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Gerunds and Infinitives

The gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence. Eating too much fast food is not good for your health. Playing basketball is very fun. Use the gerund after a preposition. Im tired of doing the same thing over and over gain every day. They are excited about attending the meeting tomorrow. Im looking forward to hearing from you soon. Shes used to driving at night 3. Use the gerund after certain verbs: Like, love, enjoy, mind, practice, consider, avoid, deny, risk, finish, start, admit, keep on, dislike, cant help, feel like

To Infinitive
1. Use the infinitive after an adjective. I was surprised to see her at the party yesterday. They were anxious to meet with the president this weekend. Im glad to meet you. 2. Use the infinitive with certain nouns. I still have a little time to talk with you tonight. They have a lot of books to read for their reading class. He doesnt have permission to use the lab computers. 3. Use the infinitive to explain the purpose of an action. I came here (in order) to study English. Use It is *adjective+ to (infinitive) to make the infinitive the subject of a sentence. Its not good for your health to eat too much fast food. Its very fun to play basketball.

Verb *someone+ to (infinitive) He asked us to stay home. I want you to be the best student in class. She advised me not to take such a risk.

beg cause challenge convince encourage expect forbid force hire instruct invite need order persuade remind require teach tell

They begged her to stay for another term. His findings caused him to investigate further. Wilkins challenged Watson to continue the research. Can we convince them to fund our study? She encouraged him to look beyond the obvious. They did not expect us to win an award. The author forbade me to change his wording. They cannot force her to reveal her sources. Did the department hire him to teach the new course? I will instruct her to prepare a handout. We invite you to attend the ceremony. They need her to show the slides. He ordered the group to leave the building. Can we persuade you to contribute again? Please remind him to check the references. They will require you to submit an outline. We should teach them to follow standard procedures. Did she tell him to make three copies?

Bare Infinitive
1. The infinitive is used without to after certain verbs like let, make, see, hear, need, dare etc.

Let him sit there. (NOT Let him to sit there.) She made me cry. (NOT She made me to cry.)

I heard him sing a lovely song. (NOT I heard him to sing a lovely song.) 2. The bare infinitive is also used after the verbs will, would, shall, should, may, might, can, could and must. I will wait. (NOT I will to wait.) You must obey my instructions. (NOT You must to obey my instructions.) He can speak five languages. (NOT He can to speak five languages.) You should come to school in time. (NOT You should to come to school in time.) 3. The infinitive is also used without to after had better, would rather, sooner than and rather than. You had better ask his permission. (NOT You had better to ask his permission.)

I would rather die than surrender. (NOT I would rather to diethan surrender.) He would rather play than work.