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: ts cAeronautical Mobile Service shall not handle a radio teletype messages nF u F Phonetic alphabet assumed to be known;


VFR & IFR Communications 1

Acknowledge = Let me know that you have received and understood this message Afrm ative = Yes Negative = No // That is not correct // Permission not granted // Unable to comply Approved = Permission for proposed action granted Break = Separate portions of one message Break Break = Separate between messages to different aircraft Cancel = Annul the previously transmitted clearance Check = Examine a system or procedure Cleared = Authorization to proceed under specied conditions Recleared = A change has been made to your last clearance and this new clearance
supersedes your previous clearance or part thereof

Air-Ground Communication is a two-way communication between an aircraft and a station on the surface

Broadcast = General Call = All Stations... = Transmission of information not
addressed to specic aircraft => no response required unless individual station is asked to acknowledge Clearance limit: The point to which the aircraft is granted ATC clearance Conditional clearance: After the landing Learjet line up... Long nal: 4NM < x < 8NM NOTAM: Is issued when information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure, or hazard needs to be promulgated Visual Approach: An approach by an IFR ight when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed in visual reference to terrain Waypoint: Is a geographical location used in relation to RNAV systems

AFIS = Aerodrome Flight Information Service ATIS = Automatic Terminal Information Service = Provides
routine information to arriving and departing aircraft by means of continuous and repetitive broadcast AIS = Aeronautical Information Service ATC = Air Trafc Control CTR = Control Zone EAT = Expected Approach Time = Time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a delay will arrive at the holding point to complete its approach FIR = Flight Information Region = A portion of airspace where ight information and alerting service is provided FL = Flight Level = Surface of constant atmospheric pressure related to a datum of 1013.2hPa H24 = Continuous operations HJ = Daytime (SR-SS) HX = Opening Hours not specied IMC = Instrument Meteorological Conditions VMC = Visual ... INS = Intertial Navigation System MLS = Microwave Landing System PAPI = Precision approach Path Indicator VASIS = Glideslope indicator with lights at touchdown end of a RW RIS = Radar Information Service = Provides bearing, distance and if known the altitude of conicting trafc RNAV = ARea NAVigation RVR = Runway Visual Range = Reported in m at touchdown, midpoint and stop-end of a RW SAR = Search And Rescue SELCAL = SELective CALling of individual aircraft over radio channels linkinga ground station with the aircraft SSR = Secondary Surveillance Radar STAR = Standard Instrument Arrival UTC = Universal Time Coordinated

three thousand ve hundred 3,500 = 13,500 = one three thousand ve hundred QNH1001 = one zero zero one Headings always with three digits Frequencies ALWAYS with decimal Always six digits unless the last two are zero 120.375 = one two zero decimal three seven ve

Conrm = Have I correctly received the following Contact = Establish radio contact with... Contact [callsign/frequency] AT [place or time] - IF NO contact ... = Control transfer Correct /(Readback Correct) = Message has been repeated correctly. Correction = An error has been made, the correct version is... Disregard = Consider the last message as not sent Distress Trafc Ended = Terminate distress communication and silence conditions Go ahead = Proceed with your message. Go(ing) around = Perform(ing) missed approach How do you read = Asking for readability of a transmission Information Golf = ATIS information Golf received Monitor = Listen out on frequency Orbit r/l = 360 turns r/l Out / Over = NOT USED! PAN PAN MEDICAL = The following message concerns a protected medical transport
(pursuant to 1949 Geneva Convention) operated by aircraft assigned exclusively to medical transportation Readback ... = Repeat all or the specied par of this message back to me, eactly as received. Ready (for departure) = Prepared for T/O Report ... = Pass me the following information. Request ... = I should like to know // I wish to obtain information or approval for an action (e.g. backtrack) Roger = I have received all of your last transmission. Runway vacated = Indication that the aircraft is no longer occupying the active runway Vacate left = Turn left to leave the RW Say again = Repeat the entire message. I say again = I am repeating a word or a message for clarity / emphasis Speak slower = Reduce your rate of speech SQUAWK = Select code on the SSR transponder SQUAWK ident = Operate the IDENT button SQUAWK standby = Swith transponder to standby position [callsign] identied = Radar identication has been achieved Negative transponder = Aircraft not equipped with transponder Reset 1234 = Recyle 1234 = Reselect SSR code 1234 Standby = Wait and I will call you. Standby [frequency] for Tower = Listen on [frequency] on which tower will initiate further communications Unable = Received instruction cannot be carried out Verify = Check and conrm with originator Wilco = I understood your message and WILL COmply with it. Words twice = Communication difcult, send every word or group of words twice Takeoff: Only used to acknowledge or cancel T/O clearance Otherwise use departure or airborn Readback is mandatory


09:20 no confusion about hour possible: two zero 09:20 confusion about hour possible: zero nine two zero 04:15pm: one six one ve

Position Reports
VFR: Callsign; reported position; time of reported position; level or altitude; next position; ETA of next position Callsign, position and time cannot omitted IFR: Callsign, position and time cannot be omitted

Initial Call

Use full callsign or Prex + Flight # (Rushair 1234) Use sufx Heavy when > 136t in initial call to control tower and approach
control unit

Good microphone technique: Normal conversation tone Speak clearly and distinctly More effective communication: Keep speaking volume at constant level Before transmitting: Listen out on frequency to avoid interference with another station already transmitting If mic button gets stuck after a transmission: Frequency cannot be used by others


AC may use abbreviated callsign after ground station used abbreviation XY-ABC = XBC (last 2) / XABC (last 3) Fastair2345 cannot be abbreviated

Stopping = Abandonging the T/O manoeuvre

VFR & IFR Communications 2

Message Priority
Dened as: Aircraft threatened
by grave and imminent danger. Immediate assistance required! Message on frequency in use or 121.500MHz: Callsign of station addressed when known and circumstances permit Callsign (Type of Aircraft) Nature of distress Pilots intention Present (or last known) position Altitude/Level & Heading

SQUAWK When forming part of aerodrome trafc at controlled airport: keep watch for instructions passed by light signals! IFR Departure: Maintain level last assigned by ATC for 3 minutes (7 in Germany) and then climb in accordance with ight plan IFR Departure under Radar Vectors: Return to the route indicated in the current ight plan in the most direct manner In IMC: Proceed in accordance with the current ight plan to the designated navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome hold over this navigation aid until the expected approach time last received and acknowledged if no EAT received: commence descent over the designated nav aid at or as close to the ETA resulting from the current ight plan you have to land, if possible, within 30 after ETA or the last EAT, whichever is later. In VMC: Follow the radio communication failure procedures for IFR ight in IMC
Class: A 2 B 5 C 10

Radio Failure


Unlawful Interference





Compulsory RW in use Altimeter settings (QNH) SSR codes & operating instructions Level instructions; Climb/Descend + Altitude Heading and speed instructions; Turn + Heading T/O clearance ATC route clearance (unless authorized otherwise by ATS authority concerned) Any message when requested by ATC

Until Distress Trafc Ended


Dened as: Condition

concerning safety of AC or other vehicles or of a person on board. Immediate assistance IS NOT required. if you can assist / ensure assistance if required

Maintain listening watch to see

Message on frequency in use or 121.500MHz: Callsign of station addressed when known and circumstances permit Callsign Nature of distress Pilots intention Present (or last known) position Altitude/Level & Heading

Terminate readback with own callsign

Examples (own callsign = XBC)
ATC: Contact Munich Tower 118.6 RB: 118.6 XBC ATC: Cleared to change level from FL100 to FL80 RB: Leaving FL100 descending FL80 ATC: Hold short of [RW] RB: Holding short ATC: XBC climb straight ahead until 2500ft before turning right, wind 270 degrees 6 knots, cleared for T/O RB: Straight ahead, at 2500ft right turn, cleared for T/O, XBC ATC: Listen for ATIS on 123.45 RB: Monitoring 123.45 ATC: Climb FL280 RB: Climbing ight level two eight zero

Heading TO (no wind)


Direction Finding

Mag. True


= ATC messages:
(Of immediate concern to an aircraft in ight or preparing to depart)

Blind Transmission
If attempts to establish radio contact with a ground station fail: Pilot shall transmit messages preceeded by Transmitting Blind...


Flight Safety

T/O: Cleared for immediate T/O Route: [Callsign] after departure cleared to zone boundary via C. - Climb 2000ft QNH1010 - SQUAWK 1234 Should be passed prior Instructions to start when work loads are low, mistakes Turn left heading... are less likely to hapen taxi to RW05 <- same level as line up RW07 and wait and aircraft manoeuvering is not Requests taking place Request radar vectors to circumnavigate adverse weather

Two-way communication cannot be established Called station is believed to receive Should be made twice on frequency in use Aircraft station shall advise time of its next intended transmission
Other options: 1. Contact station on alternative frequency 2. Contact other AC or aeronautical station


Flight Regularity
Imprecise Message Unauthorized Message

Concerning servicing of aircraft Aircraft parts and required materials

Transponder Failure (IFR)

Before Flight: Obtain prior ATC permission In Flight: Inform competent ATC unit immediately; proceed
only with ATC permission

ATC: Climb 2500ft RB: Climbing two thousand ve hundred feet ATC: Report ight conditions RB: IMC OR VMC

Taxi to RW05 Call me a taxi cab

VFR & IFR Communications 3

Clouds Weather
METAR Visibility is in m < 5000m < Visibility is in km Can be obtained in ight by VOLMET CAVOK Visibility 10km No Clouds below 5000ft GND or MSA,
whichever greater Few 1-2 Scattered 3-4 8 Broken 5-7 Overcast 8
es degre ts n i y t i o veloc nd kn Wind agnetic a m

Radio Check
In Flight: How do you read? On Ground: (<10s)
Munich Tower! XY-ABC ! Radio check ! [Aeronautical Station] ![Callsign] ! Radio check ! 118.800 [frequency]


5 =Perfectly! readable 4 =! readable 3 =! readable but with difculty 2 =! readable now and then 1= UN! readable

Callsign Sufx
& Station Name can be omitted when satisfactory communication has been established and it will not be confusing!

No CB, thunderstorms, precipitation No shallow fog / low drifting snow

ATIS Transmitted on discrete VHF frequency and/or
VOR freq

Trafc Information

SIGMET Issued when signicant weather phenomena

which may affect the safety of the aircraft is forecast for enroute operations

Surface Movement Control Clearance Delivery Aerodrome Control Service Approach Control Radar Departures Area Control Center (no radar) Flight Information Service Approach Control Radar Arrivals Approach Control (no radar service) Radar Service in General

= = = = = = = = =

Ground Delivery Tower Departure Control Information Arrival Approach Radar

1. Relative Bearing in clock term: 2. Distance: 3. Direction of ight and level of trafc: 4. Type and relative speed: 5. Relative movement:

Trafc, 1 oclock 10 miles Northwestbound, 1,000ft above, climbing Boeing 727 closing / prallel / opposite direction

Wavelength [m] =

Speed of Light 300,000,000m/s Frequency [Hz]

Electromagnetic Waves
ILS Locator 0,190 ADF / NDB 1.750

Consist of an oscillating eletric eld (E) and magnetic eld (H) perpendicular to each other.








ILS LOC 108.0 111.975 - Odd decimal 108.0 VOR 117.95 - Even decimal






High Alt. Radio Altimeter

centimetric MLS Low Alt. Radio Altimeter




Freedom from static interference


ILS Glide Path

962 DME 1213

9375 Airborne Weather Radar

Aeronautical Mobile Service Band

Frequency Separation: 25kHz - lower airspace 8.22kHz - upper airspace Propagation characteristics: practically straight line similar to light waves

Inuenced by level of aircraft & terrain elevations (=phenomena) Best reception at high level in vicinity of ground station (straight line) Super refraction sometimes extends range of VHF communication
FL350 FL100 FL50 85nm 120nm 234nm

Attenuation = weakening of the radiated waves with increasing distance from transmitter Cycle = complete series of values of a periodical process Frequency = number of cycles occurring in one second [Hz] Amplitude = Max deection in an oscillation Skip Distance = Range from transmitter to rst sky wave Skip Zone of HF transmission will increase with higher frequency and higher position of the reecting ionospheric layer Fading is found at night, due to the combination of the sky and ground waves

Q-Codes Braking...
... Action Unreliable: Wet snow & slush ... Coefcient: 20 = Poor ... Coefcient: 45 = Good
Gives vertical position QFE QNH Height
(above QFE reference datum)

On ground = 0 Aireld elevation