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CONCEPT OF WIRELESS ELECTRICITY WITRICITY

A SEMINAR REPORT Submitted by

NAVEEN GUPTA
ROLL NO: 0935331029 in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

APOLLO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KANPUR

GAUTAMA BUDDHA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW


DATE OF SUBMISSION: MARCH,2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report CONCEPT OF WIRELESS ELECTRICITY- WITRICITY is the bonafide work of NAVEEN KUMAR GUPTA B.TECH-3rd year Electronics and Communication Engineering who carried out the project work under my supervision, and I express my delight on it successful completion. I wish his success in all his future endeavors.

RISHISH MISHRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPTT. APOLLO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ,KANPUR

PREFACE:WITRICITY is nothing but Wireless Electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is said to be Wireless electricity or WITRICITY. Witricitys wireless power transfer technology can be applied in a wide variety of applications and environments. The ability of this technology is to transfer power safely, efficiently, and over distance can improve products by making them more convenient, reliable, and environmentally friendly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SR NO. I II TITLE BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE PREFACE PAGE NO. 2 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF WIRELESS POWER LITERATURE SURVEY WHAT ACTUALLY WITRICITY IS PRINCIPLE BEHIND WITRICITY BRAIN BEHIND WITRICITY PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION MITS EXPERIMENT UNIQUENESS OF THE EXPERIMENT FIGURE REPRESENTING WITRICITY HOW SAFE IS WITRICITY FEATURES AND BENEFIT OF WITRICITY FUTURE AND SCOPES OF WITRICITY ADVANTAGE AND APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

5-6 7-8 9 10-14 15-17 18 19 19-20 21-22 23 24 25-26 27 28-34 35-36 37

1. ABSTRACT
We cannot imagine the world without electric power. Generally the power is transmitted through wires. This report describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involve lot of confusion in particularly organizing them. Imagine a future in which wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones, household robots, mp3 players, laptop computers and other portable electronics capable of charging themselves without ever being plugged in, freeing us from that final, ubiquitous power wire. Some of these devices might not even need their bulky batteries to operate. This paper includes the techniques of transmitting power without using wires with an efficiency of about 95% with non-radiative methods. Due to which it does not effect the environment surrounding. These techniques includes resonating inductive coupling in sustainable moderate range. The coupling consists of an inductor along with a capacitor with its own resonating frequency. In any system of coupled resonators there often exists a so-called strongly coupled regime of operation. If one ensures to operate in that regime in a given system, the energy transfer can be very efficient . Another technique includes transfer of power through microwaves using rectennas.This is particularly suitable for long range distances ranging kilometers. With this we can avoid the confusion and danger of having long, hazardous and tangled wiring. The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as Witricity. Wireless spower transmission is not a new idea; Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as Witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrated the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts.

As witricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency. Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). Another application of WPT is moving targets such as fuel free airplanes, fuel free electric vehicles, moving robots and fuel free rockets.

2. INTRODUCTION
One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases day by day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increased. The major amount of power loss occurs during transmission and distribution. The percentage of loss of power during transmission and distribution is approximated as 26%. The main reason for power loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for grid. The efficiency of power transmission can be improved to certain level by using high strength composite over head conductors and underground cables that use high temperature super conductor. But, the transmission is still inefficient. According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), Indias electricity grid has the highest transmission and distribution losses in the world a whopping 27%. Numbers published by various Indian government agencies put that number at 30%, 40% and greater than 40%. This is attributed to technical losses (grids inefficiencies) and theft. Any problem can be solved by stateof-the-art technology. The above discussed problem can be solved by choose an alternative option for power transmission which could provide much higher efficiency, low transmission cost and avoid power theft. Microwave Power Transmission is one of the promising technologies and may be the righteous alternative for efficient power transmission. At present the power can be transmitted from one place to another place through the wire connection only. In future without wire connection the electrical home appliances such as light, fan, TV, Fridge may works in our homes. This miracle will be happened with wireless current. Recently the Sony Company has developed this technology. The name of this new technology is PROTO TYPE POWER SYSTEM So far we have seen the wireless data transferring. Through this technology the information available in one mobile phone can transmitted to another mobile without any wire connection. This kind transmission is made possible with Bluetooth technology. Due to blue tooth technology the information is transferring very conveniently from one electronic

device to another electronic device. Now-a-days this method of transferring of information is become very common. In this process the two electronic devices should be kept in working mode only. To maintain the working mode status of electronic devices the power transmission is compulsory. This power is transmitted through one wire called as AC (alternative current) or transmitted through battery (direct current) DC. Any how the transmission of power is compulsory through alternative current or direct current, so as to keep the two electronic devices in working mode and then only the transmission of information from one electronic device to another electronic device is possible. If the same blue tooth technology can be used in the power transmission system. Then there is no necessity to keep the TV and fridge wires connections in current plugs. Without wire connections the TV and Fridge the electronics and electrical equipments will function in our homes. In the same manner all the electrical equipments, lights, fans, washing machine, Electrical iron box and Geyser etc., may works without wire connections only. As a matter of fact it is a magic and wonder. The electrical home wiring is not required. But all the electrical equipments available in home will start their function on your command. This kind of technology is reaching to the public in a very short period.

3. BACKGROUND OF WIRELESS POWER

In this remarkable discovery of the "True Wireless" and the principles upon which transmission and reception, even in the present day systems, are based, Dr. Nikola Tesla shows us that he is indeed the "Father of the Wireless." The most well-known and famous Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) was designed and constructed mainly for wireless transmission of electrical power, rather than telegraphy. The most popular concept known is Tesla Theory in which it was firmly believed that Wardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses. In spite of this he had made numerous experiments of high quality to validate his claim of possibility of wireless transmission of electricity . But this was an unfortunate incidence that people of that century was not in a position to recognize his splendid work otherwise today we may transmit electricity wirelessly and will convert our mother earth a wonderful adobe full of electricity. This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world. Tesla wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere. The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant.

The 187-foot Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) in 1903. This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world. Tesla wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere. The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant[1].

4. LITERATURE SURVEY OR TIMELINE OF WIRELESS POWER: 1820: Andr-Marie Ampre develops Amperes law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field. 1831: Michael Faraday develops Faradays law of induction describing the electromagnetic force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux. 1836: Nicholas Callan invents the electrical transformer. 1864: James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory and mathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation. 1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertzs "apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves" was a VHF or UHF "radio wave" spark gap transmitter. 1891: Tesla improves Hertz-wave wireless transmitter RF power supply or exciter in his patent No. 454,622, "System of Electric Lighting." 1893: Tesla demonstrates the wireless illumination of phosphorescent lamps of his design at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.[92] 1893: Tesla publicly demonstrates wireless power before a meeting of the National Electric Light Association in St. Louis.[26][93][94] 1894: Tesla lights incandescent lamps wirelessly at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York City by means of "electro-dynamic induction" or resonant inductive coupling.[95][96][97] 1894: Hutin & LeBlanc, espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible, they received U.S. Patent # 527,857 describing a system for power transmission at 3 kHz.[98] 1894: Jagdish Chandra Bose ignites gunpowder and rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, showing that communications signals can be sent without using wires.[99][100] 1896: Tesla demonstrates wireless transmission over a distance of about 48 kilometres (30 mi).[101] 1897: Tesla files his first patent application dealing specifically with wireless transmission

1899: Tesla continues his wireless power transmission research in Colorado Springs and writes, "the inferiority of the induction method would appear immense as compared with the disturbed charge of ground and air method."[102]

1902: Nikola Tesla vs. Reginald Fessenden - U.S. Patent Interference No. 21,701, System of Signaling (wireless); wireless power transmission, time and frequency domain spread spectrum telecommunications, electronic logic gates in general.[103]

1904: At the St. Louis World's Fair, a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0.1 horsepower (75 W) airship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of at least 100 feet (30 m).[104]

1916: Tesla states, "In my [disturbed charge of ground and air] system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is [electromagnetic] radiation, that energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved."[105]

1917: Tesla's Wardenclyffe tower is demolished. . . . 1926: Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publish their first paper on Uda's "tuned high-gain directional array"[33] better known as the Yagi antenna. 1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission.[106][107] 1964: Brown demonstrates on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a model helicopter that receives all of the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975, Brown is technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beams 30 kW over a distance of 1600 meters (1 mile) at 84% efficiency.[citation needed]

1968: Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transmitting solar energy captured in space using "Powerbeaming" technology.[108][109] This is usually recognized as the first description of a solar power satellite.

1971: Prof. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by induction at The University of Auckland, in New Zealand.[citation needed] 1973: The world's first passive RFID system is demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab.[110] 1975: Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts.[34][35][36] 1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand, develops an inverter using novel engineering materials

and power electronics and conclude that power transmission by means of electrodynamic induction should be achievable. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. Auckland Uniservices, the commercial company of The University of Auckland, patents the technology.[citation needed] 1989: Daifuku, a Japanese company, engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd. to develop technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles.[citation needed] 1990: Prof. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology.[citation needed] 1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using electrodynamic induction to charge (30-60 kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. Prof John Boys Team commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa, in New Zealand.[citation needed] 1998: RFID tags are powered by electrodynamic induction over a few feet. 1999: Dr. Herbert L. Becker powers a lamp and a hand held fan from a distance of 30 feet.[citation needed] 1999: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Mr. S.C. Tang of the City University of Hong Kong file a patent on "Coreless Printed-Circuit-Board (PCB) transformers and operating techniques", which form the basis for future planar charging surface with "vertical flux" leaving the planar surface. The circuit uses resonant circuits for wireless power transfer. EP(GB)0935263B 2000: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui invent a planar wireless charging pad using the "vertical flux" approach and resonant power transfer for charging portable consumer electronic products. A patent is filed on "Apparatus and method of an inductive battery charger, PCT Patent PCT/AU03/00 721, 2000. 2000: Based on the coreless PCB transformer developed by Prof. Ron Hui, Prof. B. Choi and his team at Kyungpook National University publish a paper on A new contactless battery charger for portable telecommunication/computing electronics, in Proc. ICCE00 Int. Conf. Consumer Electron., 2000, pp. 5859. The coreless PCB transformer is used to wirelessly charge a mobile phone. 2001 Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. S.C. Tang file a patent on "Planar PrintedCircuit-Board Transformers with Effective Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Shielding". The EM shield consists of a thin layer of ferrite and a thin layer of copper sheet. It enables the underneath of the future wireless charging pads to be shielded with a thin EM shield structure with thickness of typically 0.7mm or less. Patent: US6,501,364. 2001: Prof. Ron Hui's team demonstrate that the coreless PCB transformer can transmit power close to 100W in A low-profile low-power converter with coreless PCB isolation transformer, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume: 16 Issue: 3 , May 2001. A team of Philips Research Center Aachen, led by Dr. Eberhard Waffenschmidt, use it to power an 100W lighting device in their paper "Size advantage of coreless transformers in the MHz range" in the European Power Electronics Conference in Graz. 2001: Splashpower formed in the UK. Uses coupled resonant coils in a flat "pad" style to transfer tens of watts into a variety of consumer devices, including lamp, phone, PDA, iPod etc.[citation needed] 2002: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui extends the planar wireless charging pad concept using the vertical flux approach to incorporate free-positioning feature for multiple loads. This is achieved by using a multilayer planar winding array structure. Patent were granted as "Planar Inductive Battery Charger", GB2389720 and GB 2389767. 2004: Electrodynamic induction used by 90 percent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor, LCD and plasma screen manufacture.[citation needed] 2005: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. W.C. Ho of City University of Hong Kong publish their work in the IEEE Transactions on a planar wireless charging platform with free-positioning feature. The planar wireless charging pad is able to charge several loads simultaneously on a flat surface. 2005: Prof Boys' team at The University of Auckland, refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transmission of power to moving vehicles in the lab.
[citation needed]

2007: A localized charging technique is reported by Dr. Xun Liu and Prof. Ron Hui for the wireless charging pad with free-positioning feature. With the aid of the double-layer EM shields enclosing the transmitter and receiver coils, the localized charging selects the right transmitter coil so as to minimize flux leakage and human exposure to radiation.

2007: Using electro dynamic induction a physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic, at MIT, wirelessly power a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2 meters (6.6 ft) distance with two 60 cm-diameter coils.

2008: Bombardier offers a new wireless power transmission product PRIMOVE, a system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles. 2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran, at Brunel University makes a wireless lamp incorporating a high efficiency 3W LED. 2008: Intel reproduces Tesla's original 1894 implementation of electro dynamic induction and Prof. John Boys group's 1988 follow-up experiments by wirelessly powering a nearby light bulb with 75% efficiency.[113]

2008: Greg Leyh and Mike Kennan of the Nevada Lightning Laboratory publish a paper on Tesla's disturbed charge of ground and air method of wireless power transmission with circuit

simulations and test results showing an efficiency greater than can be obtained using the electro dynamic induction method.[114] 2009: A Consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announce they are nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power inductive charging

2009: Palm (now a division HP) launches the Palm Pre smart phone with the Palm Touchstone wireless charger. 2009: An Ex approved Torch and Charger aimed at the offshore market is introduced. This product is developed by Wireless Power & Communication, a Norway based company.

2009: A simple analytical electrical model of electro dynamic induction power transmission is proposed and applied to a wireless power transfer system for implantable devices.

2009: Laser motive uses diode laser to win $900k NASA prize in power beaming, breaking several world records in power and distance, by transmitting over a kilowatt more than several hundred meters.

2009: Sony shows a wireless electro dynamic-induction powered TV set, 60 W over 50 cm 2010: Haier Group debuts the world's first completely wireless LCD television at CES 2010 based on Prof. Marin Soljacic's follow-up research on Tesla's electro

dynamic induction wireless energy transmission method and the Wireless Home Digital Interface (WHDI).

5. WHAT ACTUALLY WITRICITY IS.


WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WITRICITY. WiTricity will ensure that the cellphones, laptops, iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own,eliminating the need of plugging them in. Even better, because of WiTricity some of the devices wont require batteries to operate. Understanding what WiTricity technology istransferring electric energy or power over distance without wiresis quite simple. Understanding how it works is a bit more involved, but it doesnt require an engineering degree. Well start with the basics of electricity and magnetism, and work our way up to the WiTricity technology.

Electricity: The flow of electrons (current) through a conductor (like a wire), or charges
through the atmosphere (like lightning). A convenient way for energy to get from one place to another!

Magnetism: A fundamental force of nature, which causes certain types of materials to


attract or repel each other. Permanent magnets, like the ones on your refrigerator and the earths magnetic field, are examples of objects having constant magnetic fields. Oscillating magnetic fields vary with time, and can be generated by alternating current (AC) flowing on a wire. The strength, direction, and extent of magnetic fields are often represented and visualized by drawings of the magnetic field lines.

Electromagnetism: A term for the interdependence of time-varying electric and


magnetic fields. For example, it turns out that an oscillating magnetic field produces an electric field and an oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field.

Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper, carrying an

alternating current (AC), is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a magnetic field. If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source, it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. A second conducting loop, brought close enough to the first, may capture some portion of that oscillating magnetic field, which in turn,

generates or induces an electric current in the second coil. The current generated in the second coil may be used to power devices. This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction. Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators.

Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means
of transferring energy to another object. One simple example is a locomotive pulling a train carthe mechanical coupling between the two enables the locomotive to pull the train, and overcome the forces of friction and inertia that keep the train stilland, the train moves. Magnetic coupling occurs when the magnetic field of one object

Resonance: Resonance is a property that exists in many different physical systems. It can

be thought of as the natural frequency at which energy can most efficiently be added to an oscillating system. A playground swing is an example of an oscillating system involving potential energy and kinetic energy. The child swings back and forth at a rate that is determined by the length of the swing. The child can make the swing go higher if she properly coordinates her arm and leg action with the motion of the swing. The swing is oscillating at its resonant frequency and the simple movements of the child efficiently transfer energy to the system. Another example of resonance is the way in which a singer can shatter a wine glass by singing a single loud, clear note. In this example, the wine glass is the resonant oscillating system. Sound waves traveling through the air are captured by the glass, and the sound energy is converted to mechanical vibrations of the glass itself. When the singer hits the note that matches the resonant frequency of the glass, the glass absorbs energy, begins vibrating, and can eventually even shatter. The resonant frequency of the glass depends on the size, shape, thickness of the glass, and how much wine is in it.

Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange
energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same.

WiTricity Technology: WiTricity power sources and capture devices are specially

designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic near-field. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves.

The WiTricity power source, left, is connected to AC power. The blue lines represent the magnetic near field induced by the power source. The yellow lines represent the flow of energy from the source to the WiTicity capture coil, which is shown powering a light bulb. Note that this diagram also shows how the magnetic field (blue lines) can wrap around a conductive obstacle between the power source and the capture device.

The blue lines represent the magnetic field that is created when current flows through a coil. When the current reverses direction, the magnetic field also reverses its direction.

As current I,is flowing it give rise to the magnetic field

An illustration representing the earth's magnetic field

An electric transformer is a device that uses magnetic induction .

Two idealized resonant magnetic coils, shown in yellow. The blue and red color bands illustrate their magnetic fields. The coupling of their respective magnetic fields is indicated by the connection of the colorbands.

6. What's the Principle behind Witricity?


Witricity - Wireless Electricity, these words are simpler said than done.The concept behind this fascinating term is a little complex. However, if you want to understand it, try and picture what I state in the next few lines. Consider two self resonating copper coils of same resonating frequency with a diameter 20 inches each. One copper wire is connected to the power source (Witricity transmitter), while the other copper wire is connected to the device (Witricity Receiver). The electric power from the power source causes the copper coil connected to it to start oscillating at a particular (MHz) frequency. connected to it to start oscillating at a Subsequently, the space around the copper coil gets filled with non- magnetic radiations. This generated magnetic field further transfers the power to the other copper coil connected to the receiver. Since this coil is also of the same frequency, it starts oscillating at the same frequency as the first coil. This is known as 'coupled resonance' and is the principle behind Witricity.

7. The Brain behind Witricity?


Prof. Marin Soljacic from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), is the one who has proved that magnetic coupled resonance can be utilized in order to transfer energy without wires. What's even more interesting is how he came about this idea. Soljacic, just like any of us was fed up of his 'low battery' beeping cellphone and wondered just like any of us if there was a way to get rid of this 'charging problem'. However, here is where the difference between Soljacic and any of us comes in. He didn't just stand there wondering, instead he tried to figure out if there existed any physical phenomenon which could be of some help. He remembered Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831) and used it to come up with WiTricity.

8. PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Electromagnetic Induction usually provides high power levels which can provide output of several watts (W) to several hundred KW. Large amounts of power can be transmitted by electromagnetic induction, but receiver must be located adjacent to the transmitter which means the terminal must have a battery. The effective range is probably 1cm or less. Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. Energy is transferred from a conductor that produces the fields (the primary) to any conductor on which the fields impinge (the secondary). Part of the energy of the primary conductor passes inductively across space into secondary conductor and the energy decreases rapidly along the primary conductor.

A high frequency current does not pass for long distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers its energy by induction to adjacent conductors. Higher induction resulting from the higher frequency is the explanation of the apparent difference in the propagation of high frequency disturbances from the propagation of the low frequency power of alternating current systems. The higher the frequency the more preponderant become the inductive effects that transfer energy from circuit to circuit across space. The more rapidly the energy decreases and the current dies out along the circuit, the more local is the phenomenon.

Representation of Electromagnetic Induction

9. MIT's Experiment:
In 2007, Marin Soljacic led a five member team of researchers at MIT (funded by Army Research Office, National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy) and experimentally demonstrated transfer of electricity without the use of wires. These researchers were able to light a 60W bulb from a source placed seven feet away, with absolutely no physical contact between the bulb and the power source. The first copper coil (24 inches in diameter) was connected to the made to resonate at a frequency of 10 MHz. The bulb glowed even when different objects (like a wooden panel) were placed between the two coils. The system worked with 40% efficiency and the power that wasn't utilized remained in the vicinity of the transmitter itself, and did not radiate to the surrounding environment.

9. What's so Unique about Soljacic's experiment?


What Soljacic's team has done is that they have specifically tuned the transmitting unit to the receiving device. The transmission is also not hindered by the presence of any object in the line of sight. If the object to be charged is in the vicinity of the WiTricity source, then the energy transfer will undoubtedly take place. In this 'coupling resonance' system, the electric energy that is not used up by the receiver does not get radiated into the surrounding environment, but remains in the vicinity of the transmitter. This ensures safety as well as minimal wastage of power. One of the five researchers, Dr. Aristeidis Karalis says that their coupling resonance system is one million times more efficient as compared to that of Nikola Tesla.

10. FIGURE REPRESENTING THE WITRICITY

11. How Safe is WiTricity?

Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter and receiver do not hinder the transmission of power. However, does magnetic coupling or resonance coupling have any harmful effects on humans? MIT's researchers are quite confident that WiTricity's 'coupling resonance' is safe for humans. They say that the magnetic fields tend to interact very weakly with the biological tissues of the body, and so are not prone to cause any damage to any living beings.
Non-Radiative Energy Transfer is Safe for People and Animals

WiTricitys technology is a non-radiative mode of energy transfer, relying instead on the magnetic near field. Magnetic fields interact very weakly with biological organismspeople and animalsand are scientifically regarded to be safe. Professor Sir John Pendry of Imperial College London, a world renowned physicist, explains: The body really responds strongly to electric fields, which is why you can cook a chicken in a microwave. But it doesn't respond to magnetic fields. As far as we know the body has almost zero response to magnetic fields in terms of the amount of power it absorbs." Evidence of the safety of magnetic fields is illustrated by the widespread acceptance and safety of household magnetic induction cooktops. Through proprietary design of the WiTricity source, electric fields are almost completely contained within the source. This design results in levels of electric and magnetic fields which fall well within regulatory guidelines. Thus WiTricity technology doesnt give rise to radio frequency emissions that interfere with other electronic devices, and is not a source of electric and magnetic field levels that pose a risk to people or animals. Limits for human exposure to magnetic fields are set by regulatory bodies such as the FCC, ICNIRP, and are based on broad scientific and medical consensus. WiTricity technology is being developed to be fully compliant with applicable regulations regarding magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation.

12. FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY


Highly Resonant Strong Coupling Provides High Efficiency Over Distance WiTricity's mode of wireless power transfer is highly efficient over distances ranging from centimeters to several meters. We define efficiency as the amount of usable electrical energy that is available to the device being powered, divided by the amount of energy that is drawn by the WiTricity source. In many applications, efficiency can exceed 90%. And WiTricity sources only transfer energy when it is needed. When a WiTricity powered device no longer needs to capture additional energy, the WiTricity power source will automatically reduce its power consumption to a power saving idle state. Contact WiTricity to learn the efficiency and distance ranges that can be achieved in your applications. Energy Transfer via Magnetic Near Field Can Penetrate and Wrap Around Obstacles The magnetic near field has several properties that make it an excellent means of transferring energy in a typical consumer, commercial, or industrial environment. Most common building and furnishing materials, such as wood, gypsum wall board, plastics, textiles, glass, brick, and concrete are essentially transparent to magnetic fields enabling WiTricity technology to efficiently transfer power through them. In addition, the magnetic near field has the ability to wrap around many metallic obstacles that might otherwise block the magnetic fields. WiTricitys applications engineering team will work with you to address the materials and environmental factors that may influence wireless energy transfer in your application. Scalable Design Enables Solutions from milliwatts to Kilowatts WiTricity systems can be designed to handle a broad range of power levels. The benefits of highly efficient energy transfer over distance can be achieved at power levels ranging from milliwatts to several kilowatts. This enables WiTricity technology to be used in applications as diverse as powering a wireless mouse or keyboard (milliwatts) to recharging an electric

passenger vehicle (kilowatts). WiTricity technology operates in a load following mode, transferring only as much energy as the powered device requires.

Flexible Geometry Allows Witricity Devices to be Embedded into OEM Products Witricity technology is being designed so that it can be easily embedded into a wide variety of products and systems. The physics of resonant magnetic coupling enables WiTricity engineers to design power sources and devices of varying shapes and sizes, to match both the packaging requirements and the power transfer requirements in a given OEM application. WiTricity has designed power capture devices compact enough to fit into a cell phone.

13. FUTURE AND SCOPES OF WITRICITY


MIT's Witricity is only 40 to 45% efficient and according to Soljacic, they have to be twice as efficient to compete with the traditional chemical batteries. The team's next aim is to get a robotic vacuum or a laptop working, charging devices placed anywhere in the room and even robots on factory floors. The researchers are also currently working on the health issues related to this concept and have said that in another three to five years time, they will come up with a WiTricity system for commercial use. WiTricity, if successful will definitely change the way we live. Imagine cellphones, laptops, digital camera's getting self charged! Wow! Let's hope the researchers will be able to come up with the commercial system soon. Till then, we wait in anticipation!

The electronic revolution of the past century has been a tangled affair. Remember when phones were always wired into the wall? When the internet required one more cord from the back of your computer? Wireless is the future, which is all well and good for information transfer. But what about energy itself? New research is bringing energy transfer into the wireless world. Soon, a central hub could be charging your batteries, laptop, televisions, electric cars, you name it right through the air. You might never untangle a wire again. Cool, right? Wireless energy is built on the principle of resonant coupling. The devices use copper coils that, if tuned to the same frequency, can resonate with one another. One coil is plugged into the wall, and creates an electromagnetic field; another coil nearby resonates with the first field, picking up some energy in the process to fuel your electronics. The magnetic field lets energy flow regardless of obstacles in the way, so the current can travel through walls. Currently, the type of radiation involved can only resonate within a few meters. Over the past few years, a number of companies have been racing to put wireless energy on the market. Last week, researchers at Intel showcased a wirelessly charged iPod speaker. In 2007, researchers at MIT revealed a similar project that powered a lightbulb remotely. The

physicist and project leader Marin Soljacic (winner of a MacArthur genius grantFellowship) went on to found the start-up WiTricity, which is leading the pack in developing a commercially viable product.

Mobiles Phones and I-Pods are charging wirelessly.

14. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


14.1 Advantages
Wireless Power Transmission system would completely eliminates the existing high-tension power transmission line cables, towers and sub stations between the generating station and consumers and facilitates the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale. It has more freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitters. Even mobile transmitters and receivers can be chosen for the WPT system. The cost of transmission and distribution become less and the cost of electrical energy for the consumer also would be reduced. The power could be transmitted to the places where the wired transmission is not possible. Loss of transmission is negligible level in the Wireless Power Transmission; therefore, the efficiency of this method is very much higher than the wired transmission. Power is available at the rectenna as long as the WPT is operating. The power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables would never exist in the transmission and power theft would be not possible at all. 1. Eliminates the use of power transmission lines, cables and substations, thus reducing the cost of electrical energy. 2. More freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitter. 3. Power can be transferred to the places where wired transmission is not possible.

4. Low transmission loss, thus increasing the efficiency. 5. To make the recharge of electronic devices more convenient for consumer especially for the elderly and the disabled

6. To reduce the Faults because of Short Circuit of wires and cables

Advantage of SPS :The idea collecting solar energy in space and returning it to earth using microwave beam has many attractions. 1. The full solar irradiation would be available at all times expect when the sun is eclipsed by the earth . Thus about five times energy could be collected, compared with the best terrestrial sites 2. The power could be directed to any point on the earths surface. 3. The zero gravity and high vacuum condition in space would allow much lighter, low maintenance structures and collectors. 4. The power density would be uninterrupted by darkness, clouds, orprecipitation, which are the problems encountered with earth based solar arrays. 5. The realization of the SPS concept holds great promises for solving energy crisis 6. No moving parts. 7. No fuel required. 8. No waste product.

Disadvantage:The Capital Cost for practical implementation of WPT seems to be very high and the other disadvantage of the concept is interference of microwave with present communication systems. Disadvantage of SPS:The concept of generating electricity from solar energy in the space itself has its inherent disadvantages also. Some of the major disadvantages are: 1. The main draw back of solar energy transfer from orbit is the storage of electricity during off peak demand hours.

2.The frequency of beamed radiation is planned to be at 2.45 GHz and this frequency is used by communication satellites also. 3.The entire structure is massive. 4.High cost and require much time for construction. 5. Radiation hazards associated with the system. 6. Risks involved with malfunction. 7. High power microwave source and high gain antenna can be used to deliver an intense burst of energy to a target and thus used as a weapon.

14.2 Biological Impacts


Common beliefs fear the effect of microwave radiation. But the studies in this domain repeatedly proves that the microwave radiation level would be never higher than the dose received while opening the microwave oven door, meaning it is slightly higher than the emissions created by cellular telephones. Cellular telephones operate with power densities at or below the ANSI/IEEE exposure standards. Thus public exposure to WPT fields would also be below existing safety guidelines.

14.3 Applications Of WPT


Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of WPT. Another application of WPT is moving targets such as fuel free airplanes, fuel free electric vehicles, moving robots and fuel free rockets. The other applications of WPT are Ubiquitous Power Source (or) Wireless Power Source, Wireless sensors and RF Power Adaptive Rectifying Circuits (PARC). One application is the MPT for moving target, e.g., a fuel-free airplane, a fuel-free electric vehicle (EV), and moving robot in a limited area. In the late 1980's, a program to develop a long endurance high altitude platform called SHARP (Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform) was proposed in Canada. The idea is to float an unmanned light-weight airplane for a long period, circling at an altitude of about 21 km for the purpose of relaying radio communications signals over a wide area. To maintain the platform floating for weeks or months, fuel-less

airplanes powered by microwave energy transmitted from the ground was proposed and experimented in Canada and in Japan. Lifted Airplane experiment). In Japan, the MPT to an electric vehicle (EV) was also proposed and the MPT experiment was carried out with small scale functional model of the EV.Another application of the MPT is ground-to-ground (G-to-G) power transmission without wires toward a distant place where wired power distribution networks are either very poor distribution. Two experiments were carried out in U.S.A. in 1975 and in Japan in 1995-96. In the Japanese experiment, fundamental data on microwave power transmission were collected under various weather conditions and experiments on the connection of the recentness were carried out. The merits of the G-to-G MPT are quick installation and easy disassembly because there are no lines between the transmitter and the receivers. So the MPT can be used an emergency power supply. * The most recently proposed MPT application is Ubiquitous Power Source or Wireless Power Source. In a Ubiquitous Power Space, where power is fed via microwave, one can extract electric power from weak microwaves anywhere and at any time. Laboratory experiments have been already carried out in a shielded room. In the concept of the UPS, the use of the microwave is very similar to tha t in the communication system. The emitted microwave expands and weak microwave power is received in many receivers. unavailable or with The Japanese experiment was called MILAX (Microwave

15. SMART APPLICATION OF WITRICITY TO CHARGE A VEHICLE

WiT-3300 Deployment Kit

The WiT-3300 Deployment Kit is a wireless Park-and-Charge self-charging system for electric vehicles. The system provides an efficient wireless energy transfer solution that completely avoids the need for the driver to plug in their battery electric vehicle or PHEV.

COMPONENTS FOR CHARGING THE CAR

Benefits
High efficiency (90% at 18cm) High power transfer rates (up to 3.3kW) User friendly (tolerant to parking misalignment) Works through pavement (can be installed directly into a floor) and is weather resistant Safe for people and animals; minimal EMI Low implementation cost 4x smaller, 2x lighter, and more forgiving than traditional magnetic induction

Fig. showing the phenomenon of Charging procedure

Energy transfer over a distance and through paving materials


The WiT-3300 Deployment Kit is designed to transfer energy over distances ranging from 10-20cm, and custom configurations can be provided for vehicles having higher or lower ground clearance. Wireless energy transfer can occur through any non-metallic material, which means that the source device can be installed beneath a garage floor or paved parking space.

Technological Advantage
WiTricitys patented energy transfer system does not require the source and capture resonator pairs to be perfectly aligned in order to achieve efficient energy transfer. In addition, our strongly coupled magnetic resonance energy transfer provides products which

are 4x smaller, 2x lighter, and more efficient than solutions based on traditional magnetic induction.

SPECIFICATION AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE COMPONENTS

15. CONCLUSION
Wireless electricity transfer is in development stage, lots of work is to be done to use it for wireless power applications. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100w. Before the establishment of this technology the detailed study must be done to check whether it cause any harm on any living beings. We proved that power can be transmitted via resonantly coupled coils. Multiple resonant frequencies found at many coil spacing. Major problem arises in wireless electricity transfer through resonance inductive coupling are-

1. To determine the values of inductance and capacitance at such a high resonant frequency as 100-150 MHz. 2. Not availability of particular value of capacitance parameters. 3. Undesired variation of frequency in out of frequency generator. 4. At very low supply voltage (12-15v), very low efficiency occurs (20-30%). 5. At high voltage such as 220 volts, sparking occurs across winding terminals.

The concept of Microwave Power transmission (MPT) and Wireless Power Transmission system is presented. The technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), the advantages, disadvantages, biological impacts and applications of WPT are also discussed. This concept offers greater possibilities for transmitting power with negligible losses and ease of transmission than any invention or discovery heretofore made. Dr. Neville of NASA states You dont need cables, pipes, or copper wires to receive power. We can send it to you like a cell phone call where you want it, when you want it, in real time. We can expect with certitude that in next few years wonders will be wrought by its applications if all the conditions are favorable. The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility, it is now a reality. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. Many researchers have established in numerous observations, experiments and measurements, qualitative and quantitative. Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and Low Loss (90 97 % efficient) and can be transmitted to anywhere in the globe and eliminate the need for an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers, and substations. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and get rid of the landscape of wires, cables, and transmission towers. It has negligible demerits like reactive power which was found insignificant and biologically compatible. It has a tremendous economic impact to human society. Many countries will benefit from this service.

16. BIBLIOGRAPHY
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_energy_transfer http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/wireless-power.htm http://www.instructables.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-Over-Short-Distances-U/ http://www.witricity.com