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MU ibliothek Fremdspr. Philol. /Sla Cee cm ny DE Rm oes erg Soe eee em ey Ce eet ste Cree eRe Err iey : ORR cece 4 ej UC RCs ent] FY fe! I Y ) I Y Ka] 4 Evora e Dene get eu Rest : rn Ve ros OST Ruy Fd 5 z Clear and simple Glasgow. His other books include A Comprehensive explanations Coen ea eee ae) ee Series Adviser, Dr Richard Ingham, is Lecturer in Linguistic, Science at the University of Reading, OXFORD ISBN 0-19-860360-0 Pee ered poortiony Pa OaeCea emery [ie eerie Someta Pent £7.99 np $14.95 usa The Oxford Russian Grammar and Verbs ‘Terence Wade ‘Oxford New York ‘Oxford University Press 2002 st ped 20, ‘igs rere No par fh pueton maybe produced ‘ed inser persue yf yy ean, ‘tout he pot permis nen of Or ee oat gd pe ‘Sud the sop fhe save sole sen oe Rais Deprme, ‘Std Ute Be atte ss se ‘ou must cite hi ok in any te icing oF cover {dou mut impo hone anion any sce ih brary Cataloguing in Pubeation Data ery of ages Calg a Pbeton Data “peat umtach an Trade Cte yhes ever ae et tan ys Ban. Sat I Contents Preface W Feknonedgenens " Uitot abbreviations ¥ The noun 1 The adecive 8 The power 8 The oumer 0 The ve 3 vert rr Thr adverb i he prepotion a ‘he conuncton ae Word oer a Paocuaton 2 Glossary of grammatical tems 23 Index of sobects hs Inder of sian words 2» The Rosia aabet, a2 | Preface “The Oxford Russian Grammar and Verbs is part ofa serie of Oxford grammars of moder languages. It is designed for beginners and Intermediate level learners at school or university a well as the adult studying the language on his/her own or at evening classes It contains everything that is essential up to Aleve standard ‘The text is divided into chapters dealing withthe individual pats of speech, with particular emphasis given tothe verb. Tere are also ‘chapters on word order and punctuation. A separate glossary explains the grammatical terms usd inthe book and two indexes allow the user to ook up individual points of grammar and individual Russian words ‘The explanatory style ofthe book has been kept as simple as posible and numerous examples ilustate points of grammar as they arise. The ‘design and layout of the text is arranged predominantly in single- and ‘double-page spreads to aid ease of use, The verb lst and the glossary of grammatical terms have a grey tint tothe outside edge of the pages to enable quick reference. ‘Terence Wade | Acknowledgements ‘The author would lke to thank in particular Albina Ozieva who gave advice on Russian usage and the Russian examples, and Dr Della ‘Thompson of OUP who oversaw the project and made many usefl and help suggestions, Thanks are alto due to Dr Richard Ingham, Series ‘Adviser, for his valuable comments on the tex. | Proprietary terms ‘The inclusion in this book of any words which ae, or ae assed {>be proprietary ames or adem doe py tat sy hare Scqured for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general sigiiance, ovis any oter judgement imple concerning thet lepl Sa | List of abbreviations dat. dative fem. feminine gen. genitive mpi. perfective nat. instrumental {ntrans, intransitive ‘ase. masculine MD multidirectional pl peefective ‘rep. prepositional fans, transitive UD unidirectional The noun | ‘Anoun names a person, animal, hing, natural phenomenon, ‘quality, substance, fact, event, abstract notion ec. dawns boy cofina dog ena chair nobpori Kindness | Gender (masculi feminine, or neuter) (@) Nouns that denote male persons or animals are masculine: Spar brother mywsina man Gapin ram (b) Those that denote female persons or animals are feminine: ceerpi sister mare mother urpima tigress (6) The gender of nouns that denote things, phenomena, qualities, etc. depends on the ending of the noun. 2.1 The noun Masculine nouns {a} All nouns ending in a consonant or + are masculine, as are some ending in a soft sign (s) avba factory ype museum aoxae rain (b) Masculine nouns ending ina soft sign include ‘natural ‘masculines, animate and inanimate agent nouns in rea, the ‘names of months ending in a soft sign, and others whose gender thas to be learnt individually ripen lad io July fuckrem writer exoniph dictionary anirarem engine nem day Feminine nouns {All nouns ending in -a/-a are feminine (except for “natural” ‘masculines and neuter nouns in -wa), as are nouns in -na: enira book ipa storm crimuwn station Also, very many nouns ending in a soft sign, including: ‘nouns that denote females; ‘nouns in, 8, mb, mt, am; ‘nouns in -ers (except rocrs ‘guest’ and teers ‘father-in-law’); nouns derived from adjectives and verbs: sare mother pox ye owe right mun mouse eum thing aun life weer honour abnenm greenery samen recording ‘There are also many others whose gender has to be learnt individually ‘The noun 13 Neuter nouns: ‘Most nouns ending in 0 ore and all nouns in ae, -be, -6é, or = are neuter: enbwo word ope sea ariune bulding evicrse happinces Pyavé shot-oun pena tine Common gender nouns in -al-n These nouns are masculine or feminine, depending on the sex of the person involved: ‘xoanéra colleague {masculine of feminine) Indeclinable names of animals are also of common gender: renryp Kangaroo ‘woanané chimpanzee ‘The names of many professions are grammatically masculine, but take a feminine short-form adjective or past tense when the practitioner is a woman: Bpaw aovéasia. Bpas nucaxa “The (female) doctor is pleased. The (female) doctor was writing’. Indectinable foreign nouns Indeclinable foreign nouns (loanwords) end in -a0, ay, -€,-, -0, 0a, 40, of -2 and are mainly neuter (an exception is masculine wide coffee’), e.8 iy-xy know-how kage cafe ‘axe tax Snerpe bistro iy show urrepauio interview 41 The noun | Number (singular and plural) (@) Nouns are ether singular, denoting one object or person (ero ‘table’, xémmma ‘woman’), or plutal, denoting more than one (cromi ‘tables’, suman ‘women’). (b) The masculine plural is formed by the addition of a vowel, usually to nouns ending in a consonant (after, x, X, 2, 1m, m [see page 6)): awré6ye bus anré6ye-s1 buses ‘ypix lescon ypbn-w lessons ‘mmx beach aioe beaches orby the replacement of inal oF by ‘repi-t hero repb-w heroes Toay6-» dove rény6-n doves (©) The feminine plural is formed by the replacement of final -a by Ga afer, 8, iva amp aloes laps rein book vara books and of final -a or -b by -#: ere aunt vere aurte sews thing néuew things (@) The neuter plural 8prmed by replacing -oby-,-eFby-t: sinere-ofecing sjncrea feclings nie dress nnkrien dresses Pym shotgun pian shot gine Trenounts J | Declension ‘There are six cases, each showing the function of a noun in the clause (only the most basic meanings or functions are given here): Nominative the subject ofthe dause Oréy nmér Father is drinking Accusative the object ofthe verb Ont rr maid He drinks wine Genttive possession, ownership Jou ctatua My son's house Dative Indirect object, recipient Oxt an xn seman He gave the book to the boy Instrumental with, by means of ST rf sao | write with chalk Preposttional/Locative Toeation SL xcsy 8 ropane ve i town | Note: (a) relief the wat cate in: ae ony Go’, Feta! Cond Vise (0) some truncated forms ae used wth ecatve meaning in clo! Russian: a Mor, Ha "Win ee (Che prepestonaliecatve casa is alnays sed with a prepa, 6 1 The noun | The declensions ‘There are three declensions: ‘The first declension: all masculine nouns (except those ending in ‘fa, and nyrs ‘way’) and all neuter nouns (except those ending in wa) ‘The second declension: nouns in afs (mainly feminine, with a few ‘natural’ masculines, e.g. ouowa ‘youth’, aaa ‘uncle’, and ‘nouns of common gender e.g. cypors ‘orphan’) ‘The third declension: feminine softsign nouns, neuter nouns in wa, and masculine nyre ‘way’ ‘The first dectension (masculine and neuter nouns) ‘The first declension subdivides into masculine nouns ending in a consonant, -i, or-s, and neuter nouns ending in-o, - (including -wel-velat) ‘Masculine bard-ending nouns (nouns ending in a hard consonant) ‘Most masculine nouns follow the standard pattern (types 1 and 2 below). Others display variations conditioned by the spelling rales: Spelling rule one: ati replaced by m after the letters r,«, x and 3, a, mn Spelling rule evo: 0 can appear after the letters, and w onl if stressed, otherwise itis replaced by e. J Noten ccsati singular and plural fat masculine animate ours is the 1 aie ste gente. Types of masculine fist-declension nouns ending in a hard consonant: Type 1: aaa ‘all (inanimate nouns) Type 2: wan ‘captain’ (animate nouns) Type 3: map ‘park’ (nouns in fsx) Type 4: pmox ‘market’ (nouns in -ox/-ex/-ée) Type S: woméu ‘end’, nimeu dance" (nouns in -) Type 6: wea ‘knife’ (nouns in --¥, -, -m)