The half-life is days. [2 marks] (iii) Milk is safe to drink if the radioactivity in every litre of the milk is not more than 50 counts per minute. Using the half-life in (a)(ii), calculate the time when the milk from this area becomes safe to drink. [2 marks] (b) In a nuclear reactor, radium-226 decays to become radon-222 by releasing one alpha particle. This reaction experiences a mass defect. (i) The number 226 for radium is called its number. [1 mark] (ii) Complete the equation of the reaction by writing the appropriate number in the boxes provided. [ ] 226 Ra 222] Rn + 2 He + Energy [ 88 [1 mark] (iii)The nuclear reaction of one nucleus or radium-226 experiences a mass defect of 8.6818 x 10-30 kg. Calculate the energy released in the nuclear reaction. The velocity of light is 3 x 108 m s-1. [2 marks]

26

A factory producing pesticide uses a logic system to ensure the volume of pesticide in a plastic bottle is within accceptable range. Figure 8.1 shows the arrangement of the logic system fixed beside a conveyor belt carrying bottles of pesticide. The radioactive detectors, S1 and S2 detect the levels of radiation passing through the bottles.

Detectors S1, and S2 will give input 0 to logic gate system when they receive a low level of radiation. Detectors S1 and S2 will give input 1 to the logic gate system when they receive a high level of radiation. (a) State the level of the pesticide in the bottle if the input S1 is 0. Give a reason for your answer. [2 marks] (b) State the level of the pesticide in the bottle if the input S1 is 1. Give the reason for your answer. [2 marks] Figure 8.2 shows two combinations of logic gates, P and Q, that are suggested to develop the logic gate system.

(c) Name the logic gate M. [1 mark] (d) Complete the truth tables for P and Q. Input S1 Input S2 0 0 1 0 1 1 The truth table of P Input S1 0 1 1 Input S2 0 0 1 Output

Output

27

The truth table of Q [4 marks] (e) When the output of the logic gate system is 1, it indicates the volume of the pesticide in the bottle is within the acceptable range. When the ouput of the logic gate system is 0, it indicates the volume of the pesticide in the bottle is outside the acceptable range. (i) Based on the output of the truth tables in (d), which combination of logic gates is suitable to be used for the logic gate system? Combination of logic gate [1 mark] (ii) Give two reasons for your choice. 1. 2. [2 marks] Section B [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. The time suggested to answer this section is 30 minutes. (a) A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river although the boat carries the same load. The density of sea water is 1025 kg m-3 and of river water is 1 000 kg m-3. Figure 9.1 and 9.2 illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the the river.

(i) What is meant by density? [1 mark] (ii) Using Figures 9.1 and 9.2, compare the levels of the boat and the volumes of water displaced by the boat. Relating the mass of the boat with its load, the volume of water displaced and the density of the water, deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] (iii) Name the physics principle that explains the above situation. [1 mark] (b) A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea. Explain how a submarine on the surface submerges. [3 marks] (c) Figures 9.3 and 9.4 illustrate the working principle of a hydrometer. The depth to which the test tube sinks depends on its surrounding liquid. 28

Explain how you would design a hydrometer that can determine a wide range of densities of liquid, using the idea of the working principle of a hydrometer shown above.

Draw a diagram that shows the design of your hydrometer and in your explanation, emphasise the following aspects: (i) the stability of the hydrometer, (ii) the sensitivity of the hydrometer, (iii) the ability to measure a wide range of densities of liquids, (iv) the calibration of the hydrometer. [10 marks] Figure 10.1 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave phenomenon.

Figure 10.2 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the screen when plane waves pass through the narrow and wide gaps.

(a) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the screen. [4 marks] (ii) Observe Figure 10.2. Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of the waves before and after they pass through the gaps. Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] (iii) Name the wave phenomenon shown in Figure 10.2. [1 mark] (b) Figure 10.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rainy season, waves are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and damaged the fishermen's boats.

29

To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls and relocating the jetty. Make further suggestions of ways to help the fishermen solve their problems. You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to explain these suggestions, to include the following aspects: (i) the design and structure of the retaining wall, (ii) the location of the new jetty, (iii) the size or energy of the waves. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. The time suggested to answer this section is 30 minutes. (a) Figure 11.1 shows two convex lenses, R and S, used in an astronomical telescope. The focal length for R is 40 cm and for S is 10 cm.

(i) Define the power of a lens. [1 mark] (ii) Give two reasons why R is used as the objective lens of the telescope. [2 marks] (iii) Using lenses R and S, draw a ray diagram of Figure 11. 1 to show the formation of the final image by the telescope at normal adjustment. Use a scale of 10 cm to 1 cm. [5 marks] (iv) Calculate the magnification of the final image formed by the telescope at normal adjustment. [2 marks] (b) Presbyopia is an inability of the eye to adjust the focussing of far and near objects. This usually happens when we get old, where the ciliary muscles is less able to change the shape of the eye lens to focus the image on the retina, as shown in Figures 11.2 and 11.3.

30

As an optician, you have three designs of lenses, X, Y and Z, in your shop. The cross-section of X, Y and Z are shown in Figure 11.4.

(i) Choose the most suitable design of lens in Figure 11.4 to correct the sight of a person with presbyopia and explain the suitability of the design. (ii) Explain why the other two designs are not suitable. Either low or high refractive index glass can be used to make the lenses. (iii) Which type of glass is not suitable to make the lens chosen in (b)(i)? Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] a) Most of our electrical energy comes from hydroelectric power stations and thermal power stations. These power stations are connected by cables to transmit electricity to users in industries, offices, schools and houses. This system is called the national grid network. (i) State the transformations of energy in a hydroelectric power station. [1 mark] (ii) Explain briefly the importance of the national grid network system in distributing electrical energy to the users. [4 marks] b) Figure 12.1 shows how a model of an electric transmission system can be set up in a laboratory. The model consists of a power station that generates 12 V of alternating current (a.c) that transmits the electrical energy to the users using transmission wires and transformers P, Q and R.

You are required to set up a model as in Figure 12.1 using the information in Table 12. 1. Number of turns of the coil Type of transformer core Materials of transmission wire 1200 Solid cuprum core Constantan 1000 Laminated cuprum core Copper 500 Solid soft iron core Aluminium 400 Laminated soft iron core Nichrome 160

31

120 Table 12.1 (b) Using the information in Figure 12.1 and Table 12.1 determine: G) the number of turns in the primary coil and the secondary coil of transformers P, Q and R and show your working. (i) the type of core you will use in all transformers and justify your choice, (ii) the material you will use for the transmission wire and justify your choice. [10 marks] (c) If the resistance of the transmission wires between transformers P and Q in the model at. Figure 12.1 is 30 , calculate: (i) the current that flows in the transmission wire, (ii) the power loss due to the heating effect of the current in the transmission wire. [5 marks] Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. You are advised to spend 90 minutes on this section. 1 Diagram 1.1 shows an electric circuit.

(a) (i) Name instrument Q. [1 mark] (ii) What is the function of R in the circuit? [1 mark] (b) Diagram 1.2 shows two types of ammeters, X and Y, that can be used in the circuit in Diagram 1. 1.

(i) Which ammeter is more sensitive? [1 mark] (ii) State one reason for your answer in 1(b)(i). [1 mark] Diagram 2 shows a mercury thermometer which has not been calibrated.

(a) (i) State the physical change in the mercury when the temperature increases. [1 mark] (ii) Why is mercury used in the thermometer? [1 mark] 32

(b) The length of the mercury column in the thermometer is 2.6 cm at 0 C and 22.6 cm at 100 C. (i) What is the difference in the lengths of the mercury columns at 0 C and at 100 C? [1 mark] (ii) When the thermometer is placed in hot oil, the length of the mercury column is 16.9 cm. Calculate the temperature of the hot oil. [2 marks] 3. Diagram 3 shows two loudspeakers connected to an audio frequency generator. Students are standing at positions where loud sounds can be heard.

(a) What type of wave is the sound waves? [1 mark] (b) Why are loud sounds heard by the students at that positions? [1 mark] (c) The distance between the two loudspeakers is 1.5 m. At 10.0 m from the loudspeakers, the distance between two adjacent rows of students is 4.0 m. Calculate the wave length of this sound wave. [2 marks] (d) The frequency of the sound wave is increased. (i) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent rows where loud sounds are heard? [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(d)(i). [1 mark] Diagram 4.1 shows a submarine equipped with an optical instrument P Diagram 4.2 shows the structure of the optical instrument P

33

(a) Name the optical instrument P. [1 mark] (b) In Diagram 4.2, two glass prisms must be placed so that the object can be seen by the observer. The position of one of the glass prisms is as shown. (i) In box A in Diagram 4.2, draw and shade the second prism. [1 mark] (ii) Explain why the prisms in optical instrument P are placed as in 4(b)(i). [1 mark] (c) (i) In Diagram 4.2, complete the path of the light ray from the object to the observer's eye. [1 mark] (ii) State one characteristic of the image observed. [1 mark] (d) The refractive index of the glass prism is 1.52. Calculate the critical angle of the glass prism. [2 marks] 5 Diagram 5.1 show the situation of a sheet of paper before and when air is blown. Diagram 5.2 shows the situation of the canopy before the lorry moves and when the lorry moves at high speed.

Diagram 5.1

34

Diagram 5.2 (a) What is meant by speed? [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2: (c) State two similarities for the situation in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2. 1. 2. [2 marks] (ii) Compare the air pressure above and below the paper when air is blown. [1 mark] (iii) Relate the speed of the air to the pressure of the air. [1 mark] (c) Name the principle involved in 5(b)(iii). [1 mark] (d) Diagram 5.3 shows an instrument used to measure the speed of air.

In Diagram 5.3, the levels of coloured water in the U-tube are the same before air flows. (i) Compare the speeds of air at P and at Q. [1 mark] (ii) Mark the water levels in the U-tube in Diagram 5.3 while air flows. [1 mark] 6 Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show a student throwing an iron ball in a shot put event using different throwing techniques. The angle of projection and the force used by the student in both techniques are the same.

35

(a) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. (i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw the iron ball. [1 mark] (ii) Based on the answer in 6(a)(i), compare the work done by the student between the two throwing techniques. [1 mark] (iii) If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate the work done by the student. [2 marks] (b) (i) Based on the answer in 6(a)(i), state the relationship between the energy gained by the iron ball and the distance of projection. [1mark] (ii) State the principle involved. [1 mark] (c) (i) Using Diagram 6.1, what happens to the falling time if an iron ball of a bigger mass is used? [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for your answer in 6(c)(i). [1 mark] 7 A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons, A and B, for a two-storey building. A Up button B Down button The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons. Diagram 7.1 shows the circuit that can be used to activate the motor.

36

Keys: Buttons A and B: X Output: When pressed, Not pressed, Motor is activated, logic 1 logic 0 logic 1

(a) Table 7 is a truth table which shows the operations of the logic gates in a lift motor control system. A B x 0 0 ............. 0 1 ............. 1 0 ............. 1 1 ............. Table 7 (i) Using the keys given, complete Table 7. [2 marks] (ii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in Diagram 7.1. [1 mark] (iii) In the space below, draw the logic gate symbol in 7(a)(ii). [1 mark] (b) Why is a relay switch needed in the circuit? [1 mark] (c) The door of the lift is fitted with a light transmitter and a detector which is a light dependent resistor. If the light dependent resistor detects light, the relay switch is activated and the lift door will close. Diagram 7.2 shows an electronic circuit for the control system of the lift door.

37

(i) State the relationship between the resistance and the intensity of light received by the light dependent resistor. [1 mark] (ii) Complete the circuit in Diagram 7.2 by drawing the resistor and the light dependent resistor using the symbols given below.

Resistor

Light dependent resistor [1 mark]

(iii) Explain how the circuit functions. [3 marks] 8 Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 show two identical mirrors which are hung on the wall using strings, of the same length.

The two mirrors are in equilibrium state. Each mirror has a mass of 2 kg. Each string can withstand a maximum force of 15 N. 38

(a) What is meant by equilibrium state? [1 mark] (b) What is the weight of any one of the mirrors? [1 mark] (c) In the space below, draw a diagram of a triangle of forces that acts on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2.

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram 8.1

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram 8.2 [2 marks] (d) T1 and T2 are the tensions of the strings that act on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 respectively. (i) In the space below, draw the scale drawings of the triangles of forces to determine the values of T1 and T2. [Use the scale 1 cm: 2 N]

T1, = =

cm N

T2 = = [4 marks]

cm N

(ii) Based on your answer in 8(d)(i), which is the most suitable method to hang the mirror? Give one reason for your answer. [2 marks] (e) If the string in Diagram 8.1 is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6 s.

39

Calculate the final velocity of the mirror before it touches the surface of the floor, [2 marks] Section B [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. The time suggested to answer this section is 30 minites. Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show the light rays from two identical objects passing through the convex lenses, J and K. Both the lenses produce virtual images. F is the focal point for each lens.

(a) What is meant by virtual image? [1 mark] (i) With reference to Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the thickness of the lenses, the focal length and the size of image produced by the lenses J and K. Relate the size of the image with the focal length to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the power of the lens and the focal length. [5 marks] (b) Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. [4 marks] (c) You are given two convex lenses, P and Q, with focal lengths 40 cm and 5 cm respectively. Both the lenses are used to build a simple astronomical telescope at normal adjustment. (i) Using the two lenses, explain how you are going to build the simple astronomical telescope. [6 marks] (ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done on the telescope to produce clearer and bigger images. [4 marks] 40

10 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show wire coils connected to the ammeters, switches and d.c. power supply.

When the switch is on and iron filings of the same amount is spread on each of the cardboard surface, the pattern of the iron filings is formed as shown in the diagrams. (a) What is meant by magnetic field? [1 mark] (b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the number of turn of the coils, the pattern of the iron filings and angle of deflection of the ammeter indicator. [3 marks] (c) State the relationship between the strength of the magnetic field and (i) the pattern of iron filings, (ii) the number of turn of the coils. [2 marks] (d) Diagram 10.3 shows two thin copper strips, PQ and RS, connected to a circuit. Explain what happens to PQ and RS, when the switch is on. [4 marks]

(e) Diagram 10.4 shows an electric motor which is supplied with a 12 V a.c.

41

Section C (i) Explain how the motor is able to rotate. [4 marks] (ii) Using a 12 V a.c. power supply, explain the modification that needs to be done on the motor and the external circuit to enable the motor to be a d.c. electric motor and rotate faster. [6 marks] [20 marks] Answer any one, question from this section. The time suggest to answer this section is 30 minutes. (a) (i) What is meant by specific latent heat of vapourization? [1 mark]

(ii) Explain why someone who is sweating feels cool when he is under a rotating fan. [4 marks] (b) A solid substance, of mass 0.05 kg, is heated using an immersion heater of 240 V, 0.1 kW. Diagram 11.1 shows the heating curve of the solid.

Calculate 42

(i) the specific latent heat of fusion of the substance, (ii) the specific heat capacity of the substance in liquid state. [5 marks] (c) You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator as in Diagram 11.2. Explain the suitability of each features in Diagram 11.2 and then determine the most suitable car engine radiator to be used. Give a reason for your choice. [10 marks] P The features of cooling liquid Boiling point 100 C Specific heat capacity 4200 J kg-1C-1

The features of cooling liquid Boiling point 100 C Specific heat capacity 4 200 J kg-1C-1

The features of cooling liquid Boiling point 100 C Specific heat capacity 4 200 J kg-1C-1

The features of cooling liquid Boiling point 78 C Specific heat capacity 2 450 J kg-1C-1

The features of cooling liquid Boiling point 78 C Specific heat capacity 2 450 J kg-1C-1

Radioactive material has some uses in the medical field such as in the investigation of internal organs and in the sterilization of equipments. (a) A doctor conducts an investigation on a patient's kidney by injecting iodine-131 radioisotope, that a half-life of 8 days, into the blood circulation. A normal kidney can expel the radioisotope in 20 minutes.

43

The presence of radioisotope in the left and right kidneys is shown in the graphs as in Diagram 12. 1.

(i) What is meant by half-life? [1 mark] (ii) Based on the graphs in Diagram 12.1, which kidney is not functioning properly? Give one reason. [2 marks] (iii) The initial iodine-131 activity is 1 600 counts per second. Calculate the time taken for the iodine- 131 activity to decrease to 100 counts per second. [2 marks] (b) Medical equipment is sterilized by radiation from a radioactive source. You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotopes that are suitable for use in the sterilization of medical equipments. Table 12 shows the characteristics of five radioisotopes. Radioisotope Strontium-90 Cobalt-60 Xenon-133 Iodine-131 Polonium-210 Table 12 State of matter Solid Solid Gas Liquid Solid Characteristics of isotope Types of ray Beta Gamma Beta Gamma Alpha Half-life 28 years 5 years 5 days 8 days 140 days

(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the radioisotope to be used in the sterilization of medical equipment. [6 marks] (ii) Determine the most suitable radioisotope to be used and give one reason for your choice. [2 marks] (b) Gamma rays can produce an effect on photographic film. Explain whether gamma rays is suitable to be used in taking photographs of an organ in humans. [3 marks] (c) Beryllium-11 isotope emits two rays. The isotope is placed in front of a magnetic field and the radioactive radiation path is shown in Diagram 12.2.

44

(i) Name both rays that are emitted by the isotope. [2 marks] (ii) Explain why the rays follow the path shown in Diagram 12.2. Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section.

[2 marks]

1 Diagram 1 shows how a vibrating tuning fork produces sound waves in air.

(a) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence below. Sound wave is a (longitudinal, transverse) wave. [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 1, (i) name region X, [1 mark] (ii) mark one distance which is equal to a wavelength of the sound waves. Label the distance using the symbol X. [1 mark] (c) The tuning fork in Diagram 1 vibrates in water. What happens to the speed of sound? [1 mark] 2 Diagram 2 shows a water tank that supplies water to a block of flats. The water flows to each unit of the flat due to water pressure.

45

(a) What is meant by pressure? [1 mark] (b) A water tank with a height of 3.0 m is fully filled with water. Calculate the water pressure at the base of the water tank. [Density of water = 1 000 kg m-3] [2 marks] (c) Based on Diagram 2, compare the water pressure at P and at Q. Explain your answer. [2 mark]

Diagram 2 3 Diagram 3.1 shows the change of phase when 1 kg ice is converted into steam. Q1, Q2, and Q3, are the heat energies absorbed during the heating process. (a) Name the heat energy, Q1, which is absorbed from R to S. [1 mark]

46

(b) State one reason why the temperature at R and S is the same even though heat is supplied. [1 mark] (c) Calculate the heat energy, Q,, which is absorbed from S to T. [The specific heat capacity of water, C = 4 200 J kg-1C-1] [2 marks] (d) Sketch the graph of temperature against time on Diagram 3.2 to show the change of phase from R to U.

4 Diagram 4 shows a worker lifting a load of mass 20 kg using a pulley system. The worker applies force of 220 N to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. The load is raised to a height of 0.5 m.

(a) What is meant by work? [1 mark] (b) Calculate the work done (i) by the worker to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. [2 marks] (ii) on the load to raise it to a height of 0.5 m. [2 marks] (c) (i) Compare the work done in 4(b)(i) and 4(b)(ii). [1 mark] (ii) State why there is a difference between the work done in 4(b)(i) and 4(b)(ii). [1 mark] 5 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show a light ray passing through prism P and prism Q, respectively. Prism P and prism Q are made of glass with different densities.

47

(a) What is meant by critical angle? Tick () the correct answer in the box provided. The angle of incidence when the angle of refraction is 90. The angle of incidence when the incident ray is totally reflected. [1 mark] (b) Explain why the light ray does not bend when it enters both prisms at point A. [1 mark] (c) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2, how can the angle of incidence at point B be made equal to the critical angle? Prism P Prism Q [2 marks] (ii) Diagram 5.1 shows the light ray passing from glass to air at point B. Compare the density of glass with the density of air. [1 mark] (iii) Based on Diagram 5. 1 and Diagram 5.2, what happen to the light ray after passing point B? [2 marks] Diagram 5.2 (d) Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.2. [1 mark] (e) Diagram 6 shows a lighting circuit of a house.

Diagram 6 (a) (i) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence below. The bulbs in Diagram 6 are connected in (series, parallel). [1 mark] (ii) What will happen to the other bulbs if one bulb blows? [1 mark] (b) All the bulbs in Diagram 6 are labelled 240 V, 60 W. (i) What is meant by 240 V, 60 W? [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the current in the circuit when only one bulb is lit. [1 mark] 48

(iii) Calculate the total resistance of the circuit when all bulbs are lit. [3 marks] (iv) How can the bulbs be connected to increase the total resistance of the circuit? [1 mark] 7 Diagram 7 shows a simple transformer.

(a) (i) Name the type of the transformer. [1 mark] (ii) State why soft iron is used as the transformer core. [1 mark] (b) The number of turns on the primary coil in Diagram 7 is 1000. Calculate the number of turns on the secondary coil. [2 marks] (c) The transformer in Diagram 7 is used to switch on an electrical appliance. The current in the primary coil is 0.1 A and the efficiency is 75%. (i) Calculate the output power of the transformer. [2 marks] (ii) An electrical appliance which needs 20 W of power is connected to the transformer output. Suggest a modification to the transformer that enables the appliance to function correctly. [1 mark] (d) A student connects a television which uses direct current to the output of the transformer in Diagram 7. When the television is switched on, it does not function. (i) Why the television does not function? [1 mark] (ii) An electrical component is connected to the output of the transformer so that the television functions. Name the electrical component and state how the connection is made. [2 marks] 8 Diagram 8 shows a system used in a factory to ensure the thickness of a cardboard sheet is uniform.

49

The radioactive source, radiation detector and counter are used to detect the thickness of the cardboard sheet. The radioactive source contains a radioisotope. The roller is used to compress the cardboard sheet. Table 8 shows four radioisotopes with their respective properties. Radioisotopes Half-life Type of radiation Physical state Sodium-24 (Na) 15 hours Gamma Liquid Phosphorus-32 (P) 14.3 days Beta Liquid Cobalt-60 (Co) 5.27 years Gamma Solid Strontium-90 (Sr) 28.5 years Beta Solid Table 8 (a) What is meant by a radioisotope? [1 mark] (b) Based on Table 8, state the suitable properties of the radioisotope to detect the thickness of the cardboard sheet. Give reason for the suitability of the properties. (i) Half-life Reason [2 marks] (ii) Type of radiation Reason [2 marks] (iii) Physical state Reason [2 marks] (c) Based on the answers in 8(b), determine the most suitable radioisotope in Table 8 to detect the thickness of the cardboard sheet. [1 mark] (d) The radioisotope in 8(c) is used to detect the thickness of the cardboard sheet. (i) State the change in the reading of the counter when a thicker cardboard is used. [1 mark] (ii) How is the thickness of the cardboard sheet reduced? [1 mark] (e) The half-life of Cobalt-60 is 5.27 years. Calculate the time taken for the activity of Cobalt-60 to reduce to 6.25% of its initial value. [2 marks] Section B

50

[20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 9 (a) Diagram 9.1 shows a cross-section of a wing of a moving aeroplane. The wing of the aeroplane experiences a lift force.

(i) Name the shape of the cross-section in Diagram 9.1. [1 mark] (ii) Explain why the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane. [3 marks] (b) Two ski jumpers ski down from a very high platform with the same take off velocity. Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.3 show the posture of the two ski jumpers during take off from the platform. Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5 show the posture of the two ski jumpers in the air. They land on the ground at the same instant.

(i) Based on Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.3, compare the posture of the two ski jumpers. [1 mark] (ii) Based on Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5, compare the landing distance of the two ski jumpers. [1 mark] (iii) Based on Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5, relate the lift force to the landing distance. [2 marks] (iv) Name one sport which uses the same principle of lift force as the ski jumper. Explain the similarities. [2 marks] (c) Diagram 9.6 shows a sailboat.

51

You are required to give some suggestions to design a sailboat which can travel faster. Using the knowledge on motion, forces and the properties of materials, explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: (i) the surface of the board (ii) the shape of the board (iii) material used for the board (iv) material used for the sail (v) the size of the sail [10 marks] 10 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show two electrical circuits containing semiconductor diodes.

52

(a) What is meant by a semiconductor? [1 mark] (b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, relate the lighting of the bulbs, the current and the way the diode is connected to the terminals of the battery to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] (c) Diagram 10.3 shows a full wave rectifier circuit.

(i) Draw the wave form of a full wave rectification. [1 mark] (ii) A capacitor is placed across the output to smooth the current. Draw the wave form produced. Explain how a capacitor is used to smooth the current. [3 marks]

53

(d) Diagram 10.4 shows a circuit with a transistor that acts as an automatic switch.

The transistor in the circuit causes the light emitting diode (LED) to light up when it is dark. A technician wants a fan labelled 240 V, 100 W in a room to be automatically switched on when the room is hot. Suggest modifications that can be made to the circuit in Diagram 10.4 so that the fan can be automatically switched on when the room is hot. Draw the modified circuit. State and explain the modifications based on the following aspects: the electrical components that are needed to replace the LED and the light dependent resistor (LDR) in the circuit. the positions of the electrical components in the circuit. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 11 Diagram 11.1 shows the speed limit and the load limit of heavy vehicles such as buses and lorries.

(a) What is meant by speed? [1 mark] (b) Using the concepts of momentum and inertia, explain why the speed limit and the load limit must be imposed on heavy vehicles. [4 marks] (c) Diagram 11.2 shows four tankers, P, Q, R and S, with different specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable tanker to deliver oil safely. Study the specifications of all the four tankers from the following aspects: The type of brakes The number of tyres The number and size of the tanks The distance between the trailer and the tractor Explain the suitability of the aspects. Justify your choice. [10 marks] (d) A tanker of mass 1 800 kg accelerates from rest to a velocity of 45 km h-1 in 10 s. (i) Calculate the acceleration of the tanker. 54

(ii) Calculate the force acting on the tanker. [5 marks]

12 Diagram 12.1 shows an audio frequency generator connected to a speaker and placed near the corner of a wall. Three students, A, B and C, are standing around the next corner. The generator and speaker can produce sound with the same speed but different pitch.

55

(a)State the physical quantity that affects the pitch of the sound. [1 mark] (b) When a high pitch sound is generated, only student C can hear the sound clearly. When a low pitch sound is generated, all the three students can hear the sound clearly. Explain this situation. [4 marks] (c) Diagram 12.2 shows a radar system at an airport. Signals are transmitted from the radar system to determine the position of an aeroplane.

Table 12.3 shows the specifications of four radar systems, K, L, M and N, that can be used to determine the position of an aeroplane. Radar system K L M N Diameter of the 10 5 7 12 parabolic disc/m Distance of the Same as the Less than the Same as the Less than the signal receiver focal length focal length focal length focal length from the centre of the parabolic disc Types of wave transmitted Height of the parabolic disc from the ground Microwave High Microwave Low Radiowave Low Radiowave High

56

Table 12.3 You are required to determine the most suitable radar system. Study the specifications of all the four radar systems based on the following aspects: - The diameter of the parabolic disc - The distance of the signal receiver from the centre of the parabolic disc - The types of wave transmitted -The height of the parabolic disc from the ground Explain the suitability of the aspects. [10 marks] (d) The depth of a sea is 90 m. A ship transmits an ultrasonic wave of frequency 50 kHz to the seabed and receives an echo 0.12 s later. Calculate (i) the speed of the ultrasonic wave in the water, (ii) the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave in the water. [5 marks] 1 Diagram 1 shows a silky spring being moved left and right continuously.

(a) Complete the sentence below by ticking () the correct box. The wave produced by the slinky spring is a transverse wave. longitudinal wave. [1 mark] (b) On Diagram 1, mark X on any one of the crests of the wave. [1 mark] (c) Complete the following sentence by underlining the correct phrase in the bracket. [1 mark] The direction of the hand movement is the same as opposite to perpendicular to the direction of the wave movement

(d) What is transferred by the wave? [1 mark] 2 A pencil is placed in front of a concave mirror. Diagram 2.1 shows the image of the pencil in the mirror.

57

(a) Name the phenomenon involved in the formation of the image. [1 mark] (b) The image is upright and magnified. State one other characteristic of the image. [1 mark] (c) Diagram 2.2 shows an incomplete ray diagram. C is the centre of curvature and F is the principal focus. Complete the ray diagram to show how the image is formed. [3 marks]

Diagram 2.2 3 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show two photographs of electrical circuits. (a) Which diagram shows a parallel circuit? [1 mark] (b) Draw an electrical circuit diagram for the photograph in Diagram 3.1. [2 marks] (c) Diagram 3.3 shows an electrical circuit. Assume that the internal resistance of the battery is negligible.

(i) Calculate the effective resistance of the circuit. [2 marks] (ii) What is the reading of the ammeter? [1 mark] One of the 10 Q resistors is removed from the circuit. What happens to the ammeter reading? [1 mark] 4 Diagram 4.1 shows a computer battery charger connected to a 240 V a.c. power supply. The battery charger contains box - X and box Y.

58

(a) The function of the component in box X is to lower the voltage from 240 V a.c. to 20 V a.c. (i)Name the component in box X. [1 mark] (ii) Explain why a.c. and not d.c. is supplied in Diagram 4.1. [1 mark] (iii) State the physics concept which explains how the component in box X works. [1 mark] (b) The efficiency of the component in box X is 80%. Calculate the input current when the output power is 65 W [2 marks] (c) Box Y contains four identical electronic components to change a.c. to d.c. On Diagram 4.2, draw the electronic components in the coloured circles provided.

5 Diagram 5.1 shows two boys pushing 'a large box. After sometime, the box still remains stationary.

Diagram 5.2 shows an aircraft moving forward with a uniform velocity at a constant height.

(a) Based on the situation in Diagram 5.1 and the situation in Diagram 5.2, (i) state similarities about magnitudes and directions of the forces F1 and F2, F3 and F4 Magnitudes: Directions: [2 marks] (ii) What is the net force in both situations [1 mark] (iii) Based on the answers in 5(a)(i) and 5(a)(ii), name the physics concept involved. [1 mark] (b) (i) Another aircraft has F 3 greater than F,. 59

Describe the motion of this aircraft. [1 mark] (ii) Explain the answer in 5(b)(i). [2 marks] 6 Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show two circuits with identical components. Each circuit contains an ammeter, a cell and a semiconductor diode.

(a) Give one example of a semiconductor material. [1 mark] (b) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. State the difference between:(i) The connection of the diodes. [1 mark] (ii) The reading of the ammeters. [1 mark] (c) Give two reasons that cause the difference between the reading of the ammeters in Diagram 6.1 and in Diagram 6.2. 1. 2. [2 marks] (d) Based on the answers in 6(b) and 6(c), what is the function of the diodes in these circuits? [1 mark] (e) Diagram 6.3 shows the output signal displayed on the screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) when a diode is connected to an a.c. power supply.

Explain why the output signal is produced as shown. [2 marks] 7 Diagram 7.1 shows a hydraulic system. A force F is exerted on the small piston.

60

(a) (i) Name the principle involved in this hydraulic system. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the pressure at point P and at point Q. [1 mark] (b) Diagram 7.2 shows a hydraulic jack in a car service centre.

A force of 50 N is exerted on the small piston when the handle is pushed down. The cross sectional areas of the small piston and the large piston are 0.04 M2 and 0.8 M2 respectively. (i) Calculate the pressure exerted on the oil in the hydraulic jack. [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the force that the oil exerts on the large piston. [1 mark] (c) Based on Diagram 7.2, (i) explain how the handle is used to lift the load to its maximum height, [2 marks] (ii) explain one modification to the large piston that enables the jack to lift a heavier load, [2 marks] (iii) state how the load is lowered without using the handle. [1 mark] 8 Diagram 8.1 shows a 500 W electric heater being used to heat a beaker of water on a compression balance.

61

(a) State the energy change involved when using the heater to heat the water. [1 mark] (b) The mass of water is 0.5 kg and the specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg-1C-1. The initial temperature of the water is 30 C. Calculate the energy absorbed by the water to reach its boiling point. [2 marks] (c) When the water is boiling, the reading of the compression balance decreases by 0.0125 kg in 60 s. Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporization of the water. [2 marks] (d) Q, R and S are three different hot plates. These hot plates are used to heat roti canai. Table 8 shows the characteristics of each plate. Hot Plates Specific heat capacity, c / J Mass, m / kg Power, P / W -1 -1 kg C Q 390 3.0 600 R 900 2.5 1200 S 400 4.0 900 Table 8 The initial temperature of each plate is 30C. The plates are ready to use when their temperature reaches 200C. Calculate the time taken to reach 200 OC for each plate. (i) Plate Q (ii) Plate R (iii) Plate S [5 marks] (e) (i) Based on the answer in 8(d), which plate is the most suitable for heating roti canai? [1 mark] (ii) State one reason for the answer in 8(e)(i) [1 mark] Section B [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 9 (a) Diagram 9.1 shows two identical steel balls placed onto spring M and spring N. Both springs are elastic and fixed to horizontal surface. The springs are pushed down until the lengths of spring M and N are the same. Diagram 9.2 shows the maximum heights reached by the balls when the hands are released. [Assume spring M and spring N are the same material, same coil diameter and same original length]

62

(i) What is the meaning of elasticity? [1 mark] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the thickness of the spring wire and the maximum height reached by the balls. Relate the thickness of the spring wire with the maximum height of the ball to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the thickness of the spring wire and the elastic potential energy of the spring. [5 marks] (b) The forces used to compress the springs in Diagram 9.1(a) and Diagram 9.1(b) are F1 and F2 respectively. (i) Compare F1 and F 2' Give one reason for this answer. [2 marks] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, state the energy changes that take place from the moment the spring is compressed until the ball reaches its maximum height. [2 marks] (c) iagram 9.3 shows a pole vaulter performing a jump.

Using appropriate physics concepts, explain the use of suitable equipment and techniques to improve his performance. Your answer should include the following aspects:

63

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Vaulter's attire Vaulter's movement Pole used Safety [10 marks]

10 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show the deflection of a radioactive emission in an electric field.

(a) (b)

What is the meaning of radioactivity? [1 mark] Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2,

(i) state the charge of the radioactive emission, [1 mark] (ii) compare the voltage of the EHT and the deflection of the radioactive emission. [2 marks] (c) State the relationship between (i) the voltage of the EHT and the strength of the electric field between the plates, [1 mark] (ii) the strength of the electric field between the plates and the deflection of the radioactive emission. [1 mark] (d) Diagram 10.3 shows a type of nuclear reaction. (i) Name this type of nuclear reaction.[1 mark] (ii) Explain how nuclear energy is produced from the nuclear reaction shown in Diagram 10.3. [3 marks] (e) Diagram 10.4 shows how a radioactive source is handled by a student. 64

The method shown is not safe. Suggest and explain: (i) The equipment to be used in handling a radioactive source. (ii) Modifications to the storing method to ensure safe keeping of the radioactive source. (iii) Other precautions that need to be taken when handling a radioactive source. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 11 Diagram 11.1 shows a light signal traveling through an optical fibre made of glass.

(a) Name the light phenomenon involved at Y. [1 mark] (b) (i) State two changes that happen to the light ray when it passes from air into the optical fibre at X. [2 marks] (ii) Explain why the light ray follows the path shown in Diagram 11. 1 when it hits the wall of the optical fibre at Y [2 marks] (c) The optical fibre in Diagram 11.1 can be used in telecommunications and medicine. You are asked to investigate the characteristics of optical fibres for use in these fields as shown in Table 11. Optical Features of optical fibre Comparison between Flexibility Purity of inner fibre refractive index of the core inner core, ni, and the outer cladding, no P Single fine optical ni>no High Very high fibres Q Bundle of fine parallel no>ni Low Low optical fibres R Bundle of fine parallel ni>no High Very high optical fibres S Single fine optical ni>no Low High fibres 65

Bundle of fine parallel no>ni High High optical fibres Explain the suitability of each feature of optical fibre in Table 11 for use in telecommunications and medicine. Determine the most suitable optical fibre that is capable of carrying the largest number of signals simultaneously. Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] (d) Diagram 11.2 and Diagram 11.3 show a ray of light passing into glass and diamond respectively. [Refractive index: Glass = 1.50; Diamond = 2.42]

(i) Calculate the critical angle of diamond and of glass. [2 marks] (ii) Copy Diagram 11.2 and Diagram 11.3 and complete the path of the light ray in glass and in diamond until it finally emerges from each object. [3 marks] 12 Diagram 12.1 shows waves moving towards a harbour.

(a) (i) What is the meaning of diffraction? [1 mark] (ii) Draw the wave pattern of the waves after passing through the entrance of the harbour. [1 mark] (b) The entrance is made wider to allow more ships to enter the harbour. What is the effect on (i) the waves passing through the entrance? [2 marks] (ii) the harbour? [1 mark] (c) Diagram 12.2 shows another modification to the harbour to overcome the heavy sea traffic problem. The wave patterns produced at the entrances is shown in Diagram 12.2. 66

(i) The wave pattern formed is caused by the superposition of waves from two coherent sources. What is the meaning of coherent sources? [1 mark] (ii) Describe the movement of two similar ships that are located at A and B. Explain your answer. [4 marks] (d) A new harbour is to be built at a new location. The suggested new location is either at a bay or a cape. Four *models for the structure of the retaining wall are given. Table 12 shows the location and the characteristics of the four retaining walls. Type of Location Structure of retaining wall Surface of Height of retaining of retaining wall retaining wall wall retaining wall W Bay Uneven surface High

Cape

Smooth surface

High

Bay

Smooth surface

Low

Cape

Uneven surface

Low

Table 12 67

Explain the best location and the suitability of each characteristic in Table 12. Determine the most suitable retaining wall to be used. Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] Section A, [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. Table 1 shows the number of protons, the number of neutrons and the nucleon number of three isotopes of hydrogen. Isotopes of Number of Number of Nucleon hydrogen protons neutrons number 1 1 0 1 1H 2 1 1 A 1H 1 1 2 3 XH Table 1 (a) Complete the following sentence by ticking () the correct word. The charge of a proton is positive negative [1 mark] (b) What is the meaning of isotopes? [1 mark] (c) Based on Table 1, state the value of (i) A (ii) X [2 marks] 2 Diagram 2 shows an egg being dropped onto a wooden block, The egg cracks after an impact. The velocity of the egg just before the impact is 5 m s-1.

Diagram 2 (a) Name the force involved during the impact. [1 mark] (b) Give one reason why the egg cracked after the impact. [1 mark] (c) The mass of the egg is 0.05kg. Calculate the momentum just before the impact. [2 marks] (d) Give one suggestion how you would avoid the egg from cracking when dropped from the same height. [1 mark] 68

Diagram 3 shows a combination of logic gates to control a security lamp of 240 V.

Diagram 3 (a) Name the logic gate P. [1 mark] (b) Q is an AND gate. Using the electrical components shown below, draw a circuit diagram which produces the same output as Q.

(c) Table 3 is a truth table for this security lamp system. Input light sensor Input body heat sensor Output X 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Table 3 Complete Table 3. [2 marks] (d) State one function of the relay switch in this circuit. [1 mark] 4 Diagram 4 shows air bubbles produced by an air pump in an aquarium filled with fresh water.

(a) Explain why the volume of an air bubble increases as it moves towards the surface. [2 marks] (b) Name the physics law involved in 4(a). [1 mark] (c) What is the change in the volume of an air bubble at level R when the fresh water is replaced by sea water of higher density? [1 mark] (d) An air bubble of volume 5 cm3 is released by an air pump at a depth of 0.5 m.

69

Calculate the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the surface of the water. [Assume that the atmospheric pressure is 10 m water] 5 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show a spring balance supporting a metal block in two situations. The metal blocks are identical. The compression balance in Diagram 5.1 and in Diagram 5.2 show the readings of the weight of an empty beaker and the weight of a beaker filled with water respectively. The beakers are identical.

(a) What is the meaning of weight? [1 mark] (b) (i) What is the difference between the spring balance reading in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2? N [1 mark] (ii) Name the force that is represented by the reading in 5(b)(i) [1 mark] (c) (i) What is the reading of the compression balance in Diagram 5.2? [1 mark] (ii) Name the physical quantity that is represented by the reading in 5(c)(i). [1 mark] (d) (i) Relate the answers in 5(b)(ii) and 5(c)(ii). [1 mark] (ii) Name the physics principle involved in these situations. [1 mark] (e) What happens to the spring balance reading in Diagram 5.2 when the metal block is immersed deeper into the water? [1 mark] 6 Diagram 6.1 shows the side view of two ripple tanks. When the motors are switched on, water waves with the same frequency are produced. (a) What is the meaning of frequency? [1 mark] (b) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2.

70

(i) Compare the depths of the water in region X and region Y. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the wave lengths of the waves in region X and region Y. [1 mark] (iii) Relate the depth of water to the wave length of the waves. [1 mark] (iv) Name the wave phenomenon involved. [1 mark] (c) Explain why the wave front of sea water will follow the shape of the shore when it approaches the shore. [3 marks] 7 Diagram 7.1 shows a current-carrying wire placed between two opposite poles of two magnadur magnets. The wire swings upwards.

(a) The combination of the magnetic field and the current in the wire produces the resultant force, F. (i) Name the rule used to determine the direction of the force. [1 mark] (ii) In Diagram 7.2, draw the resultant magnetic field produced. [2 marks] 71

Diagram 7.2 (iii) Using an arrow, show the direction of the resultant force, F, in Diagram 7.2. [1 mark] (b) Diagram 7.3 shows amoving-coil ammeter.

The scale of the ammeter in Diagram 7.3 is not uniform due to the incorrect shape of the magnet used. (i) In the space below, draw the correct shape of the magnet and the pattern of the magnetic field produced when this magnet is used. (ii) Give one reason why the magnet should have the shape as suggested in 7(b)(i). [1 mark] (iii) Parallax error occurs when taking a reading using an ammeter. Suggest one additional component to overcome this problem. Explain your answer. Component: Explanation: [2 marks] 8 Diagram 8.1 shows an image seen through a lens.

72

(a) (h)

Name the light phenomenon involved in Diagram 8, 1. [1 mark] On Diagram 8.2, draw a ray diagram to show how the image in Diagram 9.1 is formed.

(c) The focal length of the lens in Diagram 8.2 is f. Referring to f, suggest a suitable position to place the object to produce an inverted image. [1 mark] (d) An eye piece of focal length f = 5 cm, and an objective lens are used to build a simple astronomical telescope. The objective lens is chosen from Table 8.1. Lens Focal length of Magnification, Diameter of the fo lens, fo, (cm) objective lens m= fe (cm) P 10 2.5 Q 10 5.0 R 40 2.5 S 40 5.0 Table 8.1 (i) Complete Table 8.1 by writing down the values of m for every lens. [2 marks] (ii) Choose the two lenses that produce the largest image. [1 mark] (iii) Give one reason for the answer in 8(d)(ii). [1 mark] (iv) Choose the two lenses that produce the brightest image. [1 mark] (v) Give one reason for the answer in 8(d)(iv). [1 mark) (vi) Based on the answers in 8(d)(ii) and 8(d)(iv), choose the most suitable lens as the objective lens. [1 mark] Section B [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section.

73

9 Diagram 9.1 shows the effect of pressure on a sandy beach when a man sits on a. chair. Diagram 9.2 shows the same man sitting on the same chair aftera piece of plank is placed under the chair.

(a) (i) What is the meaning of pressure? [1 mark] (ii) Observe Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2. Compare the depth of sinking, the load and the area of contact with the sandy beach. Relate the depth of sinking with the pressure exerted by the chair to make a deduction on the relationship between the pressure and the area of contact in this situation. [5 marks] (b) Diagram 93 shows a vacuum cleaner.

Explain how the vacuum cleaner is able to remove dust from the floor. [4 marks] (c) A car needs an efficient hydraulic brake system for safety purposes. Suggest and explain how to build a hydraulic brake system which can function effectively, based on the following aspect: (i) The type and characteristics of the brake fluid. (ii) The size of the master piston and slave piston. (iii) The material used for the fluid transmission pipe. [10 marks] 10 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show the rate of decay of radioactive Xenon-133 and lodine-131 respectively.

74

(a) (i) What is the meaning of radioactive decay? [1 mark] (ii) Based on Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the shape of the graphs, the way the activity changes with time and the time taken for the activity to become half of the original activity Name the time for the activity to become half of the original activity. [5 marks] (b) Why is an isotope that emits alpha particles no~t suitable for use as a tracer in medicine? [4 marks] (c) Radiotheraphy is used in the treatment of cancer. The radioactive ray used can cause side effects to the patient. Using the knowledge about radioactivity, explain the steps taken to reduce the side effects. In your explanation, emphasize the aspects of: (i) The type of ray used. (ii) How the radioactive radiation is targetted on the cancer cells. (iii) The dosage of the ray required. (iv) The time of the ray exposure. [10 marks] Section C [20 marks] 75

Answer any one question from this section. 11 Diagram 11.1 shows a metal block, M, of mass 500 g heated in boiling water of temperature 100C for along time. The metal block M is then quickly transferred into 200g of water at 30C in a polystyrene cup. The water is stirred until thermal equilibrium is achieved.

(a) (i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium? [1 mark] (ii) Explain, in terms of thermal equilibrium, how a thermometer which is placed into the boiling water reads at the temperature of 100C. [4 marks] (b) (i) Calculate the final temperature of the water in the polystyrene cup. Specific heat capacity of M = 800 J kg-1C-1 Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1C-1 [4 marks] (ii) State one assumption that you have made in 11(b)(i). [1 mark] (c) Diagram 11.2 shows a thermos flask used to maintain the temperature of a hot drink for a long time.

Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of four different thermos flasks. Thermos flask Stopper Space P Double walled tube Made of Coated by W Hollow plastic Vacuum Glass Shiny paint X Hollow plastic Vacuum Copper Black paint Y Solid plastic Air Glass Black paint Z Solid plastic Air Copper Shiny paint Additional information: 76

Specific heat capacity of glass = 840 J kg-1C-1 Specific heat capacity of copper = 387 J kg-1C-1 Table 11.1 Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the thermos flasks and determine the most suitable thermos flask to be used for the purpose of maintaining the temperature of the hot drink. Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] 12 A potential difference of 240 V from the main power supply is applied to a filament lamp. The lamp lights up with normal brightness, (a) What is the meaning of potential difference? [1 mark] (b) Diagram 12.1 shows a graph of potential difference, V, against current, I, for a filament lamp.

(i) Based on the graph, state a relationship between V and I. What can you conclude about the resistance of the lamp? Give one reason for your answer. [3 marks] (ii) What happens to the energy dissipated in the filament lamp when the current flowing is decreased? [1 mark] (c) you are asked to investigate the design and the characteristics of five filament lamps shown in Diagram 12.2. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the lamps and determine the lamp which can produce the brightest light. [10 marks] Give reasons for your choice.

77

Diagram 12.2 (d) Diagram 12.3 shows an energy saving bulb. When it is connected to a 240 V power supply, the bulb produces 10 joules per second of light energy,

Calculate (i) the current flows through the bulb, (ii) the heat energy lost in 1 second from the bulb, (iii) the efficiency of the bulb. [5 marks]

78