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Electromagnetic Transients Program

EMTP-RV
1000366

Electromagnetic Transients Program


EMTP-RV 1000366 Technical Progress, November 2000

EPRI Project Manager T. Tayyib

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI

This is an EPRI Level 2 report. A Level 2 report is intended as an informal report of continuing research, a meeting, or a topical study. It is not a final EPRI technical report.

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to the EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, P.O. Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523, (800) 313-3774. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 2000 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This document was prepared by EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 Principal Investigator T. Tayyib This document describes research sponsored by EPRI. The publication is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Electromagnetic Transients Program: EMTP-RV, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2000. 1000366.

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ABSTRACT
The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is a general-purpose program for simulation of high speed transient effects in electric power systems. The program features a wide range of modeling capabilities used to model electromagnetic, electrochemical and control system transients ranging from microseconds to seconds in duration. The program was originally developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the early sixties and has gone through many stages of development. To promote the development and use of this program, EPRI encouraged the formation of the EMTP Development Coordination Group (DCG). The organization currently has ten member organizations including EPRI. Under an agreement signed in September 1997, work was initiated on a new completely restructured version of EMTP, to be referred to as Version 4.0. This report describes the current status of the restructuring project. The project is behind schedule, but a major part of the work has been completed. Four members of the DCG are engaged in the software development effort. Two members are working on quality assurance and testing. Roughly sixty percent of the initial coding and testing has been completed, but considerable amount of programming and implementation effort is still ahead.

1. INTRODUCTION
The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is a general-purpose program for simulation of high-speed transient effects in electric power systems. The program features a wide range of modeling capabilities used to model electromagnetic, electrochemical and control system transients ranging from microseconds to seconds in duration. The program was originally developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). It was welcomed by the user community with great enthusiasm and was enhanced by several organizations for the first fifteen years of its existence. The program attracted a large number of users in its initial stage and the number of users has continued to grow since. 1.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Study of power system transients is very important part of system design and evaluation. Development of software for simulation of these phenomena is a very specialized activity. Dr Hermann Dommel, at the Bonneville Power Administration, developed the first version of this program. No such software existed at the time. Power system planners saw the utility of this program for their work and started using it with great enthusiasm, even though data preparation was a tedious task at this stage and the user interface left a lot to be desired. The program was available in the public domain because of BPAs status. Several users and user groups started to enhance the program to meet their needs. The program, which has become a large system of routines, has gone through several stages of enhancement and testing. Various versions developed over the last thirty or so years are briefly described below: 1.1.1 Versions M39 and M40 These versions of the EMTP were the last two versions developed and distributed by the BPA, before EPRI became actively involved in the development of the program. 1.1.2 Version 1.0 In order to foster EMTP development and increase user participation in the process, EPRI supported the formation of a group known as the EMTP Development Coordination Group (DCG). An agreement was signed in 1982 to set up the DCG and the roles of EPRI and other members of DCG were defined in the agreement. As a result of the development effort undertaken by the DCG, several enhancements were made to the program and an expanded and reorganized Rule Book was produced. The Rule Book was basically a Users Manual, but was so named because it contained the rules of data input. The data at this stage was specified in card format. The name is still being used. This version was released by EPRI and DCG in 1987. The enhancements made in this version included the following: Correction of bugs in the previous versions Calculation of loss of life in turbo-generators as described in EPRI Report EL-3083. The FATIGUE routine performed this function.
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Improved rotating machine models Calculation of frequency-dependent network equivalents Improvements in transmission line modeling

1.1.3 Version 2.0 This version was released in the Spring of 1989. It included major improvements in the software and documentation. The main changes are listed below: Air-gap and lightening arrester model, non-linear element and corona models and HVDC basic model. Model validation improvements. Line and cable model improvements. Circuitbreaker arc model. Updated documentation Improved three-phase power flow Multi-frequency initialization Multi-port equivalents Improved line constants EMTP input processor EMTP output processor

1.1.4 Version 2.1 This version was issued with miner enhancements only. 1.1.5 Version 3.0 This was a major enhancement to the program and is referred to as EMTP96 Version 3.0, because of the fact that it was expected to be released in 1996. It was actually released in 1998. The new features and enhancements include the following: 1. Critical Damping Adjustment to eliminate numerical oscillations that have traditionally plagued the calculations for switching inductive networks and the simulation of power electronics devices. 2. New cable constants support module with new features such as built-in support for frequency dependent cable models, arbitrary conductor bundling and grounding. 3. New transformer model including new high frequency, hysteresis and eddy current modeling. This model can reproduce the response of a transformer over a wide frequency range. 4. Frequency dependent branch model to represent frequency-dependent devices 5. Three-phase load flow 6. Network reduction algorithm for coupled RLC networks with hundreds of nodes and branches 7. New corona model 8. Protection system model models such as relays and potential transformers

9. New breaker arc model 10. Restructured TACS processing, including HVDC and SVC modeling 11. Enhanced synchronous machine model 12. One-way interface from EMTP to MATLAB to allow post-processing and data manipulation capabilities 1.1.6 Version 3.1 This version was released in 1999 and contained some improvements in the user interface made by Ontario-Hydro. Several other improvements were made in the way the program processes cases specified to it. Multilingual support has been included during installation and some utilities have been added to the system to help in setting up study cases. Rulebooks 1 and 2 are now available completely in electronic form. This documentation uses Frame Reader as a document viewer and is fully printable. This release is a derivative work and is available only from Ontario-Hydro on payment of a license fee. 1.1.7 EMTPView Version 1.0 This is a complete multi-platform Graphical User Interface for EMTP Version 3.1. The core of EMTPView is the schematic diagram tool that allows the user to create a circuit diagram of the system to be simulated by pointing and clicking. The strength of EMTPView is its design, with intelligent forms and familiar look and feel. EMTPView supports all Version 3.1 models and features, including transformer, line and cable constants support.

2. RESTRUCTURING PROJECT MANAGEMENT


The agreement for Phase II of the restructuring project for the Electromagnetic Transients Program was signed on September 3, 1997. Functional Specifications for the restructured EMTP were included in the agreement and are given in Appendix A of this report. The agreement also included a statement of work as a list of tasks to be completed for this project. This statement of work is given in Appendix B. The expected work, as described in the statement of work, was divided among the members of the DCG at the time. A simplified version of this distribution of work is given in Appendix C. The agreement set up a Steering Committee to oversee the restructuring effort. All members of the DCG are also members of this committee. A Technical Committee was also set up to deal with the technical issues of software development in more detail. Only some members of the DCG were to be members of this committee. Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) was assigned the duties of a Project Administrator. HydroQuebec was assigned a large portion of the software development work and declared the Lead Contractor for this project, i.e., it is expected to do the development work assigned to it and also to coordinate the work of other contractors. Ontario-Hydro (OH), ABB, CEPEL and American Electric Power (AEP) were allocated some of the development work as contractors. EDF and CREIPI were assigned the tasks of testing and quality assurance as Quality Assurance Managers. This arrangement of duties and functions is basically continuing till now. Meetings of the Steering Committee are held twice a year. Progress of software work is reviewed and other administrative decisions are made in these meetings. The Technical Committee meets as needed and deals with details of technical issues that arise during contract execution. Contracts are drafted and executed and meetings are arranged by the CEA. Ontario-Hydro manages the EMTP support center organized by it. Any quality assurance issues that may arise during the project execution are reported to the steering committee, by the relevant members Membership of the DCG has remained quite stable, which shows the importance that the members attach to the work that is in progress and to EMTP in general. However, there have been changes in the membership from time to time. The names of the current members and their representatives are given in Appendix-F.

3. PROGRESS OF WORK
According to the restructuring agreement, seven members of the DCG were expected to contribute in software development, testing and quality assurance. Most of the members are continuing in this regard. Some changes have occurred over the last two years. CEPEL of Brazil and ABB have pulled out of the DCG. Development work is considerably behind schedule, as the first version of EMTP-RV has not been released according to the original plan. According to a new plan, nine intermediate versions (Versions A-I) of the program would be released to DCG members for testing, before the finalVersion 4.0 is released. The current restructuring agreement is being extended by three years for this purpose. A summary of the work in progress at various organizations is given below along with what has been accomplished so far. 3.1 ASIA-BROWN BOVERI (ABB) According to the original distribution of work ABB was to work on modeling of HVDC, SVC, UPFC, and STATCOM devices and to develop documentation for the models. However, this has not happened. Instead, ABB has pulled out of the DCG because of the financial constraints it is facing due to its reorganization. 3.2 AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER (AEP) The original allocation of work required AEP to enhance the three-phase and harmonic load flow algorithms. AEP has spent 0.6 man-years on this work so far. Most of the time has been spent on investigation of the swing bus sensitivity problem. Existing code has been examined for errors and issues related to solvability have been investigated. As a result, a new voltage initialization scheme has been developed. An experimental source code of about 4000 lines has been developed to test voltage initialization with the new scheme. The code has been tested on some small and on a large, 600 bus, AEP 765 KV transmission system model. Equations and Jacobian expressions have been re-derived for single-phase loads, slack node, PQ sources and PV sources. AEP has proposed continuation of this work on the three-phase load flow only, as the completion of the work would actually require about 1 man-year of effort. A working module for the threephase load flow is expected to be delivered in December, 2000. Harmonic load flow, however, would not be developed by AEP.

3.3 CENTRAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY OF JAPAN (CRIEPI) A questionnaire has been sent to Japanese utilities and other organizations for their evaluation of EMTP96 Version 3.0. Not all organizations have responded yet. Once the results of the survey have been gathered, these would be sent to EDF and HQ, so that any shortcomings of the version under review are addressed by the restructuring project. As a result of testing and evaluation by Japanese utilities, a list of discovered bugs has been prepared for EMTP96 Version 3.1. The bug report has been submitted to the DCG. Also, CREIPI has contacted Japanese EMTP Committee members and has compiled a list of those who

would be interested in volunteering their services for testing of EMTP-RV 1.0. The members have agreed to test specific aspects of EMTP under this test plan. The details of the Test Plan are as follows: Test Plan for EMTP-RV 1.0 Company Name
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CRIEPI CRIEPI Hokkaido Power Tohoku Power Tohoku Power Tokyo Power

Function to be Tested
Numerical instability for non-linear elements. Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 1 Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 2 Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 3 Transformer inrush current calculation No. 1 Lightning and switching surge calculation No. 4 Simple distributed parameter transmission lines

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28

Tokyo Power Tokyo Power Chuba Power Chuba Power Chuba Power Kansai Power Shikoku Power Kyushu Power EPDC EPDC Fuji Electric Hitachi Hitachi Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Nissin Nissin Shinko Toshiba Toshiba Meidensha Meidensha

Disconnected switch surges AC Generator vibration problem Lightning surge calculation No. 5 Disconnected switch surges Lightning surge calculation No. 6 and comparison with field test cases. Transient over-voltage at double-phase grounding fault with transformer, transmission lines and synchronous generator Transformer switching calculation on distribution lines Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 7 Transformer inrush current calculation No. 2 Induction machine calculation for wind turbine generation Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 8 Transformer inrush current calculation No. 3 AC system transients calculation No. 1 Lightning surge calculation No. 9 Transformer inrush current calculation No. 4 TACS No. 1 AC system transients calculation No. 2 Synchronous machine starting simulation with TACS and type 57 Ferro-resonance TACS No. 2 Switching surge: comparison with field test AC system transients calculation No. 3: Generator response for underl di i 6

voltage condition 29 Fuji Electric Lightning surge and switching surge calculation No. 10 for underground cable transmission system

3.4 ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE (EDF) EDF has compiled three reports dealing with quality assurance for software development. A report dealing with quality assurance of Graphical User Interface implementation has also been issued. A test plan has been described in another report. The reports have been forwarded to the lead contractor. The code being developed by Hydro-Quebec is being reviewed and validated by EDF. EDF has also made some modifications to the software and these have been described in the compiled reports mentioned before.

3.5 HYDRO-QUEBEC (HQ) The work to be done at Hydro-Quebec in the four years, 2000-2003, has been re-planned. Appendix-D shows the nine intermediate versions of the program that are to be released before Version 4.0 is released. Beta Version A was released to members of DCG in June, for testing and evaluation. The functions to be implemented in the various versions are shown in Appendix-E, as list of items for research and development. 3.6 HYDRO-ONE (Formerly, Ontario-Hydro) Work on the electronic EMTP Rule Books has been completed. The objective was to create a single consistent version of these manuals, which could be viewed on a computer screen under multiple platforms. FrameMaker is the chosen word processing program for creation and viewing of the rulebooks. All graphics work related to EMTPView has also been completed. The work still to be completed by Hydro-One Network Company is described in Appendix-D.

APPENDIX A: FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS


The Participants agree that the following Functional Specification shall form the basis for all software development under Restructuring Phase II. However, any provision of the following Functional Specification may be altered upon majority vote of the Steering Committee pursuant to sub-article 3.3 of the Restructuring Agreement. PURPOSE The main objective of this project is to create the next generation EMTP named EMTP-RV (Electromagnetic Transients Program Restructured Version). It should be a powerful and competitive product in all aspects and create another standard in its field of applications. The EMTP-RV effort will be focused on code restructuring, to make the program more efficient and easy to maintain, and on providing an easily upgradeable structure for new models, maintenance and high renewal rate, to keep pace with new-technology and applications. The proposed development approach is to rewrite everything from scratch but to reuse as much knowledge and component modeling code as possible. INITIAL ASSUMPTIONS 1. The currently existing program version is version 3.0 of the EMTP. 2. The programming language is to be Fortran-90. EMTP-RV will benefit from Fortran-90 features for memory management, modularity, sophistication of constructs, compiler robustness and portability. Any speed decrease from the existing EMTP will have to be seriously justified. 3. The final program should remain portable and available on all popular computer platforms. 4. In all EMTP-RV versions translators will be used to maintain as much compatibility with previous versions as possible. EMTP-RV will therefore provide an equivalent for all existing EMTP models and options. A translated data file should force the user to abandon old practices. Translation includes pre-processing for complex options such as the Calculation Mode for model modules. 5. Development of new models is of crucial importance to maintain an edge in this field. If new models can benefit from the new program=s core code and/or provide better performance or eliminate restrictions, then they should be incorporated as a separate project task. 6. EMTP-RV will provide major algorithmic enhancements for solving power electronic circuits and eliminate limitations in solving nonlinear functions in general. 7. EMTP-RV will eliminate existing limitations in the EMTP code: options, models, algorithms

8. The Graphical User Interface project will provide a powerful tool to the users for data input and creation of user-defined models. It can be adjusted to follow any new program release. It will also incorporate data input features from component drawings. 9. The Electronic Rule-Book project will provide a powerful documentation tool and will reflect any future changes and needs. 10. The modeling and output processing link between MATLAB and the existing EMTP will be available in EMTP-RV. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS WITH IMPACT ON SOFTWARE USER EMTP-RV will maintain complete compatibility with the existing EMTP and provide the program user increased simulation power within an easy to master environment. Here is the list of anticipated main changes visible to the user: 1. Simulation and visualizing simulation results. 2. Elimination of simulator limitations linked to programming methods and algorithms. For example: any nonlinear element can coexist with other nonlinear elements in the same sub network, limited and automatic insertion of artificial functions needed for the solution algorithm, all solution options are applicable to all component models if theoretically feasible and maximum avoidance of numerical oscillations due to time-step delays and wrong topological detection. 3. Component modeling: simplified and non-redundant selections of built-in models, better performance and some new models. 4. Automatically adjustable program memory requirements and code size. Different program configurations can be arranged for diversified user applications. 5. Maximize the automation of user tasks: gathering data from different software sources or pre-processors, porting binary files, comparing simulation results. 6. Powerful and portable graphical user interface for preparing study cases, monitoring the Improved and precise simulation of power electronic circuits: proper and precise detection of semiconductor device states, simultaneous interaction with surrounding control circuits, detailed modeling of semiconductor devices. 7. Elimination of wait time associated with programming or algorithmic limitations: calculation of harmonic steady-state for precise calculation of initial conditions, better initialization of control systems and variable time-step for coexisting fast and slow transients. 8. Simplified compatibility and interaction with other power system analysis software. 9. Improved statistical analysis features and sensitivity analysis options for design optimization. 10. Improved user-defined modeling features through externally connected software, highlevel interconnection of function blocks and user created program codes. 11. Electronic documentation and application guides. 12. State of the art programming that will deliver an easy to upgrade structure for maintenance, evolving user needs and evolving computer architectures.

EMTP-RV MAIN STRUCTURE The EMTP-RV core code will have a request-oriented approach with model participation. This structure is explained through Fig. 1. Such a simple structure has several advantages: 1. Is suitable for detachable project tasks and allows intermediate code releases and algorithmic enhancement stages 2. If it is carefully followed, it can almost eliminate the integration plan and it will allow any developer to create and insert component model code as in a user-defined environment 3. The component model developer is fully responsible for his code maintenance and integration (distributed integration) The first step is the building of the Ax = b solver. Since a generalized nodal analysis approach is applied, the matrix A may become non-symmetric. All component models, including userdefined models can receive core requests and may or may not participate in the called solution process. The requests are handled in clearly identified component code sections. All component models are self-contained and remain completely detachable. Features in Fortran-90 allow packaging a model's main subroutine and related functions. It is proposed to include and maintain model code and usage documentation with its source code files. Component models include control system building blocks, sensors and activators. There should be no distinctions between control systems and network models in the formulated equations and artificially inserted time-step delays will be avoided as much as possible.

Figure-1: The Main Structure of EMTP-RV

Presently identified request signals are: 1. Input data and initialize 2. Provide steady-state equations

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3. Frequency scan loop 4. Get solution frequencies 5. Harmonic power-flow loop 6. Initialize for time-domain 7. Provide time-domain equations 8. Update history 9. Go into Euler Backward integration 10. Go into trapezoidal integration 11. Memory dump 12. Restart Other more sophisticated requests, such as new time-step, interpolate and move time-mesh can be created in later development stages. DELIVERABLES The deliverables are of increasing complexity and may require contributions from several independent tasks. Only major deliverables can be identified at this stage of the project. The basic idea is to deliver working versions at each significant step of the project: December of 1998: EMTP-RV version 0 (RV0) 1. 2. 3. 4. Frequency Scan, Harmonic Power-flow and Time-domain options The largest possible list of component models and user-defined modeling interface All input and output features Documentation

July of 1999: EMTP-RV version 1 (RV1) 1. Dump, Start again, Statistics 2. Remaining component models and updates including most of control systems (s functions) 3. Documentation December of 1999: EMTP-RV version 2 (RV2) 1. Time-mesh displacement, change of time-step and advanced detection of controlled switch status 2. All component models and updates including control systems (z functions) 3. Documentation

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December of 2000: EMTP-RV version 3 (RV3) Everything with complete documentation.

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APPENDIX B: STATEMENT OF WORK


PROJECT ORGANIZATION Distribute resources according to tasks or deliverables and delivery dates

PROGRAMMING STANDARDS Prepare Manual of Programming guidelines containing basic programming standards to be enforced by the Quality Assurance Manager. Provide a detailed electronic catalog of available low-level task modules. Overloading of operators will be allowed if it will not create dramatic speed deterioration. Provide memory management procedures. Dimensions are known at program startup from data case analysis: number of nodes, number of component models of a given type.

STANDARDS FOR INPUT AND OUTUT Provide I/O handling standards: file management, output messages, read methods, binary file formats.

SOLUTION METHODS Program a prototype of the core code Organizer section. Program the Harmonic Power Flow, frequency scan and time domain requests based on the simple RLC model and non-linear inductance. Use trapezoidal integration with Euler Backward for discontinuities in the time-domain solution. The harmonic power flow must be programmed to initialize the time domain solution. Program the core code solver section. Program advanced feature requests; time-mesh displacement, advanced detection of controlled switch status, change of time step.

STATISTICS AND SENSITIVITY Program the statistical analysis section of the Organizer Program a sensitivity analysis feature in the Organizer

NETWORK COMPONENT MODELS Reprogram all network component models according to core code requests Introduce memory management: required memory known at program startup Use trapezoidal integration with Euler backward for discontinuities Make modeling changes and enhancements if needed Eliminate sub-network restrictions in non-linear models Introduce the precision parameter

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Change the data input syntax if needed Provide electronic documentation maintained with the source code

CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENT MODELS Provide simultaneous solution with network components, using the same system of equations Avoid time-step delays Introduce the precision parameter Provide electronic documentation maintained with the source code

USER-DEFINED COMPONENT MODELS Provide user-defined modeling interface and protocol in compliance with the core code requests Program module creation with include files, external subroutines and interfaces Provide electronic documentation maintained with the source code

OUTPUT Program an output processor Program waveform monitoring capability and interactive request handling methods Implement multilingual features

INPUT Specify the new data input format for program options Specify the new component model identification method Program a data file translator for V3 files Upgrade the existing GUI for schematic capture

START AGAIN Program the Dump and Start Again sections of the Organizer

PRE-PROCESSORS Reprogram external preprocessors (AUX, FDNE, ) according to the new input syntax and model insertion approach

VALIDATION AND TESTING Create a database of significant test cases for simulation results Create a database of cases for testing program features

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DOCUMENTATION Upgrade electronic documentation ( Rule Book) Provide application guides

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APPENDIX C: INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORK


Column Heading 1 CREIPI ABB Column Heading 2 Testing and validation. Quality assurance assistance to EDF. HVDC and SVC modeling enhancements and code changes for integration into EMTPRV. UPFC and STATCOM modeling. CEPEL EDF TACS enhancements and restructuring of software accordingly. Creation of test cases Quality assurance AEP Three-phase load flow enhancements Harmonic power flow development HQ Coordination of all programming activities as the lead contractor Preparation of Manual of Programming guidelines (60% of effort) Reprogram the following models Non-linear branch, corona, universal machine, switch, PQ load. Program core code organizer and code solver sections Reprogram control system blocks and digital control system blocks Program waveform monitoring capability, statistical and sensitivity analysis sections of the organizer. Harmonic power flow in conjunction with AEP Data file translator for Version 3.0 input files. Documentation OH Preparation of Manual of Programming guidelines (40% of effort) User-defined modeling Reprogram models including all available linear models, lines, cables, coupled branches, transformer models, hysteretic reactor and frequency dependent branch Input and output processors and external pre-processors. Graphic User Interface. CEA Project administration

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APPENDIX D: CONTENTS OF EMTP VERSIONS


Summary of the contents of the Target Versions for EMTPRV is given here. The actual detailed and continuously updated contents of EMTPRV are listed in Appendix-F. The objective is to provide a List of Elements used to track project status. It also allows developers to check on completed items and verify code deployment. If during the development cycle, some new elements become essential or provide significant technical advantages, then they will be added to this list. It is a basic list, in view of the fact that the development strategy is to provide a powerful kernel, upon which new components can be based using the schematic capture GUI. Past experience and software complexity demonstrate that it is very difficult to provide completion dates on a short term basis. That is why it is has been chosen to list Target Versions. Intermediate versions become available on the web when they provide a sufficient number of new features and can be submitted to the validation team. At this time, Ontario Hydro is expected to deliver: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FD-Line FDQ-Line Frequency dependent network equivalent Advanced line model Restructured version of AUX Restructured version of FDNE

Some of the above items are shown in the List of Elements using italic characters. The deliverables 1 to 4 are minimal expectations. The extent of work in deliverables 5 and 6 is unknown at this stage. It can range from basic conversion to Fortran-95 with dynamic memory allocation, to complete rewriting on the style of output for model data.

Target Version A: Release June 2000


EMTP-V3 data file translation Frequency scan option Steady-state solution Initialization from linear multi-frequency steady-state solution Manual initial conditions option Trapezoidal integration with fixed time-step Backward Euler integration with fixed time-step Trapezoidal to Backward Euler switching during discontinuities Statistical analysis options (basic) Frequency scan option Setup for solving nonlinear elements Output setups RLC branch PI section CP-line FD-line ZnO arrester Nonlinear inductance Sources Ideal switch Ideal diode Gap switch Statistical switch

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Target Version B: Release December 2000


Statistical analysis options (final) SiC arrester Nonlinear time-varying resistance Piecewise linear resistance with flashover Synchronous machine FDQ-line Documentation GUI forms, initial set

Target Version C: Release March 2001


Documentation GUI functions, advanced set

Target Version D: March 2001


Induction machine Harmonic steady-state with nonlinear functions Three-phase power-flow New line model Ideal Thyristor Documentation

Target Version E : June 2001


Single-phase ac machine Basic Control System functions Manual time-step variation Documentation

Target Version F : September 2001


New plot package Advanced Control System functions DC machine MATLAB interface Documentation Interpolation

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Target Version G : February 2002


Three-phase harmonic power-flow State-space block Dependent branch functions

Target Version H : June 2002


FDB Corona branch Improvements in the Frequency Analysis option (Zin, Zm) Documentation

Target Version I : June 2002


Hysteretic reactor User-defined modeling interface Final Control Systems solver Documentation

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APPENDIX- E: LIST OF ITEMS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


All items planned to be included in the different versions of EMTP-RV are listed on the following pages. Current status of research or development for each items is listed in each table. Codes are used in the tables to indicate the status. The codes are as follows: General A greyed cell or "none" means not applicable "x" means required and completed An empty cell means that information is to be completed "?" means undetermined situation Required spec/research A double digit code for indicating the needed level of specification before programming and the needed level of research A number is used between 0 and 3 for the specification level 0 means no need to write detailed specs 3 means requires high level specification A number is used between 0 and 3 for indicating the extra research work level 0 means no need for any research and fine tuning 3 means requires high level research and fine tuning New in RV "y" means that the component or feature has a partially or completely new design in EMTPRV "n" means that the component or feature is identical to whatever existed in EMTP-V3 Completion status A number is used between 0 and 5 0 means coding has not started 1 means coding has just started 2 means coding is partially completed 3 means coding is completed 4 means GUI forms are completed 5 means validation is complete for all aspects of the component Translate V3 data file "x" means translator work is required and completed GUI based assembly "y" means should be assembled through the GUI using basic components "some" means some parts of the component can be assembled using the GUI Component output "i" means current output is available from the component "v" means branch voltage output is available for the component "p" means branch power output is available for the component "f" means branch flux output is available for the component

Frequency Scan Options


Translate Completion Planned new in data RV n n n y y y y y y n y x 3 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 Version A A C H A H H H H A C

Element Automatic source frequency sweep, all sources with start time little than zero

Required spec/research 00

"Frequency scan" option, linear scale 00 "Frequency scan" option, log scale 00 "Input impedance" option (input impedances Zin at any location and mutual impedances Zm 10 at any location) Output presentations: as requested on components and for basic quantities, amplitude, phase, 10 real part and imaginary part, binary file only Output options for Zin, binary file only Output options for Zm, binary file only Contingency analysis options with Zin and Zm Output options for contingency analysis Option for controlling fixed output rate Option for variable output rate 10 10 10 11 00 10

Steady-State Solution Options


Translate V3 Completion Planned data status 3 3 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Version A A A D D D D D D D G G G E

Required spec/research Element "Linear steady-state" solution, network topology for 00 time-domain solution Printed output for voltage, current and power-flow at all 00 solution frequencies Initialization with superposition of sources 00 "Harmonic steady-state" solution, network topology for time-domain solution, including nonlinear branch 11 capability (Newton method) Printed output for voltage, current and power-flow at all 00 solution frequencies Initialization with superposition of sources, including 01 nonlinear branch capability "Three-phase power-flow" with PQ, PV nodes 12 Initialization at fundamental frequency including loads 12 and machines "FIX SOURCE1" EMTP-V3 option 10 Printed output for voltage, current and power-flow 10 "Three-phase harmonic power-flow" with PQ, PV 23 nodes Initialization with nonlinearities, loads and machines 23 Printed output for voltage, current and power-flow at all 10 solution frequencies Option for sending steady-state solution into plot file 10

New in RV n y y y y y n n n n y y y y

Time-Domain Solution
Required New spec/research in RV 00 10 00 11 22 33 00 00 00 10 00 10 n n n y y y n y n n n n Translate Completion V3 status Planned data Version x x x 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 0 A A A E E F A A A A A B

Element Setup from automatic initial conditions, when available from steady-state solution Setup from manual initial conditions Fixed time-step integration Manual time-step variation Event-triggered time-step Interpolation Trapezoidal method for integration Backward Euler method for integration Trapezoidal and Backward Euler method for discontinuities Waveform output options Option for controlling fixed output rate Option for variable output rate

x x x x

Data Output Into a Plotting Package


Required spec/research 0 00 00 00 00 00 11 22 New in RV n n n n y n y y Translate Completion V3 status Planned data Version x 3 A 0 B x 3 A x 3 A 0 B x 3 A 0 F 0 F

Element Default Single precision output Optional double precision output Option for turning on/off output Option for controlling fixed output rate Option for variable output rate MATLAB MCAT compatibility "New plot package" compatibility "New plot package" An independent software package for waveform analysis Proposition based on an existing package

Printed Output Files

Required Spec/Research Element Type of output Simple ASCII file reports Optional HTML file reports Generic reports Basic information on simulation variables and options Basic information on network topology Warning and error messages Steady-state output for : voltage, current, power-flow Option for turning on/off outputs 00 00 12 00 00 00 00 00 00

New in RV n n y n y y y y y

Translate Completion Planned V3 data x x Status 3 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 Version A A C A A A A A A

Statistical Analysis Related Options


Translate V3 data x 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Completion status

Required

New in RV n n n n n n y y

Planned Version A B B B B B B

Element
All parameters on EMTP-V3 Miscellaneous data lines "Tabulate Energization Results" "Statistics Output Salvage" "Omit base case" "Time of Dice Roll" Output into plotting package Sensitivity functions (to be defined) Other options to be defined

spec/research 00 11 11 11 11 11 22 22

Special Procedures and Options


Required spec/research 00 00 00 00 00 00 Translate New V3 in RV data y y y y y y y y y y y y n y y y y y Completion status 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 0 Planned Version A A A A B A A A A A A B B A A A A E

Element Data input module and service routines Old EMTP-V3 data file translator code Library of sparse matrix functions Integration of sparse matrix solver package Memory reallocation for the main system matrix User defined memory selection for the main system matrix

Setup for creating and maintaining the main system of equations 00 Setup for handling the component interaction with the main system of equations Standard templates for component development Setup for data transfer from components during simulation Setup for varying topology reformulation Illegal switch operation reject in time-domain Floating network fix in steady-state and time-domain, user options for selecting high impedance value Setup for numerical precision control Library of various service routines Nonlinear solution techniques with automatic fix for problematic cases True-nonlinear solution for all nonlinear elements in any topological position Support for optional one time-step delay solution for all nonlinear elements 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 22 01 01

Special Procedures and Options (Contd)


Required spec/research 00 00 01 00 00 00 Translate New V3 in RV data y n n y y y Completion status 3 0 0 3 3 3 Planned Version A C F A A A

Element Sources connected between any two nodes EMTP-V3 option for voltage sources connected in parallel, translation issue Dump/start again Memory allocation standard Error message routines Language control routines

User-Defined Interface
MATLAB INTERFACE External components can Setup for direct engine calls. plug-in for all solution options. F F 0 0 10 10 y y none none none some

Requests/procedures Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w print_ss insert_times

Setup for Setup for DLL based network calls. components. F 0 10 y none some F 0 10 y none some

Setup for control system blocks. F 0 10 y none some

User-Defined Interface (Contd)


MATLAB INTERFACE External Setup for Setup for components can Setup for direct DLL based network engine calls. plug-in for all calls. components. solution options.

Requests/procedures dump_IB0 dump_p0 EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

Setup for control system blocks.

User-Defined Interface (Contd)

Requests/procedures Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w

USER DLL External components can plug-in for all solution options. I 0 10 y none none

Setup for network components. I 0 10 y none some

Setup for control system blocks. I 0 10 y none some

User-Defined Interface (Contd)


USER DLL External components can plug-in for all solution options.

Requests/procedures print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

Setup for network components.

Setup for control system blocks.

Linear Components

PI section Requests/procedures Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file RLC A 3 00 n x A 3 00 n EMTP RL: x sequence input: x USE RL:x none x x x x x v none x none x none x none none none none x

GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w

none x x x x x vip none x none x none x none x x x x

PIB section CASCADED PI Ideal transformer, Tr0 A ? A 3 3 00 00 n y EMTP "TRANSFORMER":x EMTP saturation: x USE RB:x none for old TRANSFORMER x x x x x v none x none x none x none none none none x x x x x x i none x none x x none none none none none none

FDB H 0 00 n

none

Linear Components (Contd)

print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 0_initial_conditions EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

x none x x x x x none x none none x none none x x x none x x x x

PI section x none none none x x x none x none none x none none none none none none x x x x

PIB section x none none none x x x none x none none x none none none none none none x x x x

CASCADED PI

Ideal x none none none none none none x none none none none none none none none none none none none none none

FDB

Linear Components (Contd)

Requests/procedures Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w

CP-LINE CP A 1 00 n none

FD-LINE FDL B 3 01 n none

FDQ-LINE FDQL ? 1 01 n

Corona option COR H 22 y (different)

Wideband line WBL ? 33 y

none

Linear Components (Contd)

Requests/procedures print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

CP-LINE FD-LINE FDQ-LINE Corona option CP FDL FDQL COR

Wideband line WBL

Linear Components (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w

voltage controlled current source VCCS G 0 00 y some

voltage controlled voltage source VCVS G 0 00 y some

current controlled current source CCCS G 0 00 y some

current controlled voltage source CCVS G 0 00 y some

state-space block SS G 0 11 y none

Linear Components (Contd)


Requests/procedures voltage controlled current source VCCS voltage controlled voltage source VCVS current controlled current source CCCS current controlled voltage source CCVS state-space block SS

print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

Switch Type Devices

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 A 3 00

Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg A 3 00

Statistics switch Swstat A 2 20

Systematic switch Swsys B 0 20

Ideal diode: D0 A 3 00

Diode with series voltage drop D1 H 0 01

Ideal thyristor Thy0 D 2 00

Controlled switch Swcont D 2 00

EMTP type 11 no TACS:x

GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC

none x x x x none

none x x x x x

none x x x x none

none

none x x x x x

EMTP type EMTP type 11 11 with with TACS TACS grid: x open/close: EMTP type 13 with TACS open/close: none none

Switch Type Devices (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 vip none x none x x none none none x none x x none none x x none none x none none

Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 0_initial_conditions EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg vip ? x none x x none none none x none x x none none x x none none x none none

Statistics switch Swstat

Systematic switch Swsys

Ideal diode: D0 ? x none x x none none none x none x x none none x x none none x none none

Diode with series voltage drop D1

Ideal thyristor Thy0

Controlled switch Swcont

Switch Type Devices (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 none none x none none x x none none none none

iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg none none x none none x x none none none none

Statistics switch Swstat

Systematic switch Swsys

Ideal diode: D0 none none x none none x x none none none none

Diode with series voltage drop D1

Ideal thyristor Thy0

Controlled switch Swcont

Switch Type Devices (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 A 3 00

Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg A 3 00

Statistics switch Swstat A 2 20

Systematic Ideal diode: switch Swsys B 0 20 D0 A 3 00 EMTP type 11 no TACS:x

Diode with series voltage drop D1 H 0 01

Ideal thyristor Thy0 D 2 00

Controlled switch Swcont D 2 00

GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug

none x x x x none vip none x none x

none x x x x x vip ? x none x

none x x x x none

none

none x x x x x ? x none x

EMTP type 11 EMTP type 11 with with TACS TACS grid: x open/close: EMTP type 13 with TACS open/close: none none

Switch Type Devices (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 A 3 00 x none none none x none x x none

Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w print_ss insert_times

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg A 3 00 x none none none x none x x none

Statistics switch Swstat A 2 20

Systematic Ideal diode: switch Swsys B 0 20 D0 A 3 00 x none none none x none x x none

Diode with series voltage drop D1 H 0 01

Ideal thyristor Thy0 D 2 00

Controlled switch Swcont D 2 00

Switch Type Devices (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Ideal timecontrolled switch Sw0 none x x none none x none none none none x none none none x x none none none none

dump_IB0 dump_p0 0_initial_conditions EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t

Ideal flashovercontrolled switch Swg none x x none none x none none none none x none none none x x none none none none

Statistics switch Swstat

Systematic Ideal diode: switch Swsys D0 none x x none none x none none none none x none none none x x none none none none

Diode with series Ideal thyristor voltage drop D1 Thy0

Controlled switch Swcont

Nonlinear Components

Requests/procedures

Staircase Resistance Rstair B 0 01 n EMTP type-91: EMTP type-97:

Piecewise linear ZnO resistance Rnonl B 3 01 n

SiC

Arc

Inductance Hysteretic reactor Hyst I 0 02 n EMTP type-96: EMTP type-92: none

Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file

A 3 01 n

EMTP type-92:x x EMTP type 99: none none x x x, linear R x none piv x x x x x x

GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Oscillating solution detect Valid solution detect initialize put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yn_ss IB_output_nodes

none

Lnonl A 3 01 n EMTP x type-93:x EMTP type-98:x none none none B 3 01 n I 0 02 n x x x, Linear L x x pivf ? none x x x x

Nonlinear Components (Contd)

Requests/procedures

Staircase Resistance

Piecewise linear ZnO resistance

SiC

Arc

Inductance Hysteretic reactor Lnonl

Rstair dump_phi0 print_ss EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p dump_phi EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t update_status_at_t

Rnonl none x x x x x x x x x none none none none none x

Hyst

none

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Independent Voltage Sources


Requests/procedures Ramp Step function: Vp function: Vramp EMTP type 11 Planned version Overall Completion status Required specs/research New in RV Translate V3 data file GUI based assembly GUI forms Signature in output Frequency scan solution Linear Steady-state solution Time-domain solution Manual IC Outputs in plot file Valid solution detect initialize insert_source_w_for_ss put_nodes_in_Yaug put_in_Yaug_ss put_in_Yn_ss put_in_Iaug_ss put_in_Iaug_freqscan IB_output_nodes p_output_nodes dump_IB_f superpose_ss_at_w A 3 00 n x none x x x x none vi none x x x x none x x none none none none Complex ramp Sinusoidal function: function: Vcramp Vsine EMTP type 14 A 3 00 n x none x x x x none none x none x x none none x none none none none Double exponential: Vsurge EMTP type 15 A 3 00 n x none x x x x none none x none x x none none none none none none none

EMTP type 12 EMTP type 13 A 3 00 n x none x x x x none none x none x x none none none none none none none A 3 00 n x none x x x x none none x none x x none none none none none none none

Independent Voltage Sources (Contd)


Requests/procedures Ramp Step function: Vp function: Vramp EMTP type 11 print_ss insert_times dump_IB0 dump_p0 EBA_init_at_t=0 init_at_t=0 put_in_Yaug put_in_Yn put_nodes_in_Ynonlin iter0 put_in_Iaug update_topology iter dump_IB dump_IB_EBA dump_p update_status_at_t EBAtoTRAP_update_at_t EBA_update_at_t update_at_t TRAPtoEBA_update_at_t x x none none none none x none none none x none none none none none none none none none none Complex ramp Sinusoidal function: function: Vcramp Vsine EMTP type 14 x x none none none none x none none none x none none none none none none none none none none Double exponential: Vsurge EMTP type 15 x x none none none none x none none none x none none none none none none none none none none

EMTP type 12 EMTP type 13 x x none none none none x none none none x none none none none none none none none none none x x none none none none x none none none x none none none none none none none none none none

APPENDIX-F: DCG MEMBERSHIP LIST

Abbreviation AEP CEA CRIEPI EDF EPRI HQ NEG OH USBR

Full name of Organization American Electric Power Canadian Electricity Association Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry of Japan Electricite De France Electric Power Research Institute Hydro-Quebec Nordic EMTP Group Ontario-Hydro United States Bureau of Reclamation

Name of Representative Navin Bhatt Ray Del Bianco H. Saburo Sasaki Alain Xemard Tayyib A. Tayyib Jean Mahseredjian ------Luis Marti Bert Milano

WAPA

Western Area Power Administration

Dan Hamai

APPENDIX-G: LIST OF ACRONYMS


DCG HVDC STATCOM SVC TACS UPFC Development Coordination Group High Voltage Direct Current Static Compensator Static VAR Compensator Transient Analysis Control System Unified Power Flow Controller

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