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Energy Vol.20, No 10, pp.

983-994, 1995


Copyright 1995 Elsevter Science Ltd Prmted m Great Brttam All nghts reserved 0360-5442/95 $9 50 + 0.00

Kash~wagl Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Systems Engmeenng, Tokyo UniversRy of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-machl, Koganel-shi, Tokyo 184, Japan

(Received 2 February 1995)

Abstract--We have investigated analytically the performance of the thermally driven, advanced

three-stage adsorption chiller utilizing low-grade waste heat of 50C and lower temperatures as the driving heat source, in combinanon with a heat sink (cooling water) of 30C. The closed cycle chiller for use in air-conditioning utilizes the silica-gel-water adsorption system. A cycle-simulanon program was constructed to analyze the influence of operating condinons (temperatures, flow rates and adsorption-desorpnon cycle rimes) on cooling output, COP and chiller efficiency (~ = COP/Camot COP). The main advantage of this chtller is that it is operational with smaller regeneratmg temperature lifts (ATrese,= heat source-heat sink temperature) than other heat-driven chillers. By cycle slmulanon, it was shown that the three-stage chiller can be operated with heat sources of 50 and 40C m combinanon with cooling sources of 39 and 30C, respectwely. The slmulanon results also show that for the chiller to operate effectively, heat sources of 50C require cooling sources between 35 and 20C (AT~ge, = 15 to about 30K), while heat sources of 40C need coohng sources in the range of 28-20C (AT~g~,= 12 to about 20K).


Most of the high- and mid-temperature waste heat can be recovered by using existing technologies. However, heat utilization near environmental temperatures still faces technical hurdles. Adsorption cycles have a distinct advantage over other systems in their ability to be driven by heat of relatively low, near-environmental temperatures, so that waste heat below 100C can be recovered, which is highly desirable. One interesting feature of refrigeration cycles driven by waste heat is that they do not use electricity or fossil fuels as driving sources and hence are energy savers. Also, when substances such as water can be used as the refrigerant, the cycles become very attractive in terms of CFC and HCFC replacement. A considerable number of studies has been conducted on solid-adsorption thermodynamic cycles. The following are examples. Conventional adsorption cycles were studied by Alefeld et al, 1 Ismail et al 2 and Karagiorgas and Meumer 3 using the zeolite-water system, and by Pons and GrenieP and Restuccia et aP using the carbon-methanol system. The activated-charcoal-methanol system was studied by Critoph and Vogel 6 and by Critoph 7 for solar cooling. Critoph and Turner s compared zeolite and activated carbon with ammonia refrigerant for the same purpose. These cycles need driving heat sources at temperature above 100C. The silica-gel-water system is an alternative, allowing cycles to be driven by relatively lower driving heat-source temperatures. Sakoda and Suzuki 9 investigated the silica-gel-water adsorption system for solar cooling. Nishiyodo Air Conditioning Co. Ltd) developed and commercialized a conventional silica-gel-water chiller, which yields 10 kW of cooling output with hot water at 85C in combination with cooling water at 31 C. Later, Cho and Kim II developed a test set and a simulation code to study the effects of component heat-transfer rate on the cooling capacity of a silica-gel-water adsorption cooling machine. Several advanced cycles have been proposed to reduce heat losses inherent in batch-cycle operation and hence improve cycle efficiency. In the thermal wave cycle proposed and analyzed by Shelton et al, ~2 the zeolite-ammonia system is used for a thermally driven vapor-compression cycle in which the heat-transfer fluid is circulated serially from one adsorbent bed in a heat pump to the other so that heat

tTo whom all correspondence should be addressed 983


Bidyut B. Saha et al

rejected from the bed being cooled can be utilized by the bed being heated. The heat input required from the external heat source (e.g., a gas flame) is thus reduced by heat recovery. Douss and Meunier 13 proposed and analyzed a cascading adsorption cycle in which an active carbonmethanol cycle is topped by a zeolite-water cycle. Driving heat is supplied by a boiler to the zeolite cycle, which in turn provides lower temperature heat (from adsorption) to drive the activated carbon cycle. By carefully matching operating temperatures, it is possible to obtain, for example, both steam and ice with reduced heat input from the external source. Relatively less attention has been devoted to advanced cycles aimed specifically at lowering the driving heat-source temperature (i.e. reducing the minimum possible temperature lift if the heat-sink temperature remains unchanged). From this perspective, we have been investigating the possibility of utilizing an innovative, advanced, three-stage cycle which allows the use of 50C heat as driving source with a cooling source of 30C. When the temperature difference between the driving heat source (hot water) and heat sink (cooling water) decreases to about 20C, conventional cycles are not operational and an advanced three-stage cycle had to be conceived. 14 An experimental machine (1 kW cooling capacity) has been built and testing is currently under way in our laboratory. ~5 The present study deals with utilization of unexploited, near-ambient temperature waste heat between 60 and 40C as the driving heat source with a cooling source of 30C. The influences of heat-transfer fluid temperatures on cooling output, COP and chiller efficiency 71, flow-rate effects on cooling output, as well as cycle-time effects on cooling output and COP are determined by using a cycle-simulation study. 2. CLOSED-TYPE,THREE-STAGEADSORPTIONCYCLE The closed cycle analyzed in this paper utilizes the affinity of dry silica gel for water vapor as the trigger for evaporation, which is then used to produce cooling energy.

2.1. Silica gel adsorption

Silia gel is a partially dehydrated form of polymeric colloidal silicic acid. 16The chemical composition may be expressed as SiO2-nH20. The adsorptive property of silica gel arises from its high porosity. The dimensions of the pores are sub-microscopic (20 ~ 200/~). Silica gel adsorbs vapor from a gas mixture until the pores of the gel are filled. The amount of condensable vapor adsorbed in silica gel at any temperature increases as the partial pressure of the vapor in the surrounding gas approaches the partial pressure of vapor which would exist if the gas were saturated at the gel temperature. Sihca gel at 27C in contact with air saturated at this temperature can adsorb up to 0.4 kg of water per kg of gel as a limit. 17 When vapor is adsorbed on silica gel, the heat liberated is equivalent to the latent heat of evaporation of the adsorbed liquid plus the additional heat of wetting. The sum of the latent heat plus the heat of wetting is the heat of adsorption. During adsorption, the vapor latent heat is transformed into sensible heat which is dissipated into the adsorbent, the metal of the adsorbent container and the surrounding atmosphere. Hence, there is a need for cooling the adsorbent if an excessive temperature rise of the gel is to be avoided. The amount of heat required to regenerate silica gel varies with the design of the equipment. In addition to supplying the heat necessary to release adsorbed refrigerant from the gel (heat of adsorption), heat must be added to raise the temperatures of the adsorbent bed and adsorber and also to overcome radiation losses.

2.2. The working principle of the chiller

The chiller analyzed in this paper comprises eight heat exchangers, namely, a condenser, an evaporator and three pairs of adsorber/desorber heat exchangers, plus eight refrigerant valves and one expansion valve, as shown in Fig. 1. The adsorbent is packed in the adsorber/desorber heat exchangers, which undergo alternate cooling and heating to allow refrigerant adsorption and desorption. Figure 1 illustrates the process. Refrigerant valves 1, 3, 6, and 8 are open to allow refrigerant flow between heat exchangers; while desorbers 1, 3 and 5 are heated by hot water, adsorbers 2, 4 and 6 are cooled by cooling water. Refrigerant (water) is evaporated at temperature Tevawith heat input Qeva from the chilled water and

Advanced absorption-refrigeration cycle


Qcond IIII

<It. 11
Refrigerant vapor



V9 Q.d,


H ex2

V8 Refrigerant vapor

V = valve; Hex = heat exchanger Ftg 1 Schematic of the 3-stage adsorption chiller

ts adsorbed by adsorber 6, starting from concentration Xwe~kand reaching concentration Xstrong , deterrnreed by the temperature Tads at which cooling water removes the adsorption heat Qads- Heat exchangers 2 and 4 adsorb refrigerant from desorbers 3 and 5, respectively. Desorbers are heated up to the temperature Tde, by heat Qdes, whtch is provided by the driving heat source (hot water). Desorber 1 is connected to the condenser, where the desorbed refrigerant vapor is condensed at temperature Too,O;cooling water removes the condensation heat Qco,n. The resulting condensate flows back to the evaporator via the expanston valve 9 to complete the cycle. The use of parallel cooling water circuits for the condenser and adsorbers results in similar temperature levels at the condenser (Too,d) and adsorbers (Tads). On completion of the desorption/adsorption process A (300 sec), the flows of hot and cooling water are redirected by switching valves so that desorbers 1, 3 and 5 switch into an adsorption mode and adsorbers 2, 4 and 6 change into desorption operation (in process C). During the intermediate process B (30 sec), no adsorption/desorption occur. The ensumg processes C and D correspond to processes A and B reversed. After completion of process D, process A starts anew.



3.1. Properties of moist silica gel

The influence of operating conditions on cooling capacity, COP and chiller efficiency (~ = COP/Carnot COP) was investigated with a dynamic model with the effects of non-condensable gases and heat losses to the environment neglected. 3.1.1. Adsorption equilibrium. The equations used to describe the silica-gel-water properties assume an equilibrium process without hysteresis and an isobaric adsorption-desorption process. The Freundlich equation 'a was chosen to represent the experimental data, viz.,

q* = k x [Ps(Tw)lPs(Ts)] TM


where q* is the amount adsorbed at equilibrium with pressure Ps(Tw) and k is the limiting amount desorbed at Ps(Tw)/Ps(T,). Here, Ps(Tw) and Ps(T~) are the saturation vapor pressures at the water temperature Tw and the gel temperature Ts, respectively; the parameters k and n are often taken as constants. By comparing plots of the Freundlich equation with experimental data obtained from the literature (Hubard 19 and Nishiyodo Air Conditioning Co. Ltd. 2) we obtained good agreement only in a relatively narrow pressure and temperature range for constant values of k and 1In. We have utilized a modified Freundlich equation [Eq. (2)] by replacing the constants k and lln by adjustable parameters A(Ts) and B(Ts) for a more precise fit to the equilibrium curves. Thus,

q* = A(Ts) x [P,(Tw)IPs(Ts)]B(rO,


A(Ts) = AO + A l X Ts + A2 x ~ + A3 x ~ , B(Ts) = B0 + B1 x Ts + B2 x ~ + B3 x 7 The numerical values of A0 - A3 and B0 - B3 are determined by least-squares fits to experimental data. The physical property parameters adopted in the calculations are shown in Table 2. 3.1.2. Adsorption rate. The adsorption process in an adsorbent bed is considered to be controlled by macroscopic diffusion into the adsorbent particle bed (the diffusion resistance related to the transport of the adsorbate through the particles in the bed). The adsorption rate is expressed as 9

dq/dt = k s a p x (q* - q).

The overall mass-transfer coefficient (ksap) for adsorption is given by ksap = (15Ds)/R~).



Table 1. Time chart for the 3-stage adsorption chiller; O, open, x, closed; Hw, hot water; Cw, cooling water; I-I~,heat exchange. Desorption cycle, Process A 300 1,3,6,8 2.4,5.7
i,3,5 2,4,6

Cycle Time (see) Valve Heat exchanger

Hex cycle (cooling), Adsorptioncycle, Process B Process C 30 x


Hex cycle (heating), Process D 30 x


300 x 0 Cw





Advanced absorption-refrigerationcycle The surface diffusivity D~ is expressed as a function of temperature by

D~ = D~o x exp[-(Ea)l(RT)].



3.2. Mass and heat balances 3.2.1 Mass balance. The mass balance of refrigerant (water) is written by neglecting the gas phase and is written as

d---t- + W s x

+ dt j = 0 ,


where W~ is the weight of silica gel packed in each of the two adsorbent beds, and Ww is the weight of refrigerant in the liquid phase. 3.2.2. Adsorption and desorption heat balances. Adsorption and desorption heat balances are described by
Twat. . . . t = Tad + (Twa, . . . . - Tad) X exp[--Uad X Ane,l(mwat~r X Cp water)],


d ~[W~ x (Cr,~ + Cpw x q) + dq

= Qst x W s x ~


Wk.e,, + CpA, X WfHex)] X Tad (Twat,r,, - Twat . . . t). .


+ mwater X Cp water X

For adsorption heat balances, the suffixes water and ad denote cooling water and adsorber, respectively; for desorption, they denote hot water and desorber, respectively. Equation (8) provides sensible heat and heat-of-adsorption output during adsorption and input during desorption. 3.2.3. Evaporator and condenser heat balances. For the heat balances in the evaporator and condenser, the following expressions are used: Twa,.... t = To...... d + (Twater,. - X exp[-Ue ...... d x A..... o.a/(mwater X Cp water)],
~ [ ( c p w x Wow + Cp, x we ...... d) X T0v,.oo,d] = - Lw x Ws x
+ mwater X Cp water X (Twat ....


dt (10)

- Twat . . . t) + Cp w x Tco.d x W. x dqd.. . dt'

the suffixes water and eva denoting chilled water and evaporator, respectively, for the evaporator heat balances. For the condenser heat balances, water denotes cooling water and cond denotes condenser. The term Wew denoting the mass of water inside the evaporator is set equal to 0 since no account is taken of sensible heat for water in the liquid phase in the condenser. Adsorption/desorption and evaporator/condenser heat-balance equations are discussed in more detail elsewhere.21 3.2.4. COP and chiller efficiency 7l. The COP and chiller efficiency 7/are defined by the following equations: el COP = Q~h,llQhot, where
Qehdl---- Cp eh,ll mehdl X (Tehdl m -- Tehfll out), (12) (13)


Q.ot = and

Cphot X

mho, X (T.ot,,,



Bidyut B. Saha et al

Table 2. Physical property values.

Values Adopted m Slmulataon


0.511 0.183 0.382 905 386 4180 4180 4180 924 4180 4180 2 54 x 10..4 4.2 x 104 2.5 106 2.8 106 1 7 x 10-4 1895 31 7740 7 2485.29 2097.34 3.84 2.4 10.0 1 99 2.49

m2 m2 m2 J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK J/kgxK m2/see J/mol J/kg J/kg m W/m2xK W/m2K W/m2xK W/m2xK kg kg kg kg kg

A,va An, x Cp A, Cp cu Cp chill Cp c~l Cp hot Cp ~ Cp w Cp w,t~r /)so E, /-~ Ost Rp U~s Uo~d

Ud~ Ue,,a
Weond W~,, W~w


a~ = COP/COPc~mot,


(15) with Taes, "Tee.a,~as and Tev~ indicating respectively, the average temperatures inside the desorber, condenser, adsorber, and evaporator during one cycle (330 sec).

The system of differential equations [Eqs. (2)-(10)] was solved simultaneously by numerical integration using finite difference substitution in the derivatives. The temperature is assumed to be uniform along the heat exchanger. For the specific heats of metals, adsorbent and adsorbate inside the heat exchanger and for adsorption heat, average values are adopted throughout the entire temperature range. Refrigerant mass flows between evaporator and adsorber, condenser and desorber, adsorber and desorber are taken as equivalent to overcome computational torpidity. The parameters considered in the simulation are shown in Tables 2-6.
Table 3. Standard conditions, cycle tame = 330 see Hot water m
Temp (oc) Flow (kg/see)

Cooling water m
Temp (C) Flow (Ads + Cond) (kg/sec) 0.91 (0 58 + 0.33)

Chdled water m Temp (C) Flow (kg/see)






Ads-Des cycle 300 see

Heat exchange cycle 30 see

Advanced absorpt~on-refngeratlon cycle Table 4 Operating temperature parameters. Temperature combmattons Hot water m (C) 50 40 60 - 40 Coohngwater in Chdled water m (C) (c) 20 - 39 20 ~ 30 30 12


Table 5 Flow-rate parameters Coohng water flow (kg/sec) 02~35 Hot water flow (kg/sec) 02-20

Table 6 Cycle-timeparameters Adsorption - desorptlon cycle (sec) 60 - 900

In the numerical solution of the equations, successive substitution of newly calculated values was used with six iterative nested loops in repeating the calculations until the discrepancy in heat balances for all heat exchangers is less than 2%; the converging factor is taken as 10-3 (or 0.001 ) for all parameters. The calculations are made with a time interval of one second. 5 VALIDATION

5.1.Heat balances
Figures 2(a) and (b) show simulated and experimental heat balances obtained from water inlet-outlet temperature differences and flow rates with standard operating conditions (Table 3). The experiment was performed on a 1 kW chiller in a test plant, with hot, cooling and chilled water-inlet temperatures and flow rates kept constant and outlet temperatures allowed to vary. Satisfactory qualitative agreement was obtained for all heat exchangers. Calculated and experimental results differ by 5% for the evaporator and condenser. Experimental heat balances exceeded calculated values by 7% for the adsorber and 15% for the desorber. This difference is attributed to heat losses to the external environment in the experiments, since the metallic enclosures of adsorbers and desorbers undergo repeated heating and cooling. 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The effects of operating temperatures, flow rates (cooling and hot water) and adsorption-desorption cycle times were estimated numerically for the conditions listed in Tables 4 - 6 . For parameters not listed in the tables, standard conditions (Table 3) were adopted.

6.1. Operating temperatures 6.1.1. Cooling-water temperature.

Figures 3(a), (b) and (c) show the effects of cooling-water temperatures on cooling output (Qch,~l), COP and chiller efficiency (~i) for the conditions listed in Table 4. The cooling output increases from 0.09 to 2.21 kW as the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered

990 35

Bidyut B. Saha et al

(a) li
,n ~

...... Experiments

:il III

Desorber out (calc.)


........... Adsorbr out (talc.)




,l|, ,I il

:l|, I" |I
,~ I',

',1 t~.

[l t',,,

:i I'~

, l l ,it,. !!
,! ,I

"'~',. ~ t , / D e i o r b e r ~/-,,'-~-~ ~ . ~_ \

out (exps.)

i |~, ,,ll~ \ "~'-I]


~lk.('-, ,, ', "~. ix

""~::'~'"'" ~----........ .... ",

Adsorber- u t "" o




25o Time (scc)






. . . . . . Experiments ...... Condenser (calc.) - - - - " ' Evaporator (calc.)

i l



1 -


(experiments) L

Time (see)




Fig. 2. (a) Adsorber and desorber heat balances. (b) Evaporator and condenser heat balances.

from 39 to 20C with a 50C driving heat source (hot water). With a 40C driving source, the cooling output increases from 0.37 to 1.64 kW as the cooling water inlet is lowered from 30 to 20C [Fig. 3(a)]. This tendency reflects the fact that lower adsorption temperatures result in larger amounts of refrigerant being adsorbed and desorbed during each cycle. The effect on COP is shown in Fig. 3(b). COP values are most sensitive to cooling water inlet temperatures above 30C with driving sources of 50C and above 25C for a 40C driving source. With 50C hot water and cooling water in the 20-30C range, COP values are stable at 0.21 despite an increase in cooling output with lower cooling water temperatures. This result is attributed to an increase in heat losses due to batch-cycle operation. The cooling output increases with lower cooling water temperatures, as does the amount of driving heat required for sensible heating of the adsorber

Advanced absorption-refrigerationcycle (a) 2.00

1.75 1.50 ~_ . ~ Chilled water in : 12 *C O rheti : 4 0 " C uI Thot in = 50 *C 0.20 1-0.18 [-0.16 1--


Chilled water in : 12 *C

1oo 0.75 0.50


Cooling water temperature (*C)

o io~-

0.08 [-I



20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0

20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0

Cooling water temperature (*C)

0.45 E 0.40 Chilled water in : 12 *C



0.20 ~- 0.15

20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40 0

Cooling water temperature (*C)

Fig 3 (a) Coohng water temperatureeffect on cooling output. (b) Coohng water temperatureeffect on COP (c) Coohng water temperatureeffect on "17

from adsorption to desorption temperature. This tendency is noticed when the regenerating temperature lift (AT~gen) is greater than 20 K. Figure 3(c) shows chiller-efficiency results; 40C hot water with cooling water of 20-30C generates higher rl values than hot water of 50C with 20-39C cooling source because relatively higher driving heat-source temperatures result in greater heat losses and hence lowered chiller efficiency 7I. On the other hand, for cooling water temperature above 35C with 50C hot water and above 28C with 40C hot water, ~ decreases abruptly. In this case, the smaller regenerating temperature lift (ATr~ge,) results in less refrigerant circulated by adsorption/desorption, and the cooling output falls below the 1 kW level. 6.1.2. Hot-water temperature. The effects of hot-water temperature on cooling output, COP and are shown in Figs. 4(a), (b), (c). Cooling output rises from 0.37 to 1.62 kW as the hot water temperature is increased from 40 to 60C [Fig. 4(a)] with the cooling water at 30C because of increased refrigerant desorption with higher temperatures so that the amount of refrigerant circulated increases. With hot-water temperature variation [Fig. 4(b)], the COP peaks around 50C. For hot water between 40 and 50C, the COP drop reflects lower cooling output; between 50 and 60C, it suggests an increase in heat losses due to batch-cycle operation. Figure 4(c) shows the effect of hot-water temperature on chiller efficiency 7. The highest 7/values were obtained for hot water between 42 and 47C with 30C cooling water. When the hot-water inlet is below 42C, ATr~g~nbecomes so small ( < 12 K) that the amount of refrigerant circulated is insufficient to generate cooling output. When the hot-water inlet is hotter than 47C (i.e. ATr~g~n< 17 K), the higher regenerating temperature lifts result in greater heat losses, as explained above, and thus ~/decreases rapidly.
6.2. Flow rates

The effects of hot and cooling water-flow rates on cooling output are shown in Fig. 5. The cooling output increases with higher water-flow rates. Increasing the flow rates of hot water (desorber) and cooling water (adsorber + condenser) is highly effective in the ranges below 0.8 and 1.3 kg/sec, respectively. Above these values, the cooling output increases are undetected (for hot water) or very small (for cooling water).


Bidyut B. Saha et al

1.8 1.6
1.4 I ~ C 0.21 0.19 0 20 0.18 0.17



~ 1.0 0.8 Chilled water in :. 12 *C 0.6 0.4 T I I I I I I I I I 0.2 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5 50.0 52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 Hot water temperature (*C)

0.15 0.14

o.13 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.047.5 50.0 $2.5 55.0 $7.5 60.0 62.5
Hot water temperature (oc)


~' 0 0.40
0.38 0.36 ~ 0.34 L) 0.32 ~

~. 0.30 O 0.28 L)

-- Chilled water in : 12 "12 . ~_ 0.26 I I I I I I I I ? 0.24 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5 50.0 52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 Hot water temperature (*C)

Fag. 4. (a) Hot water temperature effect on coohng output (b) Hot water temperature effect on COP. (c) Hot water temperature effect on 71. 1.40 1.35 1.30 ~" 1.25 = 1.20 ~ 1.15 - ~ [ r~ ~ 1.10 [ 1.05 I 1.00 0.5 0

r ) r~ Cooling water flow rate (condenser adsorber)







Water flow (kglsec)

Fig. 5 Flow rate effect on coohng output

6.3. Adsorption-desorption cycle times

Figures 6(a) and (b) show the effects of adsorption-desorption cycle times (varied as shown in Table 6) on cooling output and COP. The highest cooling output values [Fig. 6(a)] were obtained for
(a) (b)

1.2, F1.2o t'- 9" 1.15 I'- / 1.1o I'- / 1.o51-- / . . . . . . .

0.95 0 90

"u,,_ ~ "~


0.22 0.20 o.n ~ o.16 o14

0.12 0.10 "" 0 "" ::

Chilled water in : 12 C 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Adsorption-desorption cycle time (see)



100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Adsorptiou-desorption cycle time (see)

Fig. 6. (a) The effect of adsorption-ciesorption cycle time on cooling output. (b) The effect of acisorptiondesorpUon cycle time on COP.

Advanced absorption-refrigerationcycle


cycles between 200 and 360 sec. When the cycle times are shorter than 200 sec, there is not enough time for adsorption and desorption to occur satisfactorily and the cooling output decreases abruptly. For cycles longer than 360 sec, the cooling output decreases because adsorption tends to be relatively less intense after the first 6 minutes and then gradually decreases as the adsorbent approaches its equilibrium condition. The COP [Fig. 6(b)] increases uniformly with cycle time because of lower consumption of driving heat with longer cycles. 6.3.1. Control strategy based on cycle time. The behavior of a gradual decrease in cooling output (in kW) with longer cycle times may be utilized as a control strategy for partial load operation. Figure 6(a) provides a guideline for the design and optimization of a control system aimed not only at avoiding excessive ON/OFF operation but also at providing maximum cooling output during high-demand periods (cycles between 200 and 360 sec) and enhanced COP under low-demand conditions (longer cycles). 7 CONCLUSIONS (i) The main innovative feature in the three-stage adsorption chiller is the ability to utilize low-grade waste heat (-50C) as the driving source with a cooling source of 30C. The technological difficulty inherent in operating a cycle with such a small regenerating temperature lift is overcome by use of a three-stage cycle. (ii) The cycle-simulation study shows that the most influential parameters are the operating temperatures (hot and cooling water). (ili) The cooling output increases with hot- and coolingwater flow rates. However, water-flow rate increases above 0.8 kg/sec (hot) and 1.3 kg/sec (coohng) are no longer beneficial. (iv) Long cycle times (above 360 sec) result in COP gains and cooling-output losses, which makes them suitable for partial load operations. The maximum cooling output was obtained for cycle times of 200-360 sec. This range is ideal for full-load operation in high demand periods. (v) Further analysis is required on the effects of heat and mass transfer on chiller performance. Apphcations of our simulation procedure for the determination of maximum theoretical performance and as a design tool for optimized next generation chillers are worth pursuing.
Acknowledgements--The authors are indebted to Y Yonezawaand M. Matsushlta of the Nlshlyodo Air CondxUonmgCo Ltd for their untlnng work in concewlng, designing and constructing the three-stage adsorption chdler utthzed m the experiments.

REFERENCES 1 2 3. 4 5. 6. 7 8 9 10. 11. 12. 13. 14 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. G Alefeld, P Maier-Laxhuber, and M Rothmeyer, Int. Conf. on Energy Storage, Brighton, U.K. (1981) I. Ismall, F. Meunter, B Brandon, and J. Mengoux, Proc. XVlth Int. Congress on Refrtgeration 2, 363 (1983) M. Karagtorgas and F. Meumer, Heat Recovery Systems & CHP 7, 285 (1987). M Pons and Ph. Grenier, Proc. ISES Conference Intersol 85, Montreal, Pergamon, Oxford (1985). G. Restuccta, G. Cacciola, and N. Glordano, Proc of the XVlllth Int. Congress on Refrtgeration, Montreal, 1057 (1991) R. E. Cntoph and R. Vogel, Int. J. Ambient Energy 7, 183 (1986). R E. Cntoph Sol. Energy 41, 21 (1988). R. E Critoph and H L. Turner, GFGP 2, B. Spinner ed., Pans, Perpignan, 202 (1988). A. Sakoda and M. Suzulo, J. Chem. Eng. Japan 17, 52 (1984). Nlshlyodo Air Condiuoning Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Energy Conservation (m Japanese) Special Issue, Energy Conservatton Award-Winning Product 39, 96 (1987). S. H. Cho and J.N. Kim, Energy--The International Journal 17, 829 (1992). S. V. Shelton, J. W. Wepfer, and D. J. Miles, Heat Recovery Systems & CHP 9, 233 (1989). N. Douss and F. Meunter, Chem. Engng Sct. 44, 225 (1989). Y. Yonezawa and M. Matsushtta, private communication, Nishiyodo Air Conditionmg Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan (1992). E Boelman, B. B. Saha, A. Tanaka, and T. Kashlwagi, Trans. JAR 11, 357 (1994). D. M. Ruthven, Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption Processes, Wiley, NY (1984) F C. Dehler, Chem. Metall. Engng, 307 (1940) K. Chihara and M. Suzulo, J. Chem. Eng. Japan 16, 293 (1983). S. Hubard, Ind. Engng Chem., 356 (1954). Nlshiyodo Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Kyoto, PTX Data for the Silica-Gel/Water Pair, "Manufacturer's Propnetary Data" (1992). B B. Saha, E. Boelman, and T. Kashiwagi, ASHRAE Trans. Annual Summer Meeting, San Diego, U.S.A (in press, 1995). J. E. Ahem, The Exergy Method of Energy Systems Analysis, Wiley Interscience, NY (1980).


Bidyut B. Saha et al NOMENCLATURE A = Heat-transfer area (length 2) Cp = Isobaric specific heat (energy/massdeg) D, = Surface diffusivity (length2/time) D~o = Pre-exponential constant in Eq. (3) (length2/time) Ea = Activation energy for surface diffusion (energy/molecular mass) h = Time (hour) k = Limiting amount adsorbed (mass/mass) ksap = Overall mass-transfer coefficient (time -j ) L = Latent heat of vaponzation (energy/mass) m = Mass-flow rate (mass/time) n = Parameter in Eq. ( 1 ) (dimensionless) Ps(T) = Saturated vapor pressure at the temperature T(Pa) (force/length 2) q = Amount adsorbed (mass/mass) q* = Equilibrium amount adsorbed (mass/mass) Qch,, = Cooling output (energy) Qhot = Driving heat (energy) Qst = Isosteric heat of adsorption (energy mass) R = Gas constant (energy/molecular mass-deg) Rp = Average radius of a particle (length) T = Temperature (deg) t = time (sec) U = Heat-transfer coefficient (energy/time-length2-deg) W = Weight (mass) X = Concentration (mass/mass)

Adsorber/desorber bed of silica gel Adsorption Aluminum Chilled water Condenser Cooling water Copper Desorption Evaporator Liquid refrigerant (distilled water) in evaporator fHex = Fin (aluminum) hot = Hot water in = Inlet kHex = Heat-transfer tube (copper) out = Outlet regen = Regeneration s = Adsorbent (silica gel) w = Refrigerant (distilled water) water = Heat-transfer fluid (hot, cooling or chilled water) ad = ads = A1 = chill = cond = cool = Cu = des = eva = ew =