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The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission occur.
Thephysicallayerisresponsiblefortransmittingindividualbitsfromonenodetothe next.


Services provided by the Physical layer to the upper layers

The physical layer is concerned with the following: Physical characteristics of interfaces and media: The physical layer defines the characteristics of the interface between devices and the transmission media, including its type. Representation of the bits: the physical layer data consist of a stream of bits without any interpretation. To be transmitted, bits must be encoded into signals electrical or optical The physical layer defines electrical optical-. the type of encoding. Data rate: The physical layer defines the transmission rate, the number of bits sent each second.
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Services provided by the Physical layer to the upper layers

Line configuration: the physical layer is concerned with the connection of devices to the medium. Physical topology; here it defines how devices are connected to make a network e.g. mesh h or star topology Transmission Mode; it also defines the direction of transmission between two devices e.g. simplex, duplex, half duplex Synchronization of bit; the sender and receiver not only must use the same bit rate but also must be synchronized at the bit level;
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The data link layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility, to a reliable link and is responsible for node-to-node delivery. It makes the physical layer appear error free to the upper layer (network layer). Thedatalinklayerisresponsiblefortransmittingframes fromonenodetothenext.
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Services provided by the Data Link layer to the upper layers

Framing; the data link layer divides the stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames Physical addressing; if frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender and or the receiver of the frame Flow control; if the rate at which the data are absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate at which data are produced in the sender, the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to prevent this.
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Services provided by the Data Link layer to the upper layers

Error control; the data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. It also uses a mechanism to recognise duplicate frames. Error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end of the frame Access control; when two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at any given time


hop-to-hop delivery



The Network layer is responsible for the source The source-to-destination delivery of a packet possible across multiple networks. If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need If for a network layer. However, if the two systems are attached to different networks, there is often a need for the network layer to accomplish source-to-destination delivery.


Services provided by the Network Layer to the Upper layers

Thenetworklayerisresponsibleforthedeliveryofpacketsfromtheoriginal sourcetothefinaldestination.
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Services provided by the Network Layer to the Upper layers

Logical addressing. The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the addressing problem locally. The network layer adds a header to the packet coming from the upper layer, among other things, includes the logical address of the sender and receiver. Routing. When independent networks or links are connected together to create an internetwork (a network of networks) or a large network, the connecting devices (called routers or gateways) route or switch the packets to their final destination.



Sourcetodestinationdelivery destinationdelivery



The transport layer is responsible for process process-to-process delivery of the entire message. While the network layer oversees host host-to-destination delivery of individual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets. The transport layer ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the process-to-process level.
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Transport layer

Thetransportlayerisresponsiblefordeliveryofamessagefrom oneprocesstoanother.
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Services provided by the Transport Layer to the Upper layers

Port addressing: computers often run several processes (running programs) at the same time. Process Process-to-process delivery means delivery from a specific process on one computer to a specific process on the other. The transport layer header include a type of address called port address. The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer; the transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.



Services provided by the Transport Layer to the Upper layers

Segmentation and reassembly: a message is divided into transmittable segments, each having a sequence number. These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arrival at the destination. Connection control: The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection-oriented. A connectionless transport layer treats each oriented. segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine. A connection connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the packets. After all the data are transferred, the connection is terminated.
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Services provided by the Transport Layer to the Upper layers

Flow control: the transport layer performs end to end flow control Error control: the transport layer performs process to process error control rather than across a single link. The sending transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss, duplication). Error control is usually achieved through retransmission



The Transport layer contd: source to destination delivery



The transport layer contd




The session layer is the network dialog controller It was designed to establish, controller. maintain, and synchronize the interaction between communicating devices. Services provided to the upper layers: Dialog control; it allows two systems to enter into a dialog. It allows the communication between two processes to take place in either half duplex or full duplex. Synchronization; allows a process to add checkpoints, or synchronization points, to a data stream of data e.g. if a system is sending 2000 pages, it is advisable to insert checkpoints after every 100 pages to ensure that each 200mpage unit is received and acknowledged independently. Incase a crash happens during the transmission of page 523, the only pages that need to be resent will be from page 501 to 523
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The session layer




The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between the two systems. It was designed for data translation, encryption, decryption, and compression. Services provided to the upper layers: Translation; the processes (running programs) in two systems are usually exchanging information in the form of character streams, numbers e.t.c. the information must be changed to bit streams before being transmitted. Because different computers use different encoding systems the presentation layer is responsible for interoperability between these different encoding methods.



Services provided to the upper layers Encryption; encryption means that the sender transforms the original information into another form and sends the resulting message out over the network Compression; data compression reduces the number of bits contained in the information. Data compression becomes particularly important in the transmission of multimedia like video and audio




The application layer enables the user to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such electronic email, remote file access, WWW, and so on It provides the following services to the user Network virtual terminal; is a software version of a physical terminal, and it allows a user to log on to a remote host; to do so the application creates a software emulation of a terminal at the remote host. The users computer talks to the software terminal which in turn talks to the host, and vice vice-vicer File transfer, access and management ; the application allows a user to access files on a remote host (to make changes or read data), or retrieve flies on a remote computer to a local computer and to manage or control files on a remote computer. Mail services; the application provides the basis for mail forwarding and storage. Directory services; the application provides distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services




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Summary of the services provided by each layer



A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols Why OSI did not take over the world Bad timing Bad technology Bad implementations Bad politics




Most widely used interoperable network protocol architecture Specified and extensively used before OSI OSI was slow to take place in the market Funded by the US Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) for its packet switched network (ARPANET) DoD automatically created an e enormous market for TCP/IP Used by the Internet and WWW


TCP/IP Protocol Suite TCP/IP does not have an official layer structure But protocols imply one Application layer Transport (host to host) layer Internet layer Network access layer Physical layer Actually TCP/IP reference model has been built on its protocols That is why that reference model is only for TCP/IP protocol suite and this is why it is not so important to assign roles to each layer in TCP/IP; understanding TCP, IP and the application protocols would be enough





The network access layer is concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make a physical link to the network media. It includes the LAN and WAN technology details, and all the details contained in the OSI physical and data link layers.



INTERNET LAYER The purpose of the Internet layer is to send packets from a network node and have them arrive at the destination node independent of the path taken.


TRANSPORT LAYER Five basic services: Segmenting upper-layer application data layer Establishing end-to-end operations end Sending segments from one end host to another end host Ensuring data reliability Providing flow control


Transport Layer



APPLICATION LAYER Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and level dialog control. The TCP/IP protocol suite combines all application related issues into one layer and ensures this data is properly packaged before passing it sures on to the next layer.


Similarities of the OSI and TCP/IP Models

Both have layers. Both have application layers, though they include very different services. Both have comparable transport and network layers layers. Packet-switched, not circuit-switched, technology is assumed switched, assumed. Networking professionals need to know both models models.



Differences of the OSI and TCP/IP Models

TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer into its application layer. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into one layer layer. TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers layers. TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets as the transport layer in the OSI model does does.



IP (INTERNET PROTOCOL) (group 1) The core of the TCP/IP protocol suite Two versions co-exist
v4 the widely used IP protocol v6 has been standardized in 1996, but still not widely deployed

IP (v4) header minimum 20 octets (160 bits)


TCP Transmission Control Protocol end to end protocol Reliable connection = provides flow and error control In TCP terms, a connection is a temporary association between entities in different systems emporary TCP PDU Called TCP segment Includes source and destination port Identify respective users (applications) pair of ports (together with the IP addresses) uniquely identify a connection; such an identification is necessary in order TCP to track segments between entities entities.


TCP Header


UDP User Datagram Protocol Alternative to TCP end-to-end protocol Not guaranteed delivery No preservation of sequence No protection against duplication Minimum overhead



Dest.Port Sequencenumber Checksum .

Dest.Address Sourceaddress .

Dest.NetworkAddress Priorityinfo 42

Summary of the functions of the layers of the TCP /IP model

Applicationprogramsusingthenetwork TransportLayer TransportLayer(TCP/UDP) Managementofendtoendmessagetransmission, endmessagetransmission, errordetectionanderrorcorrection Network Layer(IP) Layer Handlingofdatagrams:routingandcongestion DataLink DataLinkLayer
Managementofcosteffectiveandreliabledatadelivery, accesstophysicalnetworks

PhysicalLayer PhysicalMedia PhysicalMedia


A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model

Problems: Service, interface, and protocol not distinguished Not a general model Host-to-network layer not really a layer network No mention of physical and data link layers Minor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace



We shall look at the layer 3 protocols of the TCP/IP in a little more detail (TCP and UDP) We shall look at addressing We shall review chapter 2 and introduce chapter 3 Thanks