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Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED PREP GA What You Really Need to Know to Pass the LEED Green Associate Exam Holly Williams Leppo, AIA, LEED AP a TW wirgpiapessconr Professional Publications, Inc. * Belmont, California How to Locate and Report Errata for This Book ALPPI, we do our best to bring you error-free books. But when errors do occur, we want to make sure you can view corrections and report any potential errors you find, so the exrors cause as little confusion as possible. A current list of known errata and other updates for this book is available on the PP1 website at www.ppi2pass.com/errata. We update the errata page as often as necessary, $0 check in regularly. You will also {ind instructions for submitting suspected errata, We are grateful to every reader who takes the titme to help us improve the quality of our books by pointing out an error. LEEDS and USGBCO are registered trademarks of the US. Green Building Council, PPI isnot affliated with the US. Green Building Coune!l (USGBC) or the Green Building Certification Institute (GECD, and does no: administer the LEED AP program br LEED Green Bulding Rating System. PPI does no: claim any endorsement o recommendation of its products of services by [USGBC oF GBCL Energy Star® (ENERGY STAR®) is «registered tradernak of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Also available for the LEED exams at www ppi2pass.com/LEED: LEED GA Practice Exams: Green Associate LEED GA Flashcards: Green Associate LEED Prep O&M: What You Really Need to Know to Pass the LEED AP Operations & Maintenance Exam LEED O&M Practice Exam: Operations & Maintenance LEED O&M Flashcards: Operations & Maintenance LEED PREP GA: WHAT YOU REALLY NEED TO KNOW TO. PASS THE LEED GREEN ASSOCIATE EXAM (Current printing ofthis edition: 1 Printing History edition printing number number update T T New book. Copyright © 2009 by Professional Publications, Inc. (PPD. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may. be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Printed in the United States of America PPL 1250 Fifth Avenue, Belmont, CA 94002 (650) 593-9119 www ppi2pass.com ISBN: 978-1-59126-178.0 Table of Contents Preface and Acknowledgments How to Use This Book Introduction USGBC and GBCL LEED Accredited Professional Credentials LEED Green Associate LEED AP with Specialty LEED AP Fellow ‘What If Am Already 2 LEED AP? Preparing for the LEED Green Associate Exam. Primary References ‘Ancillary References Applying for the LEED Green Associate Exam Tips for Taking the LEED Green Associate Exam Using GBCI and USGBC Logos and ‘Trademarks Logos ‘Trademarks. An Overview of LEED Different Reting Systems lor Dillerent Project Types Green Building Design & Construction Green Interior Design & Construction Green Building Operations & Maintenance Green Home Design &© Construction PPL wwwppizpass.com vil LEED Prep GA Green Neighborhood Planning & Development. ‘The LEED Reference Guides. iow Are the Rating Systems Developed? ‘Whats New in LEED? Aligning and Harmonizing Prerequisites and Credits ‘Tansparent Weighting of Credits by Environmenta/Hurnan Impact Regionalization Minimum Program Requirements. ‘The LEED 2009 Rating Systems Innovation Credits LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations: LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors LEED 2009 for Core & Shell Development. LEED 2009 for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance LEED 2009 for Schools LEED 2009 Application and Certification Process Step 1: Registration. Step 2: Use Project Checklists to Develop a Preliminary List of Credits to Pursue Step 3: Identify Design Phase and Construction Phase Credits Step 4: Design Process Step 5: Construction Phase. Step 6: Complete the Certification Application. Step 7: Review and Appeals Process Step 8: Cerifcation LEED for Homes (Credit Categories and Certification Levels ‘The Certification Process 1m Pilot for 2009: LEED for Neighborhood Development LEED in Practice: Credit Synergies and the Cost of Building Green. Credit Synergies and Trade-Ofls Using Integrated Building Design Cost/Benefit Analysis Simple Payback Analysis Standardized Payback Equations Life-Cycle Cost Analysis, Selecting the “Best” Alternatives Weighing Societal Impacts PPL + wworppizpass.com 7 7 7 19 19 20 2 2B 25 25 26 %6 7 28 31 32 2 3 33 36 36 37 7 38 39 40 a 43 44 47 7 49 LEED Project and Team Coordination: Pre-Design What Is Green Building? Green Projects and Teates. Design-Bid-Build Design-Build Integrated Project Delivery ‘Whole-Building Design “The Pre-Design Phase Evaluate the Building’ Purpose and Set Project Goals, Set the Project Budget and Schedule Define the Property Boundary and LEED Project Boundary Review Applicable Building Codes and Standards, Select the Project Team and Assign Responstbilties Lay the Foundation for Building Commissioning Activities Consider Durablity Planning and Mangement Evaluate Opporunities for Innovative and Regional Design Green Building Basics: Design ‘The Design Phase Sustainable Sies: sues and Approaches “Analyzing the Siteb Relationship to Community Resources. Considering Local Zoning Requirements Determining Ifthe Project Involves Rehabilitation or In-Fill vs, Undeveloped Site Building Configuration and Placement Designing to Minimize Impact to Site Heat Island Effect Parkingand Pavement Exterior Water Management Woter Efficiency: Issues and Approde! (Outdoor Water Efficiency. Indoor Water Efficiency Energy and Armosphere: Issues and Approaches ‘The Building Envelope Climate Considerations Insulation Fenestration Foundations Framing and Wall Systeras Rooks TPL + worwppizpass.com 51 51 2 2 53 3 59 60 a 6 6 3 63 65 66 Table of Contents LEED Prep GA ‘Thermal Efficiency “Moisture Buildup within the Envelope Sources of Electricity Heating and Cooling Systems Lighting ‘Water Heating Refrigerant Management ‘Materials and Resources: Issues and Approaches Materials Indoor Environmental Quality: Issues and Approaches Ventilation Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Contaminants in Building Materials Pollutants Occupant Control of Lighting and Temperacure ‘Access to Natural Light and Views Putting It All Together: Construction, Operations, and Maintenance The Construction Phase Construction Waste Management, Operations and Maintenance Bullding Commissioning Measuring Performance Referenced Standards, . ANSE ASHRAE ASTM US. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) US. Department of Energy (DOE) Ecologo Energy Star Environmental Protection Agency (FPA) Green Seal (Other Referenced Standands and Resources ‘Terminology List of Abbreviations, Glossary Resources Online Resources Review Questions Index PPL + wwnippizpass.com 87 88 99) 90 or 101 102 102 102 lot lot 104 105 105 105 105 107 107 109 no 2 m2 us us us us. iL 12 13 at 4 Bs 126 aL BL 136 161 161 163 ler Preface and Acknowledgments This book is designed to help you prepare to demonstrate your knowledge of LEED and of gzeen building practices and principles on the LEED Green Associate exam. It will provide you with an introduction to LEED, to methods of sustainable project delivery, and to green ‘building principles, and familiarize you with the myriad terms, referenced standards, and credits and prerequisites that make up the LEED rating systems, It will also introduce you to the reference materials (listed in the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook) that you need to be fanniliar with for the exam. Many people have contributed to this book. Editorial director Sarah Hubbard and project editor Courtee Crystal of PPI spearheaded the publication of this work on PPIS end, devel- oping the original concept, Reeping me informed of USGBCS and GBCIS announcements as they were released, helping to sort through the new ratings systems, and keeping the project, organized as we raced to get this book into print in time for the first LEED Green Associate exam candidates to use it a5 a resource. | was so pleased to have the opportunity to work with project editor Scott Marley again: this is our sixth collaboration, as he also edited all the PPI books for the ARE exam that I have writ- ten or contributed to. His clean style and attention to detail makes my job as author so much easier. Thanks as well to Amy Schwertman, who designed the cover and layout of the book, to Tom Bergstrom, who rendered the illustrations, and to production ditector Cathy Schrott, who kept everything moving ahead at top speed. Much of this book’ content has been adapted and updated from LEED Prep: What You Really Need to Know to Pass the LEED NC v2.2 and CI v2.0 Exams, originally developed by the same team at PPI. Bead Seeger, LEED AP, and I served as contributing editors for that book, and | am very appreciative of his work in strengthening and refining it. The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program and online Building Toolbox were the basis for much of the material in a section of the earlier book, which in cur has been adapted in the Green Building Basics chapter in this book. My thanks go to my colleagues at SMBER, Inc., who afforded me the flexibility to work on this project and meet a highly accelerated production schedulle, and to my husband Shawn and our boys for their support, patience, and encouragement. Holly Williams Leppo, AIA, LEED AP PPL» wwweppldpass com How to Use This Book This book, LEED Prep GA: What You Really Need to Know to Pass the LEED Green Associate Exam, is written to be easy to tead and easy to look things up in You can read and study it from the beginning, in chapter order, because each new subject builds on earlier subjects, And it is thoroughly indexed to help you locate specific subject areas and pieces of information quickly Here is a suggested four-week reading and study schedule for this book. After studying each chapter, sce how well you can. answer the corresponding review questions, which can be found in the back of this book. If you have difficulty answering question, check the page umber given for that question and review that part of the chapter. week | book chapters main subject areas [review | (in specifications) _| questions 1 | Introduction aa 15 ‘An Overview of LEED I 637 LEED in Practice: Credit Synergies andthe {1 38-40 Cost af Building Green 7 2 | LEED Project and Team Coordination: WV 41-56 Pre-Design Green Building Basics: Design (pp. 67-75)__{ Tl 57-61 3 | Green Building Basics: Design (pp. 75-76) L 62-68 Green Building Basics: Design (pp. 76-102)__|1V E 69-80 | Green Building Basics: Design (pp. 102-105) |v 81-84 Putting It All Together: Construction, vit 85-80 Operations, and Maintenance ____| Referenced Standards 1 90-100 PL + wwwppi2pesscom LEED Prep GA PPIs LEED GA Flashcards: Green Associate can help you speed up the process of absorbing and assimilating the material. Then, a week or two before the actual exam, prepare yourself for the experience of recalling the information under time pressure with PPIs LEED GA Practice Exams: Green Associate. A list of subject ateas covered by the LEED Green Associate exam is given in the “Specifica- tions” section of the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook. The following is a guide to where in this book you can find each of the subjects listed in the specifications, 1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process Most of the subject areas in this category are covered in the chapters An Overview of LEED 2009 and LEED in Practice: Credit Synergies and the Cost of Building Green Look for information about standards that are referenced in LEED credits in the chapter Refer enced Standards. The difference between the property boundary and the LEED project bound ary is described in the chapter on LEED Project and Team Coordination: Pre-Design. Il. Project Site Factors ‘The subject areas in this eategory are covered in the chapter Green Building Basics: Design, in the section on “Sustainable Sites: Issues and Approaches. IIL, Water Management ‘The subject areas in this category are covered in the chapter Green Building Basics: Design, in the section on “Water Efficiency: Issues and Approaches.” IV. Project Systems and Energy Impacts The subject areas in this category are covered in the chapter Green Building Basics: Design, in the section on “Energy and Atmosphere; Issues and Approaches.” \V. Acquisition, Installation, and Management of Project Materials Information on recycled and locally harvested and manufactured materials is covered in the chapter Green Building Basics: Design, in the section on “Materials and Resources: Issues and “Approaches.” Information on construction waste management is covered in the chapter Putting t All Together Construction, Operations, and Maintenance, in the section on “The Construction Phase.” VI Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation ‘The subject areas in this category are covered in the chapter LEED Project and Team Coordina- tion; Pre-Design. VII. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach Information on codes is covered in the chapters LEED Project and Team Coordination: Pre- Design and Green Building Basics: Design, organized according to the subject area of the codes. PPL + wwwppidpass.corn Introduction LEED Prep GA: Whatt You Really Need to Know to Pass the LEED Green Associate Exam is designed to prepare you for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Associ- ate exam administered by the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCD. The LEED Green ‘Associate exam isa broad-based exam that assesses your knowledge of general green building ptinciples and your ability to implement the most recent versions of the LEED Green Building Rating System™ created and maintained by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC, This book is organized to help you understand the LEED rating systems and give you an over view of green building design that will help you prepare for the Green Associate exam, + This Introduction contains information about the LEED Accredited Professional (AP) credentialing program, the relationship between USGBC and GBCI, how to regis- ter for the test, and how the test is administered, along with suggestions for exam preparation and materials. The references given in the Candidate Handbook that should be studied for the exam are introduced in this chapter. Also included is a short guide to the use of GRCI and USGBC logos and trademarks. + An Overview of LEED describes the appropriate uses of the various rating systems, the changes introduced with LEED 2009, the nuts and bolts of the LEED registra~ tion and certification process, and the minimum requirements that all LEED-certi- fied projects must meet. LEED in Practice: Credit Synergies and the Cost of Building Green discusses project cost analysis, a critical first step in deciding which credits are appropriate and econorni- cal to pursue. LEED Project and Team Coordination: Pre-Design suggests ways to organize a project team to facilitate interaction and cooperation and take advantage of the synergistic opportunities presented by LEED credits. This chapter also covers the steps that should be taken in the pre-design phase of a green building project. Green Building Basics: Design presents critical information about the design phase and provides information on common green building strategies. Putting It All Together: Construction, Operations, and Maintenance covers the construc tion phase and the operations and maintenance phase in a green building project PPL + wormeppi2pass.com LEED Prep GA «+ Referenced Standards lists and summarizes the principal standards, external docu- ‘ments, and other information referenced in the rating systems. This collection of information makes up the “tool kit” for technical analysis of the strategies applied to a LEED project and provides a benchmark against which the project can be evalu- ated. Terminology contains a glossary of terms and a list of acronyms with which you should be familiar + Resources contains pointers to additional online resources and a list of 100 open- ended and short-answer review questions to help you study the material, USGBC and GBCI ‘The LEED Green Building Rating System is a product of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), a nonprofit organization committed to encouraging sustainable building practices that lead to environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work. Since 1993, USGBC has encouraged such practices through the establishment, continued development, and promotion of the LEED Green Building Rating System and through educa- tion and training efforts. Members of USGBC include architects, engineers, developers, own- ers, contractors and subcontractors, product representatives and manufacturers, and public and private groups committed to sustalnability. In its document Foundations of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Environmental ating System: A Tool for Market Transformation, USGBC defines LEED as * the most extensive, authoritative, and well-recognized certification standard that distinguishes green buildings by their design, construction, and operation * a design guideline to move building construction and operation toward sustai ability + an integrated training program in green building design to encourage best practice and provide support to the entire real estate industry Although other rating systems have been introduced into the marketplace to measure and evaluate green buildings, LEED is the most popular and well-established assessment tool in use in the United States, and is used by both public and private entities. In the U.S. govern- ‘ment, LEED is used at the Genetal Services Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Departments of State, Energy, Agriculture, Health and Human Services, and Interior to encourage and evaluate green building design and construction for all new and ‘major renovation projects. LEED is also used in construction projects of the Navy, Army, and Air Force, Most states requite new state-funded projects to achieve a minimum level of LEED certification, and increasing numbers of local governments, higher education institutions, and public schools are encouraging or requiring their new facilities and major renovations to be LEED certified. Many corporations are also choosing LEED certification for their facilities when construction of green buildings supports their corporate mission. As LEED has grown in scope and popularity, the number of project applications and the number of people interested in attaining LEED professional credentials have increased tre- mendously. New ways of dealing with the demand have had to be found. Many project teams have experienced delays in review of their project applications, cue in part to how much data ‘was being submitted to substantiate compliance with credit requirements. PPL + worw-ppi2passcom In addition, USGBCS system was notin accordance with Intemational Organization for Stan- dardization (ISO) recommendations for certification programs. ISO recommendations do not permit an accreditation or certification body to be subordinate to the organization that set the standards, which was the case at USGBC 2s long as the organization was both the author of the tating systems criteria and the arbiter for certification, ‘As part of the changes introduced with LEED 2009, USGBC addressed these issues by transferring accreditation and certification responsibilities to the Green Building Certfica- tion Institute (GBCI). GBCL is an independent, nonprofit organization now responsible for the administration of individuals’ LEED credentials and the certification of LEED projects. ‘To establish credibility in this new role, GBCI will be evaluated according to the American ‘National Standards Institute (ANSD accreditation process for personnel certification agencies complying with ISO Standard 17024. This break between the two organizations allows USGBC to be responsible for developing and publishing the requirements for LEED certification, while GBCI evaluates projects based on the rating systems and criteria developed by USGBC. USGBC and GBCI also expect this new structure to shorten the review period and allow projects to be certified more quickly after the final application materials have been submitted. Figure 1 Relationship between USGBC and GBCI act veo uiding || professional ontine |] cetifeation || credentialing Fetarenee ‘ules GBCI has two Toles. 1. Administering the LEED credentials. GBCI writes and evaluates examinations, eval- tuates applications for the exams, and manages exam registration, Prometric, a provider of testing services worldwide, is contracted by GBCI to administer the ‘examinations, In addition, GBCL maintains records of those who have earned the LEED Green Associate, LEED AP with spectalty, and LEED AP Fellow creden- tials, and keeps track of those professionals who earned the LEED AP designation before the new system wes introduced, GBCI also administers the Credentialing Maintenance Program. 2. Overseeing evaluation of project applications and determinations of LEED certification. GBCI coordinates the efforts of a tam of certification bodies who will be respon sible for evaluating applications for LEED certification. GBCI will contract with these independent testing and certification agencies who will manage the review of the data submitted. These agencies include PPL + swwppidpass com Introduction LEED Prep GA + ABS Quality Evaluations ‘+ BSI Management Systems America + Bureau Veritas North America + DNV Certification + DQS + Intertek + KEMA-Registered Quality * Lloyd’ Register Quality Assurance ‘+ NSF-Intemational Strategic Registrations + SRI Quality System Registrar + Underwriters Laboratories Final project certification will be awarded by GBCI, but the work of reviewing the applica- tions and making recommendations to GBCI regarding compliance with requirements will fall to the certification agencies, USGBC retains responsibility for + development of the LEED rating systems + publication of the LEED reference guides + educational programming, The educational programming developed and offered by USGBC will play a role in the new Credentialing Maintenance Program. Before the 2009 changes to the LEED AP exams, no con- Unuing education was required for maintaining the LEED AP credential. The rapid advances in green building technology and research make it essential to stay abreast of the newest developments; therefore, the LEED AP credentials now are linked to a credentialing mainte- nance program that will be administered by GBCL LEED Accredited Professional Credentials LEED Accredited Professional credentials are the standard for verifying an individual’ exper- tise in the principles of green building design, construction, and operation, The Green Associ- ate and LEED AP exams, along with the professional experience requirements, are desiged to allow you to demonstrate that you have the knowledge and skills necessary to participate in the design process, to support and encourage integrated design, and to streamline a project's LEED application and certification process, Exam questions test your understanding of green building practices and principles, and your familiarity with LEED requirements, resources, and processes. Questions are based on the LEED rating systems and their accompanying ref. erence guides, the LEED implementation process, the references and standards identified by GBCI, and other related materials. Before 2009, there was only one LEED credential: the LEED Accredited Professional, or LEED AP. Exam candidates could achieve this credential by one of three “tracks’—LEED for New Construction, LEED for Commercial Interiors, and LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance—each of which focused on the corresponding LEED rating system. No par- ticular education or experience with green building was required; anyone who studied one of the LEED rating systems, paid the fee, and passed the test could earn the credential. Some argued that the lack of prerequisites lessened the value of the credential PPI + www ppi2pas.com ‘The LEED AP program was completely overhauled in 2009 to align with LEED 2009. The program now includes three “tiers” of credentials. Each tier indicates the level of kmowledge, experience, and proficiency in green building design held by the Accredited Professional. These three tiers are + LEED Green Associate + LEED AP with specialty + LEED AP Fellow LEED Green Associate LEED Green Associate is the fundamental credential, and can be pursued by anyone who is employed in a field related to green building. There are no educational prerequisites for take ing the LEED Green Associate exam, but you must either have professional experience related to green building or be a student enrolled in coursework related to sustainable design, in which case you may take the exam without professional work experience. Knowledge of the LEED rating systems and other LEED resources is essential, and practi- cal experience with the LEED documentation process ancl with multidisciplinary integrated design is beneficial. This credential is available not only to design professionals—such as architects or engineets—but also to marketing professionals, attorneys, developers, realestate agents, owners, maintenance staf, specialty consultants, product or manufacturers’ represen tatives, lenders, contractors, and any others involved in the design, construction, or opera- tion of green buildings. ‘The LEED Green Associate exam is designed to test broad knowledge of sustainable design principles and hasic understanding of the LEED rating systems. You don't need in-depth lnowiedge of credits, specific requirements, or technologies. Rather, the exam will test your knowledge of what LEED is, the process through which a building becomes LEED certified. standard terminology, potential strategies for meeting sustainability goals, and how to be involved with and support other members of a LEED project tear. Questions may be drawn from any of the rating systems, from USGBC’ website (www.usgbc.org), and from the LEED reference guides, which are USGBC publications written to accompany and further explain the rating systems. The rating systems and the introductory chapters of recent versions of the reference guides are available online, current links to them can be found at www:ppidpass com/LEEDreferences. To apply for this exam, you must pay the registration fee plus the examination fee, The application form requires verification of your employment in an appropriate field of work, Your enroliment in a related educational prograst, or your involvement in support of LEED projects. You maust agree to abide by GBCIs disciplinary policy, and agree to the requirements for maintaining your credential. You must also consent to an audit of your application; GBCL states on its website that 5% to 7% of applications will be selected for auditing, You will have two hours to complete the exam, which is computer based and made up of 100 multiple-choice questions. These will be randomly chosen from a large stock of ques- tions, Each question has four or more options to choose from, In some cases, mote than one of the options is correct, and you must choose all the correct answers to receive credit for the question. The problem statement will give the number of correct options, and you will not be permitted to select more than that number. When you have suocessfilly completed the Green Associate exam, you will have earned your LEED Green Associate credential. To maintain the credential, every two years you will need PPL + woppidpass.com Introduction