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For many years, the promotional function in most companies was dominated by mass media advertising. Companies relied primarily on their ad agencies for guidance in nearly all areas of marketing communications. Most marketers did use additional promotional and marketing communication tool, but sales promotion and direct marketing agencies as well as package design firms were generally viewed as auxiliary services and generally used on a per project basis. PR agencies were used to manage the organizations publicity, image and affairs with relevant publics on an ongoing basis but were not viewed as integral participants in the marketing communication process. Many marketers built strong barriers around the various marketing and promotional functions and planned and managed them as separate practices, with different budgets, different views of the market, and different goals and objectives. These companies failed to recognize that the wide range of marketing and promotional tools must be coordinated to communicate effectively and present a consistent image to target markets.

During the 1980s, many companies came to see the need for more of a strategic integration of their promotional tools. These firms began moving towards the process of integrated marketing communication (IMC), which involves coordinating the various promotional elements and other marketing activities that communicate with the firms customer. As marketers embraced the concept of IMC, THEY BEGAN ASKING THEIR AD AGENCIES to coordinate the use of a variety of promotional tools rather than relying primarily on media advertising. A number of companies also began to look beyond traditional advertising agencies and use other type of promotional specialists to develop and implement various components of their promotional plans. Many agencies respond to the call for synergy among the various promotional tools by acquiring PR, Sales Promotion, and direct marketing companies and touting

themselves as IMC agencies that offer one stop shopping for all of their clients promotional needs.


REVIEW OF THE MARKETING PLAN Examine the overall marketing plan and objectives Role of Advertising and Promotions Competitive analysis Assess environmental influences ANALYSIS OF PROMOTIONAL PROGRAM SITUATION A. Internal analysis Promotional department organization Firms ability to implement a promotional program. Agency evaluation and selection Review of previous program results B. External analysis Consumer behaviour analysis Market segmentation and target marketing Market positioning ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Analyze receivers response processes. Analyze source, message, channel factors. Establish communication goals and objectives. BUDGET DETERMINATION Set tentative marketing communication budgets. Allocate tentative budget. DEVELOP INTEGRATED MARKETIN COMMUNICATOIN PROGRAM 1. Advertising Set advertising objectives Determine advertising budget Develop advertising message Develop advertising media strategy

2. Direct marketing Set direct marketing objectives Determine direct marketing budget Develop direct marketing message Develop direct marketing strategy 3. Interactive/Internet marketing Set Interactive/Internet marketing objectives Determine Interactive/Internet marketing budget Develop Interactive/Internet marketing message Develop Interactive/Internet marketing media strategy 4. Sales Promotion Set Sales Promotion objectives Determine Sales Promotion budget Develop Sales Promotion message Develop Sales Promotion media strategy 5. Public Relations/Publicity Set Public Relations/Publicity objectives Determine Public Relations/Publicity budget Develop Public Relations/Publicity message Develop Public Relations/Publicity media strategy 6. Personal Selling/Sales Set Personal Selling/Sales objectives Determine Personal Selling/Sales budget Develop Sales message. Develop selling roles and responsibilities INTEGRATE AND IMPLEMENT COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES. Integrate promotional mix strategies Create and produce ads Purchase media time, space, etc. Design and implement direct marketing programs. Design and distribute sales promotion materials. Design and implement public relations/publicity programs Design and implement interactive/internet marketing programs. MONITOR, EVALUATE, AND CONTROL IMC PROGRAM MARKETING

Evaluate promotional program results/effectiveness Take measures to control and adjust promotional strategies


It has been argued that the concept of integrated marketing is nothing new, particularly in smaller companies and communication agencies that have been coordinating a variety of promotional tools for years. And larger advertising agencies have been trying to gain more of their clients promotional business for over 20 years. However in the past, various services were run as separate profit centers. Each was motivated to push its own expertise and pursue its goals rather than develop truly integrated marketing programs. Moreover, the creative specialists in many agencies resisted becoming involved in sales promotion or direct marketing. They preferred to concentrate on developing magazine ads or television commercials rather than designing coupons or direct mail pieces. Proponents of the integrating marketing services agency (the one stop shop) contend that the past problems are being solved and the various individuals in the agencies and subsidiaries are learning to work together to deliver a consistent message to the clients customers. They argue that maintaining control of the entire promotional process achieves better synergy among each of the communications program elements. They also note that it is more convenient for the clients to coordinate all of its marketing efforts.-media advertising, direct mail, special events, sales promotions and public relations- through one agency. An agency with integrated marketing capabilities can create a single image for the product or service and address everyone from wholesalers to consumers, with one voice. But not everyone wants to turn the entire IMC program over to one agency. Opponents say the providers become involved in political wrangling over budgets, do not communicate with each other as well and as they should, and do not achieve synergy. they also claim that the agencys efforts to control all the aspects of the promotional program are nothing more than an attempt to hold on to the business that might otherwise be lost to independent providers. They note that synergy and economies of scale, while

nice in theory, have been difficult to achieve, and competition and conflict among agency subsidiaries have been a major problem. Many companies use a variety of vendors for communication functions, choosing the specialist they believe is best suited for each promotional task, be it advertising, sales promotions or public relations. Many marketers are of this view that, why should the organization confine itself to one resource when there is a tremendous pool of fresh ideas available?

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS WITH RESPECT TO LOWE Ltd. Public relations: LOWE had launched the AXE products with a very grand launch. It does this sort of an activity for almost all its products. Rural Marketing: For Lifebouy, LOWE had suggested the use of vans Decorated with logos and pictures of Lifebouy all over for the rural market which was a great success. Sales Promotion: LOWE had suggested the insertion of dental insurance in the Pepsodent toothpaste packets worth Rs. 1000/Direct Marketing: The team at LOWE handling Pepsodent also went and spoke to various dentists about the benefits of the toothpaste thus encouraging them to suggest that toothpaste to their patients. SMS: There has been a lot of advertising done through SMS for the AXE range of products. Packaging: The team at LOWE had taken active participation in the packaging of the AXE shaving products.

Definition of Advertising:
The American Marketing Association defines advertising as Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.

The Five Ms Of Advertising:

The organizations handle their advertising in different ways. In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department, who works with an ad agency. A large company will often set up its own advertising department or else hire an ad agency to do the job of preparing advertising programmes. In developing a program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and the buyers motives. Then they can make the five major decisions in developing an advertising program, known as the five Ms, viz,
Mission: what are the advertising objectives? Money: how much can be spent? Message: what message can be sent? Media: what media should be used Measurement: how should the results is evaluated?

The above mentioned can be explained by the diagram given below

The 5Ms of Advertising Checklist for planning of a marketing or advertising campaign. Mission Money Message Media Measuremen t
What are the objectives? What is the key objective? How much is it worth to reach my objectives? How much can be spent? What message should be sent? Is the message clear and easily understood? What media vehicles are available? What media vehicles should be used? How should the results be measured? How should the results be evaluated and followed up?



MISSION: A survey among 1,00,000 households in 1995 showed that there Milk took a backseat when compared to soft drinks when it came to Adults believed that milk was essential for growing children but not for Thus the mission of the ad agency was to make aware the consumers about the benefits of milk for youngsters as well as elederly pople. Their mission was to create a communication plan that milk was not a boring conservative drink but a youthful, exciting and nutritional, exciting energy drink

was a decrease in the direct consumption of milk because of the following reasons: 1. 2. them. teenagers.


MESSAGE: The writers hit upon the idea of using Hindi word for

Milk i.e. doodh doodh in the form of a musical note. This musical note was in the form of sa-re-ga-ma which was remembered by the consumers a lot and was also top of mind when they were asked to comment on milk. The commercial as well as the print ad showed not only kids and youngsters but also elderly and old people whereby it targeted all age groups giving the benefits of milk as well.

MEDIA: Television was chosen as the primary media because of its

popularity and the fact that an audio visual medium lends itself to demonstration of high energy, fun and youthfulness more vividly. The print medium was also used as reinforcement message deliver backing the TV commercials. The first round had concentrated on channels such as DD1, DD2 and the star plus. For every spot that they bought, there were four spots given as a bonus to be aired on the same programme. This made the commercial highly visible in terms of frequency as well as the reach.

MEASUREMENT: Any effort to bring about an attitudinal change

takes time. A measure of effectiveness of the communication was that the TV commercial was voted by viewers of Indias one of the best commercials aired. The

communication has definitely made the youngsters make sing the song doodh doodh, in addition to the cola songs. Qualitative research showed that there was a tremendous popularity of the commercial across all the age categories. Kids in the age group of 10-12 were not very resistant in their attitudes towards drinking milk. Mothers took advantage of the commercial among the children to make them consume milk. There was a rapid increase in consumption of milk across all age groups. The consumption of milk in 1995 was 198 gm/per day which has gone up to 250 gm/per day in 1998.

SETTING THE ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES: The advertising objectives must flow from prior decisions on target market, market positioning, and marketing mix. The advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to
Informative advertising: it is heavily used in the pioneering stage of a product

category, where the aim is to build primary demand. For example: Ujala, where the ad talks about how different it is from the age old neel by talking about its solution contents and showing how different your clothes look when washed with Ujala.
Persuasive advertising: it is generally used when the product is in the competitive

stage, where the companys objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. For example: Whirlpool ice magic positions itself as being a quick ice maker and was the first one of its kind to use this as a marketing platform.
Reminder advertising: it is very important to use these when the product is in the

maturity stage. They are intended to remind people to purchase your brand.

For example: Thumbs up, Coke, Pepsi ads all these ads no more are shown to create awareness or persuasion because people are already aware of their presence and already have chosen the brand of their choice. These are just reminder ads to keep the brand or the company fresh in the minds of the consumers or have the brand top of mind.
Reinforcement advertising: It seeks to ensure the buyers that they have made the

right choice by purchasing your brand. For Example: Hamara Bajaj advertisements make the owner of the two wheelers of Bajaj proud of their possession by giving it a patriotic positioning. DECIDING ON THE ADVERTISING BUDGET Advertising has a carryover effect that lasts beyond the current period. Although advertising is treated as a current expense, part of it is really an investment that builds up an intangible asset called brand equity. This treatment of advertising reduces the companys reported profit and therefore limits the number of new product launches a company can undertake in any one year. The following are the five factors that are considered while setting the advertising budget: Stage in the product life cycle: new products typically receive large

advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumers trial. Market share and consumer base: the brands having a high market share

usually require less advertising expenditure whereas for products whose brand needs to be built, requires larger advertising expenditure. Competition and clutter: In todays competitive market, where there are a

large number of competitors, a brand must advertise heavily to be heard.

Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions that need to be made to

put across the brand message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class require heavy

advertising to establish a different image. For example, cigarettes, beer, soft drinks. Also advertising is important when the brand can offer unique physical benefits or features. CHOOSING THE ADVERTISING MESSAGE Advertising campaigns vary in their creativity. The creativity factor can be more important than the number of rupees spent. Only after gaining the attention can a commercial help to increase the sales, Advertisers go through four steps to develop a creative strategy viz:
Message generation: At this stage, the advertiser decides on what message he

wants to communicate to the consumers regarding the product. For example, the products benefit message should be decided as a part of developing the product concept. Over time, the marketer might want to change the message, especially if the consumers seek new or different benefits from the product. Also, at this stage various alternative advertisements are prepared and finally the excellent one is chosen. But also, higher costs are incurred in preparing these advertisements.
Message: A good ad evaluation and selection normally focuses on one core selling

proposition. The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal works best with its target audience.

Message execution: the impact of the message depends not only on what is said

but how it is said. Some of the ads aim at rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. While preparing an ad campaign, the advertiser usually prepares a copy strategy statement describing the objective, content, support, and tone of the desired ad. The creative people also find a cohesive style, tone, words, and format for executing the message.

Social responsibility review: the advertisers and their ad agencies

must be very careful that their creative advertising doesnt overstep social and legal norms. Advertisers must not make false claims, such as stating that a product cures something when it does not. To be socially responsible, advertisers must be careful not to offend ethic groups, racial minorities, or a special interest groups DECIDING ON THE MEDIA After choosing the message, the advertisers next task is to choose media to carry it. Media selection involves finding the most effective media to deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience.

Rate: the number of different persons or households exposed to a Frequency: the number of times within the specified time period that Impact: the qualitative value, of an exposure through a given

particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period.

an average person or household is exposed to the message.

medium. The media planner has to figure out, within the given budget, the most effective combination of reach, frequency, and impact. Reach is most important when launching new products, extensions of well known brands, or infrequently purchased brands, or going after an undefined target market. Frequency is most important where there are strong competitors, a complex story to tell, higher consumer resistance, or a frequent purchase cycle. Choosing among major media types

The media planner has to know the capacity of the various media types to deliver reach, frequency, and impact. He should also evaluate the major advertising media along with their cost, advantages, and limitations. The media planners make choice among media categories by considering the variables such as which the target audience is and what are their media habits, the product to be advertised, the message to be conveyed, and the cost involved in all this.
Selecting specific vehicles: Deciding on media timing: in choosing the media, the advertiser faces macro

scheduling problem and a micro scheduling problem. The macro scheduling problem involves scheduling the advertising in relation to seasons and their business cycle. The micro scheduling problem calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact. The most effective pattern depends upon the communication objectives, in relation to the nature of the product, target customers, distribution channels, and other marketing factors.

The timing pattern should consider three factors:

Buyer turnover: it expresses the rate at which new buyers enter the market, the

higher this rate the more continuous the advertising should be

Purchase frequency: it is the number of times during the period the average buyer

buys the product; the higher the purchase frequency, the more continuous the advertising should be
Forgetting rate: it is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brand; the higher this

rate, the more continuous the advertising should be. Deciding on the geographical location: a company has to decide how to allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over time.

National buys: when it places ads on national TV networks or in nationality Spot buys: when it buys TV time in just a few markets or in regional Local buys: when it advertises in the local newspapers, radio, or outdoor

circulated magazines.

editions of magazines.

sites. EVALUATING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Good planning and control of advertising depends on measures of advertising effectiveness. Most of the money is spent by agencies on pre-testing ads, and much less is spent on evaluating their effectiveness. Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad that is, its potential effect on awareness, knowledge, or preference. They would also like to measure the ads sales effect.
Communication effect research: it seeks to determine whether an ad is

communicating effectively. Called copy testing, it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcasted. There are three major methods of advertising pre-testing: Direct rating method: in this case, the consumers are asked to rate the Portfolio tests: here, the consumers are asked to view or listen to a

alternative ads. These ratings are used to evaluate the ads.


portfolio of advertisements, taking as much time as they need. Consumers are then asked to recall all the ads and their content, aided or unaided by the interviewer.

Laboratory tests: it uses equipment to measure the physiological reactions

heartbeat, blood pressure, pupil dilation, perspiration to an ad. These tests measure attention getting power but reveal nothing about the impact on beliefs, attitudes, or intensions.

Sales effect research: advertisings sales effect is generally difficult to measure

than its communication effect. This is mainly because the sales are influenced by many other factors, such as the product features, price, availability, as well as the competitors actions. Companies are generally interested in finding out whether they are overspending or under spending on advertising. Researchers try to measure the sales impact through analyzing either historical or experimental data.

The types of advertisements can broadly be classified into three types: 1. Consumer advertising 2. Advertising to business and profession 3. Non- product advertising

Types of advertisements

Consumer Advertising

Advertising to Business and profession

Non- product Advertising

1. Consumer Advertising: These are basically nothing but product or service

advertisements directed towards the consumer or the customer as such. Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. Such kind of advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement. For Eg: - Advertisements such as that of DeBeers, pizza hut etc use the emotional appeal to attract the consumers. On the other hand advertisements such as the Kawasaki bajaj caliber, Vim Bar etc. use the rational appeal to address its target audience. The advertisement of DeBeers uses an emotional appeal because the statement I have my feet firmly planted on the ground except when Im wearing the millennium diamond suggests that by wearing them u can fly high in the sky and feel like what Urmila does in the advertisement

2. Advertising to business or profession: This type of advertising is aimed at

resellers and professionals. The media used here is direct mail or professional magazines. These are ads which are not directed towards the final consumers. Corporate ads are also a part of these types of ads. The target groups of corporate advertising are most often customers, stockholders, employees, financial institutions, political leaders and government. The objectives of the corporate or the institutional ads may be to establish or boost corporate identity and image, counter negative attitudes towards a company, industry or to promote and relate the company to some worthwhile social public interest cause.


Non- product advertising: In this type of advertising advertisements

depicting an idea, a social cause etc are included. Surrogate advertisements are also a part of such non- product advertisements.

Functions of Advertising
As a form of mass communication, advertising delivers relevant messages to target audiences and by changing mental states, it can perform a number of functions. Advertising moves consumers from being unaware of a product or service to finally purchasing it. An ad is considered effective if it propels the consumer a step further in this process. This is how the function of advertising is viewed. The different functions of advertising are viewed as follows:
1. STIMULATES DEMAND By informing consumers about the availability of a

product in the market, advertising stimulates latent needs, and reinforces the aroused needs. There is a general agreement that advertising has some effect on aggregate consumption.

does the pre selling of the product and makes the job of the sales people easier. Advertising reaches a relatively large audience and makes them favourably

predisposed. Ads carry the sales, promotional messages and often produce quick sales response.
3. DEVELOPS BRAND PREFERENCE Consistent and persuasive advertising

often induces brand trial or purchase. When the product delivers the promised quality, service and value, it creates satisfied customers who become instrumental in spreading a favourable word-of-mouth. Satisfied customers also develop brand preference which gets reinforced by repeated ads. Products with strong brand franchise offer some protection against the competition. Retailers develop confidence and do not hesitate in stocking strong brands. Brand loyal customers are an important asset for the company and are less likely to be influenced by competitive moves.
4. CUTS COSTS Advertising may be instrumental in cutting down production and

selling costs. Increasing unit sales decrease unit costs. Selling costs also may decrease because there could be fewer wasted calls and less strain on sales people.
5. LOWERS PRICES In any market based and competitive economy, when unit

cost of a product goes down, there are external and internal pressures which compel companies to lower prices to the advantage of consumers. This often leads to deeper market penetration
6. COMPETITIVE WEAPON Advertising by itself and coupled with other

promotion mix elements, may prove to be an extremely potent weapon to counter competitive moves. Advertising has an established role in creating brand personality and image. It helps differentiate a companys offer in a manner that the product may be considered as something with unique value having a definite identity of its own

Communications Objective
A mediocre advertising message properly directed stands more chance of success than the most professionally developed ad campaign directed at the wrong audience or

using unsuitable message appeals. Advertising creates its most powerful impact when it is used to solve narrowly defined communication objectives. Advertising communication objectives can be put in a pyramid form. The lower level objectives are awareness, knowledge or comprehension. These are accomplished first. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioural responses such as associating feelings with the brand, trial or regular use etc. It is easier to accomplish objectives located at the base of the pyramid than the ones toward the top. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid towards more action oriented objectives, such as regular brand use, etc. Irrespective of the fact whether the brand is new or established, the pyramid can be used to determine appropriate advertising objectives. What is required is to determine where the target audience lies with respect to various levels in the pyramid. If the level of brand awareness or knowledge of its features or benefits is low, the advertising communication should be to increase them. In case the brand liking and preference is low, then the appropriate goal can be to change the target audiences image of the brand.




It is a difficult task to translate a sales goal into a communication objective. However, if the brand objective is to raise sales by X% the promotion manager will ultimately have to decide in terms of some message that will be used to address the target audience to achieve this level of sales increase. Some other possible objectives could be 1. Increasing the percentage of target consumers who associate specific features or benefits with the companys brand 2. Increasing number of target consumers who prefer the client companys brand rather than competing brands 3. Increasing companys brand trial among non-users 4. Increasing companys brand trial rate among existing consumers. Even when promotion managers attempt to translate sales objectives, they are not sure what really constitutes adequate levels of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference or conviction. There are no formulas except the judgment and experience of concerned managers.



Conviction Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness

The Hierarchy of Effects model is basically divided into three stages. They are as follows:
1. The Cognitive stage: In this stage the communication objective of the

advertisement of the product is to create awareness about the existence of the product and give knowledge about the product. This type of communication strategy is used when either the product is first of its kind in the market or there is a new attribute attached to an existing product that the marketer wants to emphasize on. Example: the advertisement for the ponds blackhead removal strip was a awareness ad since such a product was first of its kind in the market.

At the same time the Shohans blackhead removal strip is knowledge based advertisement since it informs the consumer/user how to actually use the blackhead removal strip. 2. The Affective stage: At this stage the advertisement tries to create in the minds of the consumers a liking for the product over its substitutes. Also once this is achieved they try and create preference amongst the various brands available in the market in the minds of the consumers. Finally the advertisement uses a communication strategy that actually provides the customer/consumer a reason to buy which leads to the customer/consumer buying the product. Example 1: At the liking stage, Ujala advertisements did help in creating a shift amongst consumers from using the age old neel to the new colour of whiteness thus creating liking for an entire new product category as against the neel. Example 2: A preference is created in the advertisement of Tide where the model in the advertisement shows a shirt being washed by another detergent and another shirt with tide, and thus in the end showing that the performance of tide is better than the other detergent. Example 3: A reason to buy is very evident in the Dettol ad. Here at a school annual function, a boy receives a 100% attendance award which no one has received since the last four years. The mothers of other students present in the function wonder because they feel that these days children fall ill very frequently and think that how was it possible for this boy to not miss the school even once. As the boy gets up to receive the award the back of his seat reads dettol 100% protection and Jin gharon mein dettol rozana istemal hota hai who kam bimaar hote hain

2. The Behaviour stage: At this stage the consumer finally comes into action and

buys the product or the service. The sequential order of the effects suggests that the customer would end up buying a product only when the advertisement reaches the affective stage.

The hierarchy of effects model thus gives us an idea as to how the consumer or the customer behaves and thus what advertising communication objectives should be used at every stage such that the consumer actually buys the product.

An advertising agency is an independent organization that provides one or more specialized advertising and promotion related services to assist companies in developing, preparing and executing their advertising and other promotional programmes. Types of advertising agencies: There are basically four types of ad agencies. They are 1. 2. 3. 4.

In-house agencies Creative boutiques Media buying agencies Full service agencies In- house agencies: Some companies, in an effort to reduce costs

and maintain greater control over agency activities, have set up their own advertising agencies internally. An in-house agency is an ad agency set up, owned and operated

by the advertiser. Many companies use in-house agencies exclusively; others combine in-house efforts with those of outside agencies. A major reason for using in-house agency is to reduce advertising and promotional costs. Companies with very large advertising budgets pay a substantial amount to outside agencies in the form of media commissions. With an internal structure, these commissions go to the in-house ad agency. An in-house ad agency can also provide related work such as sales presentations and sales force material, package design, and public relations at a lower cost than the outside agencies. Saving money is not the only reason companies use in-house ad agencies. Time savings, bad experience with outside agencies, and the increased knowledge and understanding of the market that come from working advertising and promotion for the product or service day by day are also reasons. Companies can also maintain a tighter control over the process and more easily coordinate promotions with the firms overall marketing programmes. Opponents of the in-house agencies say that they can give the advertiser neither the experience nor the objectivity of the outside agency and nor the range of services. They argue that the outside agencies have a more specialized staff and attract the best creative staff. Also flexibility is higher since if the company is not satisfied with the agency it can be dismissed, whereas changes in an in-house agency could be slower and more disruptive. Thus we can summarize by saying that Ad agency In house agency Advantages Cost saving More control Increased coordination Disadvantages Less experience Less objectivity Less flexibility

Examples of in-house agencies in India are: 1. Levers - Lintas (previously)

2. Videocon Confidence 3. Reliance - Mudra


Creative boutiques: Creative boutique is an agency that provides

only creative services. These specialized companies have developed in response to some clients desires to use only the creative talent of an outside provider while maintaining the other functions internally. The client may seek outside creative talent for two reasons: Because he wants an extra creative effort b. May be because its own employees of the in-house agency or the agency that he has appointed do not have sufficient skills in this regard. The full-service agencies also sub-contract work creative boutiques when they are very busy or want to avoid adding full time employees to their pay roll. Creative boutiques are usually found by members of the creative departments of full service agencies who leave the firm and take with them clients who want to retain their creative talents. These boutiques generally perform creative function on a fee basis. Examples of creative boutiques are: 1. RMG David 2. Vyas Gianetti Creatives 3. Chlorophyll 3. Media buying agencies: Media buying agencies are independent companies that specialize in the buying of media, particularly radio and television. The task of purchasing advertising media has grown more complex as specialized media proliferate, so media buying services have found a niche by specializing in the analysis and purchase of the advertising time and space. Agencies and clients generally develop their own media plans and then hire the buying services to execute them. Some media buying agencies do help advertisers plan their media strategies. Because media buying agencies purchase such large amounts of time and space, they receive large discounts and can save the small agenys or clients money on media buying. Media buying agencies are paid a fee or commission for their work.

Examples of media buying agencies are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mindshare Initiative Media (LOWE) Zenith Media (Bates, Saatchi & Saatchi) Optimedia (Publicis) Starcom (Leo Burnett) Fulcrum (HTA)

4. Full service agency: The function of an advertising agency is to see to it that its

clients advertising leads to greater profits in the long run than could be achieved without the ad agency. Most such agencies are large in size and offer their clients a full range of services in the area of marketing, communications and promotions. These include planning, creating and producing the advertisement, media selection and research. Other services offered include strategic marketing planning, sales training, package design, sales promotion, event management, trade shows, publicity and public relations. The full service agency is composed of various departments; each is responsible to provide required inputs to perform various functions to serve the client. The various departments can be seen in the following diagram:

Structure of an ad agency

Account Service

Account Planning




Finance& Accounting





Account service department: The account service, or the account

management department, is the link between the ad agency and its clients. Depending upon the size of the account and its advertising budget one or two account executives serve as liason to the client. The account executives job requires high degree of diplomacy and tact as misunderstanding may lead to loss of an account. The account executive is mainly responsible to gain knowledge about the clients business, profit goals, marketing problems and advertising objectives. The account executive is responsible for getting approved the media schedules, budgets and rough ads or story boards from the client. The next task is to make sure that the agency personnel produce the advertising to the clients satisfaction. The biggest role of the account executive is keeping the agency ahead of the client through follow-up and communications. Media department: The responsibility of the agencys media

department is to develop a media plan to reach the target audience effectively in a cost effective manner. The staff analyses, selects and contracts for media time or space that will be used to deliver the ad message. This is one of the most important decisions since a significantly large part of the clients money is spent on the media time and/or space. The media department has acquired increasing importance in an agencys

business as large advertisers seem to be more inclined to consolidate media buying with one or few agencies thereby saving money and improving media efficiency. Creative department: To a large extent, the success of an ad agency

depends upon the creative department responsible for the creation and execution of the advertisements. The creative specialists are known as copywriters. They are the ones who conceive ideas for the ads and write the headlines, subheads and the body copy. They are also involved in deciding the basic theme of the advertising campaign, and often they do prepare the rough layout of the print ad or the commercial story board. Creation of an ad is the responsibility of the copywriters and the art department decides how the ad should look. Production department: After the completion and approval of the

copy and the illustrations the ad is sent to the production department. Generally agencies do not actually produce the finished ads; instead they hire printers, photographers, engravers, typographers and others to complete the finished ad. For the production of the approved TV commercial, the production department may supervise the casting of actors to appear in the ad, the setting for scenes and selecting an independent production studio. The production department sometimes hires an outside director to transform the creative concept to a commercial. Finance and accounting department: An advertising agency is in

the business of providing services and must be managed that way. Thus, it has to perform various functions such as accounting, finance, human resources etc. it must also attempt to generate new business. Also this department is important since bulk of the agencys income approx. 65% goes as salary and benefits to the employees.


According to the XIIth A&M agency report released on Tuesday, the industry grew at the rate of 23.51 per in 2000-01, a slight decline from the 24.83 per cent growth recorded by the industry in 1999-00 as per the XIth agency report. In rupee terms, the gross income of the Top 100 agencies stands at Rs 1,275.60 crore for 2000-01, compared to Rs 1,032.5 crore in 1999-00. In terms of capitalised billings, the industry figure for 2000-01 stands at Rs 8,509.7 crore. 1. HTA 207.40 crores Pepsi Foods (Pepsi, 7 UP, Mirinda, soft drinks), Parle (Monaco, biscuit), Hero Honda (CBZ/automobiles), I-Flex Solutions (Flex-cube/financial solution software), Godrej, Standard Chartered, Hero Cycles, Ford Ikon 2. Lowe 176.10 crores HLL, (Surf, Surf Excel, Wheel, Axe Deodorant, Lifebuoy, Liril, Kissan, Pepsodent, Fair n Lovely etc.), LG electronics, Bajaj (Corporate and Scooters), Britannia Pure Magic, Titan Fastrack, Indian Army, Park Avenue 3. O&M 125.87 Crores Pidilite (Fevicol, Fevikwik), Hutchison Max Telecom Ltd (Max Touch - cellular operator), TELCO (Tata Safari, Sierra, Sumo - sports utility vehicle), Prasar Bharti Broadcasting (Doordarshan/TV Channel), Cadbury, Motorola 4. Mudra Communications 106.99 Crores Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (Corporate), Indian Express (News paper), MidDay (website), Global Trust bank (Banking),Indian Tourism Development Corporation (Hotels), Henkel Spic India (Detergents), Godrej Foods, LIC of India (Insurance - services), Hindustan Motors Ltd (Mitsubishi Lancer), Samsung Electronics India (Samsung/televisions), McDonalds 5. FCB Ulka 86.88 Crores

Tata (Corporate), Zodiac Apparel, Compaq, HDFC, Amul Condensed Milk, Tata Indica, Castrol GTX Magnatec, Planet Kids, Tropicana, Digjam 6. Rediffusion DY&R 75.2 Crores Zee TV(channel);Tata Tetley(tea), ING Vysya Life Insurance(life insurance), IFFCO Tokyo(non-life insurance), Godfrey Evian Philips (Four square/cigarette), Ericsson Haldia Mobile Petrochemicals(Petrochemicals); (Mineral Water),

(Cellphones), CitiBank (Corporate), Canon (printers, calculators), Bharti BT Ltd (Internet service), SBI Funds Management Ltd (SBI - mutual funds) 7. McCann Ericksson 61.8 crores Coca Cola, Bacardi India(Breezer/ready to drink beverages);Reckitt Benckiser Ltd. (dettol), Gillette India(Duracell Plus/alkaline batteries, Fashion Razor 2001,Mach III Cool Blue /razors);Perfetti India(Happy Dent/chewing gum);TVS-Suzuki (corporate/TVS Max, TVS Scooty, TVS XL, TVS Sport, TVS Super, TVS Champ/motorcycles & mopeds), Nescafe, General Motors, Star TV Network (Star Plus, Star Movies, Star News), 8. RK Swamy BBDO 44.1 crore Cisco System(network solution); Abbott Laboratories India Ltd(Healthcare); Mercedez Benz (Automobiles); 'O' MTNL(Telecommunication); SQL Star Sony India Ltd(Sony/TV); Fujitsu general(Airconditioners); International

Ltd(Computer education); Dalmia Cement (Cement); Wrigleys India (Wrigleys Juicy Fruit chewing gum); Dena Bank (Banking); 9. Grey Worldwide 42.5 crore SmithKline Beecham (Viva, maltova/health drink); Hughes Software (Software); Hyundai Accent, Blaupunkt car stereos, Kinetic, Lee, Opel Astra, Oracle India Ltd (Oracle - software); United Agencies Ltd (Pernod - liquor); Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP - political), ITC Foods(Dal Bukhara/foods), ITC Cards (Expressions/greeting cards)

10. Leo Burnett 37.5 crore Coca Cola Company(Maaza, Georgia Gold, Thums Up), Fiat Auto (Fiat Palio and Siena), Pilsbury (Pizza), Bajaj Electricals ( Bajaj /fans & luminaries), Complan, Hallmark Entertainment Network, Heinz

When the advertising or the marketing managers go about selecting an advertising agency, they generally follow the following steps: 1. Define what they want in an ad agency in terms of some specific services required etc. 2. Tell the news media, such as The Brief, A&M, as well as local business editors that you intend to select an ad agency for your product. They will spread the news. 3. Screen the agencies that have replied to the advertisements on the basis of certain criterion and narrow the field down to four or five agencies. 4. PRESENTATION/PITCH Herein agencies that have been short listed receive an invitation from companies to make presentations. Through these presentations the agency may succeed in selling its services to new clients. The agency describes its experience, its personnel and capabilities, procedures, and demonstrates its outstanding work. The presentation may be speculative, requiring an analysis of the prospects marketing situation and propose a tentative ad campaign. The purpose is to indicate what kind of ad campaign they would create if they had the account. Such pitches are expensive and involve great deal of time and preparation without any assurance of gaining the business. Many ad agencies are disinclined to welcome and participate in such events as they believe agencies should be selected on account of experience and the quality of services they have provided to previous clients.

5. Choose the new agency on the basis of certain criterion and also at the same time inform the other agencies as to why they were not chosen. A few general parameters that the client looks for while choosing an ad agency are as follows: Agencies knowledge of the advertising process Agencies knowledge of the product category Clients basis of experience with the ad agency Clients knowledge of the abilities of the agency The chemistry between the agency and the client with respect to the kind of interaction between them, the understanding of mutual needs etc.


After the marketer selects an ad agency for its product or brand the marketer gives an ad brief to the account executive, the person in charge of handling that particular account. This ad brief generally includes information such as: 1. why does the marketer think there is need for advertising the brand or product 2. the target audience 3. what do they think about the brand and other such products 4. what is the kind of response the marketer wants form the consumer after they see the ad 5. the USP of the product 6. any suggestions as to how the ad should look The next step is where the account executive analysis the ad brief and goes back to the client in case if any clarifications are required. Then this ad brief is broken up into a creative brief and a media brief. These are given to the creative and the media department respectively. The media and the creative department then conduct research if required for the characteristics of the target audience, their likes, their dislikes, their living conditions, their behaviour in general, their exposure to the different types of media and so on.

The creative department after the research comes out with various alternative campaigns for the product. In the same way the media department also makes alternative media plans. The creative and the media department then make presentations to the account executive who in turn after discarding various ideas selects 2 or 3 ideas which according to him matches the ad brief and the requirements of the client the best. If none of the ideas appeal the account executive then the creative and/or media department have to work from scratch all over again. Once this is done, the account executive or someone from the account planning department assisting the account service department makes presentations to the client of the ideas that were approved by the account executive. There are three possibilities at this stage: 1. 2. 3. The client does not like any of the ideas presented and again the creative and The client approves of an idea which is sent for further processing. The client is confused between two very good concepts. Here there is Premedia department have to work towards another idea.

testing undertaken. Both the ideas are shown to a specific audience that is assumed to be the representative sample of the target audience as suggested by the client. Depending upon their response for the two ideas the best is chosen and sent for further processing. After one concept is finally approved of, the creative copy is sent to the printer for the print ad. For the commercial, the concept is sent to the production department where the ad is shot. The decision about model selection is either of the client, account executive or the film director or a combined effort of all three. As the print ad are being made and the commercial being shot the media department at the same time starts buying media slots as per the approved media plan? The next step is the launch of the ad in the specified media. Then comes the next step of billing. An ad agency generally charges the client on the basis of a fee structure or on a cost-plus system basis. Under the fee structure, the client and the ad agency negotiate a flat sum to be paid to the agency for all work done. The agency estimates the cost (including out of

pocket expenses) of servicing the client who either accepts or negotiates for a lesser amount. Negotiations continue until an agreement is reached. The cost-plus system is generally used when the media billings are relatively low and a great deal of agency service is required by the client. This happens most often with industrial products, new product introductions etc. that require disproportionate amount of agency help in preparing brochures, catalogues and other non- commissionable marketing activities. The final step is Post- evaluation. In this stage the success of the advertisement is judged through research conducted wherein the target audience as such is questioned on the visibility of the ad, whether the ad is top of mind or not, if the product is existing has the new campaign helped in increase in the sales or not and so on.


The process of agency evaluation involves regular assessment of two aspects of performance area financial and qualitative. The financial assessment focuses on how the agency conducts its business to verify costs and expenses, the number of personnel hours charged to an account to an account and what payments are made to media and other outside service suppliers. Qualitative assessment explores the agencys efforts devoted in planning, developing and implementing the client companys advertising campaign and an assessment of the achievements. For a qualitative assessment even the small things matter; such as a quick turnaround time, creativity because this is what the agency is in the business of, value add in terms of giving the client a creative edge by giving them a creative leap etc. One can also evaluate agencies by their track record of losing clients or acquiring new clients and retaining them. The parameters on which an ad agencys creative services dept is evaluated are as follows:

(The various parameters are ranked on a scale of 1-10 with 1 being the poorest and 10 being Excellent) 1. Agency regularly produces fresh ideas and original approaches? 2. Creative executions are consistently on strategy? 3. Research is effectively used in strategic development and in pre-post testing of advertising 4. Creative group is knowledgeable about the companys products, markets and strategies? 5. Creative group is concerned with good and consistent advertising communications and develops campaigns, ads that exhibit this concern 6. Creative group produces on time and submits for review in time to permit orderly revisions 7. Creative group performs well under pressure 8. Agency presentations are well organized with sufficient examples of proposed executions 9. Creative group participates in major campaign presentations 10.Agency presents ideas and executions not requested but which they feel are good opportunities. 11.Creative group takes constructive criticism and redirection 12.Creative group effectively controls costs 13.Overall evaluation of creative services The parameters on which an ad agencys Media services dept is evaluated are as follows: (The various parameters are ranked on a scale of 1-10 with 1 being the poorest and 10 being Excellent) 1. Media group actually explores the new uses of various media available 2. Agency media recommendations are objective and reflect sufficient knowledge of companys markets, target consumers, services and objectives

3. Agency exhibits a broad capability in media as opposed to specializing in a particular medium 4. Agency keeps client up-to-date on the trends and developments in the field of media 5. Agency subscribes to and makes use of available and applicable syndicated media services 6. Agency engages in original research in the field of selection and usage of media 7. Agency provides client with regular review and analysis of competitions medias usage 8. Agency media administrative practices are adequate, including co-ordination of media schedules, contracts, checking media to verify advertising has run, etc. 9. Agency regularly conducts post-buy analysis on all media placements in a timely manner 10.Agency is effective in media negotiations for best possible rates and position for the companys advertising 11.Media plans provide sufficient flexibility for opportunistic buys or other cost saving strategies 12.Agency communication plan objectives and rationale effectively to brand management 13.Media strategies establish specific and measurable goals for reach, frequency and other objective SUCCESSFUL AD CAMPAIGNS

Brand: Agency: Lowe The Dishoom Dishoom success story Pepsodent's home run upto 1998


Pepsodent's credentials of 'long lasting protection from germs for hours after brushing', enabled the brand to grow and differentiate itself powerfully vis a vis the market leaderColgate Dental Cream. From Process to End Benefit:

1999-2000 Between 1999 and 2000, Pepsodent decided on a logical extension of the 'process' benefit of germ fighting to end benefits. This was an attempt to take on Colgate Dental Cream in its own territory, with a new formulation and new communication. The Result: Weakening of all associations with the brand leading to dilution in Pepsodent's distinctiveness as a Germ Fighter. The Challenge: 2001 It was time to win back the distinctive edge- by appropriating once again the proposition of 'Long lasting Germ Protection' in consumers' minds. And Pepsodent had to also contend with a rejuvenated Colgate Dental Cream at the same time. Creative Strategy: To heighten concern about germs and thereby leverage Pepsodent's core proposition in this context. Research helped identify several situations wherein a mother tends to show anxiety about her child's teeth .This helped us home in on the most relevant and provocative insight. Insight: Mothers worry about their childrens' eating habits, more so when they are out of her sight. They don't want to fight with them over this. But, if they don't do anything, they feel they are being irresponsible. Advertising Idea: Don't fight with your children over their 'out of control' eating. Let Pepsodent fight the germs for you. Sweet food was used as a torture test to depict Pepsodent's efficacy at germ fighting. The sound mnemonic of Dishoom Dishoom was used to depict the conflict between the mother and child, and also, the action of Pepsodent on germs. Results of the campaign The Pepsodent mother became aspirational. Mothers using CDC were forced to sit up and pay attention to Pepsodent- a brand that understood them and addressed situations that they encountered in their day to day life. And Pepsodent gained back its edge of 'long lasting germ protection'. Quantitative evidence of success This was reflected in improvements in its market shares- an increase of 2.85 percent points between March 2001 and December 2001 (from 10.96% to 13.81%).Share increases were steady and consistent, with increasing GRP spend.

Brand: Agency: Lowe



The Making of Indias No: 1 Private Life Insurer ICICI Prudential is a case study in the role of marketing in reshaping an industry. It highlights how an industry where sell and push were oft used words and consumer was nothing more than a file no., has changed to one where consumer preference and consumer pull rules the roost. Heres a look at how ICICI Pru changed the rules of the game and emerged a leader in the process. Background: When the insurance sector was liberalized in 2000, the private players had to contend with a few issues. Ratio of premium to GDP was low: 1.3% of GDP was invested in insurance. Insurance penetration was at an abysmal 22% of the insurable population. Besides the above the private players were faced with: Attitudinal Barriers, Perception of insurance as a tax saving tool and lack of a consumer centric approach in service and product offerings. The Marketing Challenge facing ICICI Pru: The challenge therefore was to change established category drivers (death payment & tax saving) and to get the consumer to evaluate insurance on a more emotional platform (protection) rather than a mere rational decision (tax savings). The Campaign Objectives: A) Reposition the category in the consumer's mind. Influence the consumer to view it as a protection instrument and not a tax saving product alone. B) In the process, create differentiation for the ICICI Pru brand as a provider of social security and family protection. C) Achieve leadership status in saliency, image & product parameters. D) Build credibility and trust. The Target Audience: Representing an ideal mix of medium to high net worth individuals: The consumers most disposed towards buying life insurance. Middle-aged professionals, primarily male, salaried and self employed, age group: 28 - 45 years, household income: Rs.20, 000 and above. Creative Strategy:

The essence of the creative strategy: To get the consumer to re look at Insurance as a means to lead a worry free life and not as a necessary evil. To this effect the core brand insight highlighted was "As head of the family it's my responsibility to take care of my loved ones and protect them from the uncertainties of life", summed up in the advertising idea: We cover you at every step in life (Suraksha Zindagi ke har kadam par, as interpreted in Hindi ). ICICI Pru was positioned as an enabler of protection relevant to the needs of the life stage that you are in. At the core of the communications strategy was appropriating the generic category benefit (protection) through its greatest metaphor Sindoor. The Creative execution: TVC: Building image and creating a differential in the most creative and compelling manner. The creative execution heightened the emotional connect with the ICICI Pru brand - Indian; satisfaction of knowing that ones loved ones are protected. Symbolic representation of the protector of the family through situations showcasing various life stages and creating endearing imagery of protection and familial bonding. Press: Gave the consumer a rational and tangible reason to buy insurance first and secondly from ICICI Prudential. The product specific advertising focussed on changing the prevalent perception about insurance and breaking a few myths: non- affordability, insurance not being good investment option and the myth that insurance was good only for tax saving. Other Communications: Other programs included direct mail, PR of communications campaign in press & TV, website marketing; and database generation through Banc assurance channels. Media Strategy: In a market likely to be cluttered, we used multiple touch points to reach the consumer. The role for each medium was envisaged. The TV medium was used to enhance the emotional link with the brand. Strategic use of 15 sec. edits facilitated high frequency levels. In print, cost per response rather than cost per thousand as responses were measured in form of call-ins. Radio FM, Cinema, Internet were used to create a media multiplier effect. The results of communication efforts: Being no: 1 in awareness and saliency. Awareness: ICICI Pru showed a significant jump in awareness between Feb and Sept 2001. Image: Highest score among all Insurance players including LIC, on image parameters like safety, modernity, service, good returns etc. Intention to invest: Next only to LIC as per research (All Source: Research by ORG Marg). No. of calls and emails: There were 70,000 calls at the call center and 6582 emails in the year 2001. Sum up:

In just over a year ICICI Pru has emerged as Indias no.: 1 Private Life Insurance Company with almost 50% market share of the private players. Has sold highest no. of policies both in volume and value. Major Milestone - Over 100000 policies on Mar 31, 2002.

With realistic goals for advertising, you can satisfy both those who are investing in the advertising and those who are creating it. Almost every person involved with advertising wants to measure their advertisings results. Those who pay the bills want to know the return on their investment, and those creating the advertising want to demonstrate that their work is effective. Research efforts on the part of advertisers, ad agencies, and the media have helped quantify the results of advertising. But most continue to face basic questions such as: Does your Advertising work? How hard does it work? What specifically does it do for your business? Should I increase, maintain, or decrease spending? Whats the best message I can put in my advertising? There are no easy answers to these questions. Solutions are a mixture of science and art.

Marketing versus Advertising

Failure sometimes occurs even before the process starts because companies are confused by the apparent similarity between the purpose of advertising and marketing. Both are meant to encourage consumers to purchase products and services, however, there is a fundamental difference between the two. Advertising is only one part of the marketing process, and its job is to deliver messages that have a psychological effect on the consumer. While marketing, which also includes functions such as public relations, promotion, sales, packaging, and pricing, has the more inclusive job of moving products and services from the seller to the buyer. Companies when asked about advertising objectives almost always reply with marketing objectives. If they have a formal marketing plan, the advertising objectives are typically statements like: to increase sales, or to expand market share. These are too broad and general, making it almost impossible to measure success. More specific objectives such as increase sales by 15%, or expand market share by 5% arent much better because they are marketing goals, not advertising goals. Advertising cannot achieve marketing goals all by itself. If a company wants to measure the results of its advertising, it has to be more specific in the definition of what it expects to accomplish through the use of advertising.

The Job of Advertising

What part of the total marketing goal can we expect advertising to achieve? Since advertising is a communications tool, we must assign it a communications task. Its job is

to deliver a message that is designed to stimulate specific consumer behavior. The message you want advertising to deliver must be specific. Keep in mind that at this stage you are defining what needs to be said, not how to say ityoure not trying to write a headline. With a specific communications task that can be performed by advertising, independent of other marketing efforts, you can measure your advertisings success.

Where does advertising objectives fall in the marketing plan

Market Analysis Consumer Analysis Competitive Analysis Bran d Organizational Realities

Advertising in the Marketing Plan: The Companys overall marketing plan determines promotional objectives and from these objectives, advertising objectives are derived. Promotion objectives specify what is to be accomplished and where advertising fits in. The next step is to set specific ad objectives and goals.

Marketing Plan Marketing Objectives Sales Objectives

Advertising Objectives

Advertising Strategy

Advertising Tactics Promotions

Creative Strategy

Media Strategy

Evolution Of Advertising
From a freelance activity to an integral component of the Marketing Plan As a business task, advertising has to meet certain clear-cut objectives. In the past, advertising often operated within organizations almost like a freelance activity. The creative nature of the job often gave it the image of an activity that could not be subjected to established management norms and controls. This position, however, has been undergoing changes over the years. The commercial world will not blindly accept costs that cannot yield measurable results. Since advertising Evolution of Advertising involves heavy costs to the advertiser, it is only natural that advertising slowly got included in those management activities that are expected to yield Freelance Activity results proportional to the effort and cost involved. The advertiser started asking: "Am I getting my moneys worth?" Advertising was slowly becoming a management task, well within the rules of the management process. People began to expect tangible results from advertising; and when such evaluation Objective driven Activity came, the role of objectives and goals in advertising became crucial. It came to be accepted that advertising had to operate with certain well-defined objectives against which the results of the programme can be later measured.



One of the reasons many companies fail to set specific objectives for their advertising and promotional programs are that they fail to recognize the value of doing so. There are several important reasons for setting advertising and promotional objectives: Direction: Advertisement objectives are essential because it helps the marketer to know in advance what they want to achieve and to ensure that they are proceeding in the right direction. Pin pointing the ad objectives also helps in making ones goals real and not imaginary, so that effective ad programmes can be developed for meeting the objectives .it also guides and controls decision-making in each area and at each stage Communication: Objectives provide a communication platform for the client, the advertising agency account executive help coordinate the creative team members and the efforts of copywriters, media specialists, media buyers and professionals involved

advertising research. The advertising programme must also be coordinated with other promotion mix elements within the company. In fact many problems may be avoided if all the concerned parties have written objectives to guide their actions and serve as a common base for discussing related issues Planning and Decision MakingSpecific objectives can be useful as a guide or criterion for decision-making. Advertising and promotion planners are often faced with a number of strategic and tactical options in areas such as creative, media, budgeting and sales promotion. Choices among these options should be made on the basis of how well a strategy or tactic matches the promotional objective. Measurement and Evaluation of ResultsA very important reason for setting specific objectives is that they provide a benchmark or standard against which success or failure of the campaign can be measured. When specific objectives are set it becomes easier for management to measure what has been accomplished by the campaign

Two Distinct Schools Of Thought

What should be or what could be the objectives for advertising? A controversy around this question is still running hot in the ad world. One school holds that ad has to necessarily bring in more sales and therefore ad objectives should certainly include sales growth. The second and diametrically opposite view is that ad is essentially a communication task and it should have only communication goals, or goals intended to shape the awareness and attitudes of consumers Advertising Objectives

Sales Oriented Objectives

Communicatio n Oriented Objectives

Each of these objectives is explained in detail in the subsequent chapters.


Many marketing managers view their advertising and promotional programs from a sales perspective and argue that sales or some related measure such as market share is the only meaningful goal for advertising and thus should be the basis for setting objectives. They

take the position that the basic reason a firm spends money on advertising and promotion is to sell its products or services. Thus they argue that any money spent on advertising should produce measurable sales results. Example: There are many companies of low involvement products like confectionery and sweets whose advertising objective would be solely of sales. However over the time even these companies have realized that sales cannot be the sole objective of advertising, ad building a brand and establishing a favourable attitude towards the brand is also important. Drawback of using sales as the only objective of advertising Sales are a convenient and really attractive advertising objective for many managers, but except for Direct Action Advertising, they are usually unsuitable for most advertising. In todays increasingly competitive market conditions, marketing and brand managers are often under pressure to show sales results and their perspective is short term in evaluating advertising. They look for quick fix solutions for declining sales, ignoring the dangers of linking advertising directly with sales

Incase of sales as the advertising objective, it would be quite simple to evaluate the results of the ad campaign. Sales objective however may not be operational in certain cases because advertising is just one factor among many others that influence sales, to identify the contribution of advertising alone may really be difficult. Other factors that may have significant effect on sales are product features, price, distribution, personal selling, publicity, packaging, competitors moves, and changing buyer needs. Example APPLE computers advertised their iMAC in some selected print media vehicles in India; the ads were very successful and did in fact draw many potential buyers to dealerships. However in good number of cases the matter ended there. The problem was not with the ads, the campaign was very successful attracting and creating product liking but the price and nonavailability of peripherals discouraged them. It would be unfair to measure the success of ads themselves by the number of Apple computers sold to home users.

The time lag between audience exposure to an ad and when that ad may lead to an actual sale could be quite long because majority of the ads usually produce sales effect after a long period of time. Sales as an advertising objective, offer little guidance to creative and media people working on the account. They need some direction regarding what kind of ad message the company hopes to communicate, who will be the target audience and what specific response from the audience is desired.

Thus advertising objectives that emphasize sales are usually not very operational because they provide little practical guidance for decision makers. No one argues the desirability of a sales increase, but which campaign will generate such an increase? If an objective does not contribute useful criteria on which to base subsequent decision, it cannot fulfill its basic functions. Again increased sales is not a specific goal it is only a wish for the future. What percentage increase is the company looking at? By which date? Where are these increased sales going to come from? How are they going to be achieved? The lucidity of these answers will influence the effectiveness of the companys advertising objectives.

Where Sales Objectives for advertising can be applied

In spite of problems that sales objectives pose, there are certain situations when sales objectives can be appropriate.

Direct Action Advertising: Some direct action advertising attempts to induce quick response from the members of the target audience, such as ads offering some kind of incentive, or ads announcing contests, or encouraging prospects to place orders on phone or through internet. In such cases evaluation is based on sales results. Sales Promotion Programs: Many sales promotion programs have sales objectives since their goal is often to generate trial or short-term sales increases

Example Many companies have the Scratch and Win offers, which are usually advertised on television. One such company was VIM bar, which had a scratch and Win offer for about two months.

Incase of companies where advertising plays a dominant role in the marketing programme and other elements are relatively stable, sales oriented objectives are used.

There are again many sales oriented objectives, which a particular company can have. They are given in the following table.

Types of Sales Oriented Objectives

Type of Sale Media Increase Policy Creative Content Example

Existing Products Existing Maintain Suggest new uses for Product to insertions in your product, or Existing users current reasons for more media frequent use, building on existing contacts and goodwill Existing Consider Explain the basic Product to new media benefits of your New users product, and your company record, to people unaware of them. Existing Consider Comparison campaigns Product to competitors pointing out the users of rival media advantages of the products patterns product over rival Brand brands and of changing switching established buying habits New Products New Products Maintain Explain basic benefits, to Existing insertions in building on existing Customers current contacts and goodwill media DETTOL Antiseptic advertised on the different usage of the product, like for washing babys clothes, for shaving, etc. PHILIPS, ONIDA launched their colour television sets in rural markets and had related advertisements for it. FAIREVER advertised to switch the Fair & Lovely users to its product.

New Products Consider to New Users new media

New Products Consider to Competitors competitors Customers media patterns

Explain benefits product, company other fields Explain basic benefits PEPSI AHA aimed at and overcome advertising itself in bars established goodwill. in order to switch the alcohol drinkers to use Pepsi Aha instead of Thumbs Up as their mixer in the drink.

LAKME introducing new products like Sunscreen lotion, Moisturizer with Peach Flavour, Winter Cream Lotion with Strawberry ingredients, etc. the basic FA and NIVEA of your introducing products for and your men. record in


Often when we think of advertising, we just think of great ads that make us laugh or engage us in some manner. We tend to judge ads by these simple criteria. However, a far more powerful way to look at advertising is by understanding that advertising is a communication task, with specific communication objectives, and therefore we need to understand how communication works. The starting point is an audit of all the potential interactions target customers may have with the product and the company. For example, someone interested in purchasing a new computer would talk to others, see television ads, read articles, look for information on the intranet, and observe computers in a store. The marketer needs to assess which experiences and impressions will have the most influence at each stage of the buying process. This understanding will help marketers allocate their communication budget more efficiently. To communicate effectively, marketers need to understand the fundamental elements underlying effective communication. On the basis of the communication importance, there were eminent personalities who made the communication models, which help a marketer to understand, how he should go about communicating his product to the target audience. All these communication models are centered on the three stages of the buying behaviour of consumers.

The three stages are:

Cognitive Stage The cognitive component deals with cognition, or knowledge; it is the power of knowing, perceiving or conceiving ideas about the product. It is dealing with the basic information that a consumer needs to know. A customer needs to be exposed to the product and understand its usage before he actually purchases it. Affective Stage The effective component deals with the affections/emotions. For example, feelings of likes or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. It is at this stage that the consumer will either have preference or liking towards the product or he will develop a dislike. This stage shows his attitude towards the product, whether he is for or against the product. Behaviour Stage This is the stage when the consumer, after having the knowledge and developing the liking or disliking towards the product, will ultimately lead into a purchase of the product or rejection of the product. He would first try the product and develop loyalty towards it or he is completely convinced that the product is good and would purchase the product.
The Three Stages

Cognitive Affective Behaviour

Hence there are many models, which are based on these three stages, which is explained in the next chapter.


Stages Cognitive Stage

AIDA Model

Hierarchy effects Model

of Innovation Adoption Model

Communications Model Exposure

Awareness Reception Attention Knowledge Awareness Cognitive response Interest Preference Desire Conviction Evaluation Trial Action Purchase Adoption Behaviour Intention Attitude

Affective Stage

Liking Interest

Behaviour stage

The AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. It shows a set of stair-step stages, which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The stages, Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy. It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a products existence, be interested enough to pay attention to the products

features/benefits, and have a desire to benefit from the products offerings. Action, the fourth stage, would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages. Although this idea was rudimentary, it led to the later emerging field of consumer behavior research.

Example: Film Industry Before the films are to be released, they start with airing their promos on television. Later they use the outdoor and the press to create more AWARENESS AND ATTENTION. The producers bank on the star cast, music, locations and the crew of the film to catch the eyes of the public. To create INTEREST among the consumers, they then release the music and also introduce the theme of the film. The purchase of the music cassettes and CDs is an indication of the interest generated by their efforts. Later at the DESIRE stage, along with continuous promos on television, press and hoardings, they have promotions through contests and movie tickets as prizes. They also have interactive programs like the star cast of the film visiting different music shops and creating desire among the audience. After all these promos and activities, if the film is successful in creating interest and desire among the people, there is immediate ACTION which is seen through purchases of tickets at movie halls. To illustrate one such movie through the AIDA model is BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM A: Promos had David Beckham and Football I: Introduced Music and Dialogues of film. Also the tagline: Who wants to cook Aloo Gobi when you can bend a ball like Beckham. D: A fresh movie with a different theme. The film also talked about the success of film overseas A: Got 3 and 4star ratings and publicized that in promos. Example of a brand: Colgate (Strongest teeth)


Hierarchy of effects Model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. First the lower level objectives such as awareness, knowledge or comprehension are accomplished. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand, trial, or

regular use etc. it is easier to accomplish ad objectives located at the base of the pyramid than the ones towards the top. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid toward more action oriented objectives, such as regular brand use. Awareness: if most of the target audience is unaware of the object, the communicators task is to build awareness, perhaps just name recognition, with simple messages repeating the product name. Consumers must become aware of the brand. This isnt as straightforward as it seems. Capturing someones attention doesnt mean they will notice the brand name. Thus, the brand name needs to be made focal to get consumers to become aware. Magazines are full of ads that will capture your attention, but youll have trouble easily seeing the brand name. Knowledge: the target audience might have product awareness but not know much more; hence this stage involves creating brand knowledge. This is where comprehension of the brand name and what it stands for become important. What are the brands specific appeals, its benefits? In what way is it different than competitors brands? Who is the target market? These are the types of questions that must be answered if consumers are to achieve the step of brand knowledge. Liking: if target members know the product, how do they feel about it? If the audience looks unfavourably towards the product to communicator has to find out why. If the unfavourable view is based on real problems, a communication campaigns alone cannot do the job. For product problem it is necessary to first fix the problem and only then can you communicate its renewed quality. Preference: the target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. In this case, the communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting quality, value, performance and other features. The communicator can check the campaigns success by measuring audience preference before and after the campaign. Conviction: a target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. The communicators job is to build conviction among the target audience. Purchase: finally, some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quite get around to making the purchase. They may wait for more information or plan to

act later. The communicator must need these consumers to take the final step, perhaps by offering the product at a low price, offering a premium, or letting consumers tried out. This is where consumers make a move to actually search out information or purchase.

Awareness Knowledge

Teaser campaigns Pioneering ads Jingles/ slogans Internet banners Announcements Informative ads


Descriptive ads Image/ celebrity Demonstration of benefits


Competitive ads Persuasive copy Comparative ads Testimonials


Direct-action retail ads Point-of-purchase ads Price deal offers


Reminder ads Informative why ads

High involvement/low involvement and rational vs. Emotional appeals How to achieve a good brand attitude is, in fact, rather complex. But to make it simple, we can break it down into some basic steps. The first step is to determine whether what you sell is a high involvement or low involvement product. Think of a high involvement product as one that is risky and important for customers. If you sell a product that is mission critical to a customer (that is, if it doesnt work, the customers business doesnt work), then it is clearly a high involvement product. Alternatively, low involvement products are not that important or risky to customers. A decision must be made about how you will influence the customers attitude. Two broad ways exist for doing this. One is through a rational persuasion approach (Also known as the THINK), the other is through an emotional appeal (also known as the FEEL). In fact, you see these different types of approaches used all the time in television and print advertising. How you make this decision depends on what you know about your customers. If you were trying to change an engineers attitude, for example, a rational approach would typically (but not always) be best. An artist might be approached more with an emotional appeal. The more you know about your customers, the easier this decision will be. With an understanding of the nature of your customers involvement and the approach you will take, it is relatively easy to see the different strategies that should be used to achieve a good brand attitude. These are listed in the table below, and they are all based on research in persuasion and marketing. As an example of what the table says, consider trying to change the attitude of a customer who is very involved in the product and appears susceptible to rational persuasion. You should use multiple facts, expert and credible sources, scientific evidence, etc. By looking at this table you can easily see how so many companies (especially Internet companies) who try to make fun ads with lots of music are assuming they are selling a low-involvement product to people who want an emotional appeal. But are they? Not always, and this suggests they wont do a good job persuading customers to like their brand. High Involvement Very important decision Lot to lose if you choose the wrong brand Decision requires lot of thought Low Involvement Unimportant decision

Little to lose if you choose the wrong brand Decision requires little thought

Think or Rational approach Decision is mainly logical or objective Decision is based on mainly on functional facts Decision is not based on a lot of feeling Decision does not express ones personality Decision is not based on looks, tastes, touch, smell, or sound (sensory effects) Feel or Emotional approach Decision is not mainly logical or objective Decision is not based on mainly on functional facts Decision is based on a lot of feeling Decision does express ones personality Decision is based on looks, tastes, touch, smell, or sound (sensory effects) A marketer can use the FCB Grid for its advertising strategy; depending on which quadrant his product falls into. Think or Approach Rational Feel or Emotional Approach Quadrant 2 Affective (Psychological) Feel Learn Do Ex. Cosmetics, jewelry, and fashion clothing. Quadrant 4 Satisfaction (Social) Do Feel Learn Ex. "lifes little pleasures" such as beer, cigarette, and candy/sweets.

Quadrant 1 High Informative (Economic) Involvement Learn Feel Do Ex. Cars, appliances, and insurance. Quadrant 3 Low Habitual (Responsive) Involvement Do Learn Feel Ex. Consumer goods, gasoline

Communication strategies for each quadrant Quadrant 1 Convey multiple facts that illustrate the basic message Use expert/credible sources Present scientific evidence Use 2 sided appeals Present weakest arguments first Use comparative advertising

Example Cars: HYUNDAI SANTRO Zip Plus This car is a variant of the flagship brand Hyundai Santro. When the car was launched, it focused on more powerful engine. As it continuously upgraded the model, it focused on automatic transmission, the result of which was seen as footfalls and test-drives. (Look for press ad) Quadrant 2 Use dramas Use sources similar to your customers Try to create empathy and a vicarious emotional experience Strong visuals Large spreads TV with visual impact Example PROVOGUE continuously advertises its line of garments as being endorsed by popular models and actors, the latest one being Fardeen Khan. Instead of talking about fabrics or colours, it always talks about the aspirational value of wearing a Provogue outfit. Quadrant 3 Dont use comparative ads Use one-sided appeals Use credible/expert source Present strongest arguments first Use a large number of arguments Draw a conclusion Reminder ads and repetition Catchy music and slogans Small space ads Point of sale ads Example SUNDROP advertised its Sunflower oil as the healthy oil for healthy people. Throughout the ads, it made the golden yellow colour of Sunflower dominant. Quadrant 4 Create a likable ad via the use of music, celebrities, humor, attractive visuals Use likable sources Attention getting Impulse purchase Billboards

Newspapers Point of sale Example Pan Pasand, in its ads, talked about how having a Pan Pasand lozenge changes moods from anger to polite and loving.

In 1961, Russel H. Colley wrote a book under the sponsorship of the Association of National Advertisers called Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. The book introduced what has become known as the DAGMAR approach to advertising planning and included a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. DAGMAR approach can be summarized as Defining Advertising Goals. An advertising goal is a specific communication task to be accomplished among a defined audience in a given period of time. In DAGMAR the communication task is based on the model of communication process DAGMAR has changed the way advertising objectives were created and the way that advertising results were measured. It introduced the concept of communication objectives like awareness, comprehension, image, and attitude. The point was made that such goals are more appropriate for advertising than in some measure like sales, which can have multiple causes. DAGMAR also focused attention upon measurement, encouraging people to create objectives so specific and operational that they can be measured.




Characteristics of Objectives: a major contribution of DAGMAR was Colleys specification of what constitutes a good objective. Four requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted Concrete and measurablethe communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure Target audience a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. For example if the goal was to increase awareness, it is essential to know the target audience precisely. The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment Benchmark and degree of change soughtanother important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness, knowledge, attitudes, image, etc. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels, creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand, etc. a benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results, an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular. Specified time perioda final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished, e.g. 6months, 1 year etc. The time period should be appropriate for the communication objective as simple tasks such as increasing awareness levels can be accomplished much faster than a complex goal such as repositioning a brand. All parties involved will understand that the results will be available for evaluating the campaign, which could lead to a contraction, expansion or change in the current effort. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated. Written Goal - finally goals should be committed to paper. When the goals are clearly written, basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach.

Limitations of DAGMARThere are certain problems and limitations to DAGMAR, which should be discussed. These include: Measurement problems: With the adoption of DAGMAR model, the measurement becomes a problem. The marketers question that what should they actually measure? Is it attitude, awareness or brand comprehension? Example: The VIP Feelings advertisements for ladies undergarments could be successful changing the attitude towards the brand VIP that was associated to be a mans wear, or it could be successful in creating awareness that VIP has started a new line of product for ladies too. Evaluating and measuring this form one single advertisement is difficult. Noise in the system: DAGMAR assumes that the awareness and liking of the brand can be achieved through advertising alone. But the underlying fact is that there are many other variables such as competitive promotion, unplanned publicity, word of mouth, simple discussion with peers, new paper articles etc all create awareness of the brand. Thus there are many other elements other than advertising in the hierarchy chain that create awareness. Example: Tupperware is famous in Indian cities. It has happened only through personal selling and networking. Advertising has had no role in it. Inhibiting great idea: The more defined and concrete objective of the client brief, the less creative the advertisement will be, as a result, the effectiveness of the advertisement is reduced. Example: A campaign with all music and warm human visuals is be loved by everybody but it would fail to meet the companys standard. Thus a wonderful campaign would be evaluated on wrong criteria. Hierarchy of Effects Model DAGMAR attacks the basic hierarchy model, which postulates a set of steps of awareness, comprehension, and attitude leading to action. The counterargument is that it is possible that action may precede awareness. Example: The foreign chocolates, which are bought by people from the departmental stores, are not advertised, but still people buy them. It is later that the advertising for the product is done, or sometimes it is not done at all. Another example would be that action is preceded the attitude formation and comprehension with the impulse purchase of a low involvement product.

Example: Sundrop Background Scenario: Mid 1980s, ITC decided to diversify, chose edible oil business. Market was rapidly growing; demand was much greater than supply.

ITC had the requisite skills and relationship with farmers through Leaf Tobacco Division. Market consisted of: Filtered Oils Refined Oils (urban areas primarily) Hydrogenated fats (Vanaspati) Changes in the market: Shift from unrefined to refined oils due to: Increasing affluence Purity of oil Awareness of health Shift from traditional oils (mustard, groundnut, coconut) to newer oils (safflower, Sunflower, Soya)

Marketing Objectives: Leadership in the edible refined oil segment, through proving the consumer a superior quality product at competitive prices in different pack sizes. Accordingly production and distribution network was carefully planned. Competition: Saffola (Safflower oil) also used the health platform but was associated with heart patients and less taste Flora and Sunola (Sunflower oils) Naming the brand: Sundrop cued the product category, suggested Purity Market Research: Revealed low brand loyalty, except for Postman Key attributes: taste, quality (purity, colour, odour), health and value for money. Target Consumer Defined: Modern, Aware, educated housewife, age 21 44 years, using refined branded oils, primarily groundnut oil, who was concerned about the well-being and health of her family. Positioning the brand: Taste, Price or Health?

Health was chosen as the platform, along with a supporting claim for taste. People who were healthy and energetic were concerned about the long-term prospects of their health. Thus Health Was related to maintenance of good health Was applicable to all members of the family Was characterized by lively energetic people Thus the positioning: The Healthy Oil for Healthy People Advertising Goals: Communication task: 1. Position Sundrop as the healthy oil for healthy people 2. Ensure that this did not erode the delivery of the taste benefit. Positioning had to be perceptually as far away from Saffola. Young, modern and premium feel Execution had to be distinct and original to stand out from the clutter Execution: Did not use the clichd family at dinner table scene with pack shot at the end. Instead featured a lively and energetic kid, a symbol of good health. Use of yellow colour throughout to reinforce associations with the brand. Pouring oil becomes Sundrop logo Results: Within 6 months, Sundrop became the largest selling refined sunflower oil. Redefined the category and expanded the Sunflower oil segment from 2.71% to 23% in 6 months, and 42% in 1997 Still the largest selling sunflower oil brand holds 15% of branded oil market. The ad was shown for over 10 years as the main theme film.

Advertising Objectives in relation to Product Life Cycle

After understanding the different models used for advertising objectives, we can relate them to the product life cycle of a brand. It is seen clearly from the following diagram. It also enlightens the three kinds of advertisements, which is commonly used over the product life cycle. This helps a marketer to understand where exactly does his product lie, and what kind of advertisements he needs in order to meet its objectives.

Informative: It is used to develop initial demand, typically used in the introductory stage of the PLC Example: Print ad of a Printer giving details about its specifications Persuasive: It is used to increase demand for an existing product. It has a competitive type of promotion and is typically used in the growth and early maturity stage of the PLC Example McDonalds Print Ad Reminder: It is used to reinforce previous promotion by keeping the name of the product before the market, typically used in the late maturity and decline stage of the PLC Example: Chlormint, also Amul has constant reminder ads using humour related to current events.


Thus the different types of communication objectives that a company can have are listed below. Introduction of new products: For the new products or services, reminder advertising is clearly inapplicable. Here the task is one of basic education informing potential customers of the benefits they will reap by purchasing the new product.

Be your kids favourite parent.

Example Livon Silky Potion, when introduced, the ads differentiated the product from the shampoos and conditioners by explaining usage the product, positioning it to be better than the conditioners and how hair become very manageable and silky after using it. Overcoming Resistance/Changing Attitude: Many companies seem to assume that the public is merely waiting for a suitable advertising message to stimulate them into buying the product. But the people are wary of buying unfamiliar products and the retailers are equally shy of stocking the lines unknown to their customers. More than often, people are hostile. Example As in the case of KAMASUTRA condoms people were against the use and had a negative impression of using condoms. Their approach was that of being high resistance. This was because they saw condoms as a means of protection. Hence KAMASUTRA had a task of selling not only the product, but also the desire of The pleasure of making love. Hence in all their advertisements they have brought the factor. Reminding customers: A company has to constantly remind users of their wares. The human memory is very short and frequent reminders are necessary. Moreover, there are innumerable distracting factors, which soon make memory fade. There is also competition for attention faced from the makers of totally different products. Taking a still wider view of the many selling influences at work to make people forget your product the latest news at home or abroad, the activities of family and friends, new events at work and the latest films and television programmes- all make the consumers mind divert and forget your product. The manufacturer who wants his product ad name to be remembered amid the host of competing products and brand names will go for high public attention. Further more, constant reminders through advertisements can enhance the companys reputation and standing and play their part in cementing customer loyalty. Example SANTOOR constantly touched the consumer with its theme of mistaken identity. It raised the aspirations of a woman of looking younger. Reinforcement advertising: Related to reminder advertising is reinforcement advertising, which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice. Automobile Ads often depict satisfied customers enjoying special features of their new car. Example: Hyundai Santro had some ads quoting how customers were satisfied with the Mobile service that helped them in a difficult situation. This is a classic example of reinforcement advertising.

New customers from other brands: One must try to find out which existing users of the competing brand are the most dissatisfied with it and target these switchable consumers. Alternatively one should try to acquire those customers of the competing brand who are the most likely to grow their sales volume in the years to come. And/or are the most profitable. For many product categories about 20% of the customers (heavy users) are likely to account for 50% of the sales volume and profits and are clearly worth focusing on as new brand users. Example ARIEL v/s SURF: When Ariel was launched, it showed comparisons between itself and a known detergent (Surf packet without its name). Through its ads, it showed how it was better than Surf and thus wanting to shift the Surf users to Ariel. New customers from other categories: Another approach is to attract people from those not now using the product class. The firm in the industry that has the highest market share, the largest distribution, the biggest sales force and the highest awareness is the one most likely to get the sale from a customer just entering the product category. Example PEPSI might conclude that it is easier to get young coffee drinkers to switch from coffee to PEPSI, than it is to switch COKE drinkers to PEPSI UJALA, when it entered the market, proved itself better than Neel (blue) and made the users shift to it. On the other hand such a strategy makes much less sense for a smaller firm that runs the risk that the segment member who is induced to try the product class may buy from a larger competitor. Example A small cellular phone manufacturer might waste its money if it ran ads telling people why cellular phones in general were useful for personal or business reasons. A consumer seeing those ads might decide that, yes they need a cellular phone, but might then end up buying the better-known MOTOROLA or NOKIA. Brand Image / Company Image: The company needs to have a favourable image of it brand in the eyes of the customers. For this reason, the company undertakes various campaigns to build the brand and the company. This will enhance the preference of the customers to use the particular brand in the market of numerous brands. There are various factors that contribute to the favourable brand image. They are: Unique Selling Proposition

Example: SAFFOLA previously advertised the feature of its oil, which said that its consumption would not lead to any heart problems. Brand Personality Example: MCDONALDS - Family oriented, Genuine, wholesome, cheerful, fun Performance Example: MRF Tyres run huge ads in print media on the onset of monsoon, telling users to trust MRF for monsoon. Also, in all its ads it talks about the awards it has won over the years, as the best tyres for Indian roads.

Creating awareness of new products/brands and new developments in the company: Present customers may know the products of a company, but they may not know the improvements made or the new lines added to their range. Firms devote a great deal of time, money and effort in improving their products, but this is of little purpose if the customers are left in the dark about them. Potential customers will not become purchasers unless they know of the new developments and advertising helps to keep them informed. Furthermore, changes in you product line may open up new market segments for whom the earlier products were not of interest. Example PERK introduced the PERK XL and PERK XXL at the competitive price. They have used Preeti Zinta in their advertisements. Ponds have a range of product, which was introduced consecutively, and it is constantly advertised on television and other mediums. Supporting other sales promotion activities: Many times the company introduces sales promotion activities for its consumers. For this, they advertise on different mediums to support the sales promotion program in meeting its objectives. Example FILMFARE uses hoardings at the latter part of the month to advertise about the freebie attached with the next months issue. Increasing usage: It is possible to increase the usage of existing customers in the product class. In essence the goal would be to increase the amount consumed per usage occasion.

Example CLINIC PLUS recommended through its advertisement, that its shampoo must be used three times in a week Tuesday, Thursday, Sunday. The other way could be to suggest new usage occasions and opportunities. Example ZANDU BALM the advertisement depicted the various pains that could be relived through Zandu Balm, without even visiting the doctor. CADBURYS DAIRY MILK which showed the marriage scenario and how people consumed Dairy Milk instead of the usual Mithais. Increasing brand loyalty: The company is not the only one in the market who advertises its product. The competitors are perpetually trying to steal their customers away or trying to increase their own share of requirements. It is very important therefore to recognize the effect that advertising has on reinforcing the present customers, existing preference for the companys brand. (Though actual experience with the product is probably the bigger determinant of brand satisfaction and loyalty) Example INDIAN EXPRESS ad Hammer home the truth, we do it everyday was meant primarily for the existing readers of Indian Express, to promote brand loyalty. The ad conveyed the true journalism aspect of the Indian Express. Umbrella campaigns: Many organizations are found active in many activities and have multiple brands for different categories, with separate divisions marketing separate products to separate markets via separate advertising and selling campaigns. Many such organizations realize that linking their self-contained business operations would benefit all component companies. Hence through one advertising campaign, all the products of the company are exposed to the audience. This also builds up the image of the company and all its brands. Example AMUL - REAL TASTE OF INDIA campaign that was quite successful. Other umbrella campaigns are that of CAMLIN, WIPRO, ADITYA BIRLA GROUP, PARLE world of happiness, etc. Campaign to push declining sales: In this the purpose of the campaign may not be to increase or stabilize sales, but to hold off a decline. This overall category masks various types of decline for which different advertising approaches are necessary. One advertising campaign may have as its purpose countering the natural decline in the market. Another purpose might be to sustain an existing brand against competition. Other purposes might be to slow down a permanent trend or to reverse a temporary decline.

Where the market for the companys product is steadily diminishing, it is unwise to expect advertising to work miracles and reverse the permanent trend: it may however be able to make some contribution by slowing the rate of decline, thus giving the company time to seek new opportunities in other directions. Whereas advertising can make a far more positive contribution is in countering temporary falls in sales. Positive advertising, emphasizing value for money, can help people adjust more swiftly to the new conditions. Example RASNA was a declining product even after being in the market for 4 years and even though it was an entirely new concept of a branded soft drink concentrate. In 1982 non-aerated soft drink market was estimated at around Rs 13 crores. Squashes and syrups were the leading product categories, accounting for 84% of the market. Soft drink concentrates had a share of 7% only. It was recognized that there existed a good potential market for Rasna, if advertised properly. Advertising objectives: To persuade consumers to try RASNA by creating / reawakening their interest in the brand Target audience: Housewives in the age group of 20+and with household income of Rs 750+ p.m Influencer: This was perhaps for the first time in the history of Indian advertising that the child was recognized as the major influencer in the purchase of a household product Campaign evaluation: The consumers off take shot upto Rs 1.44crores. Market share increased from 6%in 1982 to 9%in 1983. Share of syrups declined by 4% Campaign to counter natural decline of the market: Reminder advertisements can be effective in maintaining sales, but the company must face up to the fact that the existing customers, through no fault of yours, are steadily decreasing in number. The manufacturer who claims there is no need to advertise because he has all the business he needs ignore the fact that people leave the area of the country, or the people have sophisticated themselves and use better products. The quality of the product may remain as high as ever, but the sales will steadily decline through the natural diminution of the existing market. Example Print media advertising that nothing can replace print Social objective: There are many companies or institutions, which have social advertisements. These advertisements focus mainly on some social issue likeAids, Cancer, AntiTobacco, Safe Driving, etc.

The companies mainly advertise on these grounds because each company needs to fulfill some social responsibilities, and also these kinds of advertisements, might enhance their company image and value. Example LOWE Advertising Agency, has a hoarding on the Pedder Road, Mumbai which emphasizes on different social messages such as AIDS etc. FCB ULKA Advertising Agency has a hoarding on the busy road near Pedder Road, Mumbai that said Drive Safely Generating trial purchases and store visits Many companies and stores insert coupons in print media to come to the store and exchange them for trials. Also, sometimes they have advertisements for more footfalls in the store. Example When KWALITY WALLS opened its outlets, it had coupons in newspapers, giving free ice cream in exchange of those coupons on the first day of the outlets. Recent campaign by MCDONALDS talking about the Aao Match Karein, where consumers come to the store and match different words on the packages of its products Motivating the channel to stock the product: Many a time the advertisements are directed not towards the consumers, but the retail shops/channels, in order to motivate them to stock their brands. Example This was an advertisement directed to the video library owners to stock videocassettes made by the STAR VIDEO PVT Ltd. This ad was released in 1987 in the press medium. Another example would be of the Life insurance agents ads, which attract and induce young professional to join the insurance company as life insurance agent. Product positioning and brand building: When the products are launched, they are usually positioned at a platform enabling the consumers to relate to the product. This is called the positioning of the brand. Companies position their brand to make it stand out from the other brands in the market. Positioning is to appeal to a specific target audience and induce them to buy the product. Once the product is positioned at a particular platform, the companies need to constantly remind the consumers and build brand. This also involves many stages and the marketer needs to communicate to the audience at each stage. This thus becomes one more advertising objective for the company.

Example SAINT GOBAIN is a classic example for this point. It positioned itself as So Clear, So Real, Glass from Saint Gobain Their ads are also focused on how the SAINT GOBAIN glass can be mistaken for no glass at all it feels so real. Countering competition: The market today is no longer a oneman show. There are innumerable companies, all of them having their own products to offer. In such a situation, a company needs to constantly advertise to remain in the minds of the consumers. With the MNCs entering India, a lot of Indian companies have been facing tough competition. Most companies position their products so as to differentiate their brands from the competition. Example MOOV used its competitor IODEXs negative point in its advertisements. It showed how the usage of IODEX (name not revealed in the ad) left stains in the clothes making other people know about it. The tagline said Kissi Se Kuch na Batai Responding to a campaign, IODEX launched a big campaign where it had a character entering a shop and refusing to take MOOV, which was offered by the shopkeeper and said No, Move, Move. Repositioning the brand: Sometimes, the companys product is not accepted in the market with its original features. Thus in order to change the image and become favourable in the eyes of the consumers, they need to reposition their brand. Example MARUTI OMNI had to reposition itself clearly different from the Maruti car in the potential buyers minds. They also had to enhance the image and personal values of the brand. It also had to generate at least short-term growth in sales to match current production potential. Their ads had a vivid demonstration of the spacious car, positioning, and each presenting the vans spaciousness from a new unexpected viewpoint.

Attitude is the management central

theme in




The Three Stages

What is attitude? Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, and situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our

Realm of thoughts. Ads provide information and facts.

Realm of emotions. Ads change attitudes and feelings

Realm of motives. Ads stimulate or direct desires.

experiences. Since attitudes often relate in some way to interaction with others, they represent an important link between cognitive and social psychology. The traditionally accepted view of attitude is that it is made up of three into related components-cognitive, affective and behaviour/conative. The cognitive component deals with cognition, or knowledge; it is the faculty of knowing or perceiving are conceiving ideas; it is this year dealing with knowledge. The effective component deals with the affections/emotions. For example, feelings of lights or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. And the conative/behaviour component deals with the behaviour or action. The three components together shape what is known as attitude.

Attitude changed, main concern of communicators Attitude changed on the part of the target audience is the main concern of marketing communicators. People normally resist change and dislike someone trying to influence the attitudes, especially when those attitudes are strongly held and cherished by them. Still, attitude changes do take place perennially, because attitudes are not static. The advertising communicators know that attitudes are permeable and maneuverable through appropriate means. He does not venture to bluntly attack the strong held attitudes of its target audience. Instead his attempts are a persuasive process of communication, the process sometimes lasting for years, spread probably over several campaigns. But the fact remains that his job is audience persuasion, i.e. shaping the attitude of the audience in his favour. And the advertising message is his tool. How is attitude linked to advertising? Attitude is a very personal issue. Each individuals attitude is different from others. When a product is introduced, the company needs to understand its target audience. The company needs to understand the attitude of the target audience towards its brand. If this attitude is negative, the company first needs to build a positive attitude towards its brand. Once the attitude is favourable toward the product, the company needs to strengthen it and make its audience brand loyal. But this is not that easy as it sounds. I have a new product, a soft drink - Cola, and I want to get it out on the market. I must convince people that they want and need my product. They have been drinking Coke or Pepsi for the past 20 years, and they like it. If I want to have a shot in the cola industry, I need to change some attitude, and advertising is the way to do it.

When changing attitudes through advertising, there are many factors to consider. One must choose: a source who is attractive to the target audience, a message that will break through the clutter, and a channel that will maximize comprehension. Television gives us more information than any other medium. It is where we go when we want information on breaking news, and it gets more credibility ratings than newspaper. The Message and the Source People pay more attention to messages and sources that are unusual, prestigious, loud, and exotic. They also prefer messages that are controversial, interesting, and surprising. Attention- Selective Exposure We cannot absorb all information, so we select information that will be useful to us. We seek information that: Increases our understanding Does not attack our self esteem Helps us adjust in the world Lets us express our attitudes Comprehension To get maximum comprehension from a message: Choose a source the audience knows This is why celebrity endorsements are so prevalent today. People connect better with sources they know and trust. Word the message so it connects with a specific audience This is easier than ever with the segmentation of audience due to cable television. Some companies give a message in several ways to several audiences. Pick a channel that allows the message to be fully understood Understand the defensiveness of the audience Retention Powerful sources that are ever-present are more likely to increase retention. We remember sources that are attractive to us. Also, repetition increases retention. Radio and television can increase repetition more than personal selling or face-to-face can. Brand Attitude A focus on brand attitude is another type of advertising objective. This objective is more appropriate to the stage of growth and maturity in the product life cycle. The brand attitude objective could be either one among enhancing or maintaining the current brand attitude, changing the current brand attitude, or creating the new brand attitude. Of these options, the most difficult task is to change the current brand attitude because consumers already typically have certain types of attitudes toward established products.

Message Message generation Message evaluation & selection Message execution Social responsibili ty review

Money Mission Sales goals Advertisi ng objective s Factors to consider: Stage in PLC Market share and consumer base Competition and clutter Advertising frequency Product substitutabilit y

Measurement Communica tion impact Sales impact

Media Reach, frequency, impact Major media types Specific media vehicles Media timing Geographic al media allocation

While making an Advertising program five Ms should be taken into consideration, they are: MISSION: What are the Advertising objectives? MONEY: How much can be spent? (Advertising budget) MESSAGE: What message should be sent? MEDIA: What media should be used? MEASUREMENT: How should the results be evaluated? After the Target Market, market positioning and marketing mix decisions have been taken the First step n developing an Advertising Program is


Advertising Objectives can be classified as to whether their aim is: To inform: This aim of Advertising is generally true during the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is building a primary demand. This may include: Telling the market about a new product Suggesting new uses for a product Informing the market of a price change Informing how the product works Describing available services Correcting false impressions Reducing buyers fears Building a company image To persuade: Most advertisements are made with the aim of persuasion. Such advertisements aim at building selective brand. To remind: Such advertisements are highly effective in the maturity stage of the product. The aim is to keep the consumer thinking about the product.

This M deals with deciding on the Advertising Budget The advertising budget can be allocated based on:

Departments or product groups The calendar Media used Specific geographic market areas There are five specific factors to be considered when setting the Advertising budget.

Stage in PLC: New products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. Established brands are usually supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales. Market Share and Consumer base: high-market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. To build share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Additionally, on a cost-per-impressions basis, it is less expensive to reach consumers of a widely used brand them to reach consumers of low-share brands. Competition and clutter: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending, a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates the need for heavier advertising. Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class (example cigarettes, beer, soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a different image. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.

Message generation can be done in the following ways: Inductive: By talking to consumers, dealers, experts and competitors. Consumers are the major source of good ideas. Their feeling about the product, its strengths, and weaknesses gives enough information that could aid the Message generation process. Deductive: John C. Meloney proposed a framework for generating Advertising Messages. According to him, a buyer expects four types of rewards from a product: Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction. Buyers might visualize these rewards from: Results-of-use Experience

Product-in-use Experience Incidental-to-use Experience The Matrix formed by the intersection of these four types of rewards and the three types of experiences is given below. POTENTIAL TYPE OF REWARD (Sample Messages) Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction 1. Gets 2. Settles 3. When you 4. For the skin you Clothes Stomach upset care enough to deserve to have Cleaner completely serve the best 5. The flour 6. Real gusto in 7. A deodorant 8. The store for that needs no a great light to guarantee young executive sifting beer social acceptance 9. The plastic 10. The 11. The furniture 12. Stereo for the pack keeps portable that identifies man with the cigarette television thats the home of discriminating fresh lighter in modern people taste weight, easier to lift

Result-ofUse Experience Product-inUse Experience Incidentalto-Use Experience

Message evaluation and selection The advertiser needs to evaluate the alternative messages. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. Messages can be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. The message must also say something exclusive or distinct that does not apply to every brand in the product category. Above all, the message must be believable or provable. Message execution. The messages impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. While executing a message the style, tone, words, and format for executing the message should be kept in mind. STYLE. Any message can be presented in any of the following different execution styles, or a combination of them:

Slice of life: Shows one or more persons using the product in a normal setting.

Example: Coke 1litre ad, showed a family enjoying Coke, with a game of antakshari when there is a power failure.
Lifestyle: Emphasizes how a product fits in with a lifestyle.

Example: Collection, Asmi and Platinum ads, that focus on lifestyle of persons using their products.
Fantasy: Creates a fantasy around the product or its use.

Example: VIP Frenchie ads, showing a woman thinking of the Frenchie man saving her from a villain.
Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product, such as beauty,

love, or serenity. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. Example: Kingfisher Beer ads, saying the King of Good Times.
Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon

characters singing a song involving the product. Example: Ads of Old Spice After Shave Lotion
Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. The character

might be animated Example: Ronald McDonald for McDonalds

Technical expertise: Shows the companys expertise, experience, and pride in

making the product. Example: GE and Skoda ads

Scientific evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is

preferred over or outperforms other brands. This style is common in the over-thecounter drug category. Example: DuraCell Ads, claiming the battery lasts 6 times longer than ordinary batteries
Testimonial evidence: This features a highly credible, likable, or expert source

endorsing the product. It could be a celebrity or ordinary people saying how much they like the product. Example: In ads for Sunsilk, they had hair expert Coleen, endorsing the product. TONE: The communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad.

Example: Procter & Gamble is consistently positive in its toneits ads say something superlatively positive about the product, and humor is almost always avoided so as not to take mention away from the message. Other companies use emotions to set the ton eparticularly film, telephone, and insurance companies, which stress human connections and milestones. Words: Memorable and attention-getting words must be found. The following themes listed on the left would have had much less impact without the creative phrasing on the right: Theme Creative Copy You wont have to stay at home Get Out, Get Going because of bad hair FORMAT: Format elements such as ad size, color, and illustration will make a difference in an ads impact as well as its cost. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. Larger-size ads gain more attention, though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. Four-colour illustrations instead of black and white increase ad effectiveness and ad cost. By planning the relative dominance of different elements of the ad, optimal delivery can be achieved.

The next M to be considered while making an Advertisement Program is the Media through which to communicate the Message generated during the previous stage. The steps to be considered are:
Deciding on Geographic media allocation Step V Deciding on media timing Step IV

Selecting specific media vehicles Step III

Choosing among major media types Step II

Deciding reach, frequency and impact Step I

Evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program is very important as it helps prevent further wastage of money and helps make corrections that are important for further advertisement campaigns. Researching the effectiveness of the advertisement is the most used method of evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program. Research can be in the form of: Communication-Effect Research Sales-Effect Research There are two ways of measuring advertising effectives. They are: Pre-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement for its effectiveness before it is actually used. It is done through Concept testing how well the concept of the advertisement is. This is be done by taking expert opinion on the concept of the ad. Test commercials - test trial of the advertisement to the sample of people Finished testing Post-testing It is the assessment of an advertisements effectiveness after it has been used. It is done in two ways Unaided recall - a research technique that asks how much of an ad a person remembers during a specific period of time Aided recall - a research technique that uses clues to prompt answers from people about ads they might have seen

Example: Sundrop Mission: Sales goals: Leadership in the edible refined oil segment Advertising Goals: Communication task

1. Position Sundrop as the healthy oil for healthy people 2. Ensure that this did not erode the delivery of the taste benefit. Positioning had to be perceptually as far away from Saffola. Young, modern and premium feel Execution had to be distinct and original to stand out from the clutter Money: Stage in PLC: Introductory, therefore relatively large expenditure Market share: new product Competitors: Saffola (Safflower oil) also used the health platform but was associated with heart patients and less taste Flora and Sunola (Sunflower oils) Message: Health was chosen as the platform, along with a supporting claim for taste. People who were healthy and energetic were concerned about the long-term prospects of their health. Thus Health Was related to maintenance of good health Was applicable to all members of the family Was characterized by lively energetic people Thus the message and (positioning): The Healthy Oil for Healthy People Media: Primary media: Television ad 30 seconds. Print ad Measurement: Within 6 months, Sundrop became the largest selling refined sunflower oil. Redefined the category and expanded the Sunflower oil segment from 2.71% to 23% in 6 months, and 42% in 1997 Still the largest selling sunflower oil brand holds 15% of branded oil market. The ad was shown for over 10 years as the main theme film.

Concept questions

1. What are advertising objectives? 2. What is the difference between marketing and advertising? 3. Why do you need to set advertising objectives? 4. What is the difference between sales and communications objectives? 5. When is the need to set sales oriented objectives? 6. What is AIDA model? 7. What is Hierarchy of Effects Model? 8. What is Innovation Adoption Model? 9. What is DAGMAR? 10.What are 5Ms of advertising? 11.What are the three stages of consumer buying behaviour? 12.Explain advertising objectives in relation to the PLC of a brand

Long Questions

1. Explain the two schools of thought in setting advertising objectives. Also mention the merits and demerits of both. 2. Explain DAGMAR with suitable examples. What is the application and limitations of DAGMAR 3. Explain the Hierarchy of Effects Model with suitable examples. Also elaborate what a marketer needs to do at each stage of hierarchy. 4. Explain how advertising can be used to change and strengthen the attitude of the consumers. Give suitable examples.

5. What are the various methods of pre testing and post testing while measuring an advertisement? 6. Advertising objectives in terms of Communication effect. 7. Name 4 criteria for selection of agency.

What is Copywriting? Copywriting is essentially selling with words. Copywriting is using words to convince readers they will benefit (come out ahead) by using a certain product or service and then motivating them to take action (buy). Copywriting is the words used in advertisements, TV commercials, and brochures. Whenever a business promotes itself (through a press release, a leaflet or a newsletter), it needs a copywriter. Thats why copywriting is everywhere - on big posters, local newspaper ads, and every clever slogan. And when you put a postcard in a newsagent's window, to sell your old hi-fi, you're using copywriting again. Copywriting is probably the most creative and demanding branch of writing. You start with a blank sheet of paper. You may have only a couple of days to meet the clients deadline. And your work could be read by millions of people. What Copywriting isn't! Copywriting is different from copyright. Copyright is about owning the rights to a book, play or picture. Who needs copywriters? The market is vast. Every business, small and large, has to promote itself. Every company needs leaflets or direct mail letters. And every new product needs a pack that will entice us to buy it. These days all organizations need to communicate. That includes hospitals, local authorities and charities. So the opportunities for the copywriter are infinite. Because organizations constantly alter, their literature and ads need regularly changing, too. That keeps copywriters busy! To be a good copywriter, what attributes do you need? You should be good with words - able to produce crisp sentences. Contrary to popular opinion, copywriters don't use fancy words: they're more concerned to write clearly and simply. You should be interested in the world of advertising and marketing. You should be responsive, and capable of producing work quickly. And while many copywriters are inclined to be loners, you must get along with others, whether a client or colleague.

1. Use Attention Getting Headlines

For example print ad for DHL uses only one word as its headline URGENT, which is underlined in red, and is enough to attract anyones attention. Star TV print ad for The Big Fight does not use words, but uses a pair of boxing gloves as headline. 2. Expand Headline with Lead Paragraph Follow up the headline immediately with the first paragraph. If you ask a question, answer it. If you propose a thought, explain it. Don't leave them hanging too long; you may end up hanging yourself. The ad for Maruti N2N fleet solutions uses the headline Who says managing a huge fleet of company cars is hard work? This is followed by the lead paragraph which explains how Maruti N2N works 3. Draw the Reader In Avoid page and advertising layouts that are confusing or hard to read. Reading your message should be a pleasure to read. Keep your copy simple, clear and concise. Talk to your reader as you would a friend or family member. Be straight and sincere with them. Spell it out and explain points that need explaining. Don't leave your reader secondguessing your copy. 4. Focus on the Reader, not the Product Of course your copy must contain information and facts about your product or service, but that is not your focal point. You must focus the reader. Use their needs, wants, desires, fears, weaknesses, concerns, and even fantasies to sell your product or service. The ad for Lakme Deep Pore Cleansing begins with the headline There's a lot that shows on your face. The body copy includes - Now, one-and-a-half minutes is all it takes to uncover the real you. Presenting the complete Deep Pore Cleansing Regimen from Lakme. Simply because your face says it all. Thus, not only does the ad talk about the product, it also focuses equally on the reader. Using words like you would make the reader feel good, rather than an ad that boasts about the product but says nothing about how to use it, how it could make your life better, etc. 5. Use the "That's Right!" Principle Get your prospect to agree with you. Tell them something they know already. Get them to say to themselves, "That's Right!"

The print ad for JW Marriott starts with the headline -: Your mom knows exactly how you like your bed, your toast, and your coffee. This headline will indeed make the target exclaim thats right! 6. Ask Provocative Questions: Leading into your copy or headline with thought provoking questions will grab the reader's interest and move them to read more for the answer. The ad for Deccan Chronicle uses an attractive female model asking a provocative question like Want to play the number Game?. The ad actually talks about the impressive figures of circulation of the Deccan Chronicle. 7. Move Quickly from Intro to the Pitch: Don't waste your reader's time trying to "warm them up". If they got that far, there's blood flowing already. People are busy creatures. If you lose their interest, you neither sell nor profit. Get on with it! 8. Be Sincere: What's the number one fallback for sales on the web? Fear! Fear of being scammed or ripped-off. The more sincere you are the better your chance of building a "selling" relationship. The sincerity and genuineness of Air Sahara comes across in its ad where the body copy says as hard as we may try at this time of the year (winter), there are chances of flight delays due to weather conditions. Every step is taken to help passengers get to their destinations on time. To make this process easier, we need your help too. 9. Don't Contradict Yourself: Double-check your copy. You would be surprised to know that many copywriters unknowingly contradict themselves leaving the reader suspicious, thus destroying your credibility with them. 10. Keep Your Focus Aligned The more focused your target group, the better your chance of meeting their needs. Don't try to sell everyone! 11. Make Your Product Irresistible Dress it up. Your product should sound like the cream of the crop. Focus on your selling point (price, quality, etc) and make it impossible for the reader to imagine another in comparison.

12. Use Fear as Motivation: Fear is both a weakness and strength, but also a powerful selling tool. Fear of injury, death or missed opportunity. If you sell a safety product you would use this fear to your advantage. If you're offering an opportunity, the fear of missing their chance is a strong seller. Many ads for financial services use fear to motivate their target. For example in the ad for New India Assurance Shop Owners Policy, a shop owner imagines a riot occurring near his shop, which causes damage to his shop I.e. the physical property. Thus fear is used to motivate shop owners to get their shops insured under the policy offered by NIA. 13. Flattery will get you everywhere Yes, everyone likes to hear a little flattery. Keyword here is "little". Don't overdo it! 14. Be Personable Let them know that there is a kind, honest and real person behind the page. People would rather deal with people, not companies, corporations or conglomerates. Add the "Human Touch" to your copy. Ex: the institutional ad for Eureka Forbes which shows model Aditi Gowatrikar with her child has a human touch to it, what with the body copy saying times have changed. Yet your dreams remain the same. So open up. Say yes to life 15. Its Guaranteed A guarantee reassures the reader that you are reputable and will live up to your promises. For example, in the Vim Bar TVC, the anchor promises that if your detergent is better than Vim Bar, you will get a years supply of your detergent free. This guarantee lends credibility to the offering and induces the viewer to act. 16. Use "Power"ful Words: "Power" words are words that move a buyer by enhancing and reinforcing your presented idea. Certain words have proven to be movers and shakers in the advertising world. Examples of persuasive and attention-grabbing words Easy genuine convenient advantages exclusive comfortable Indulge dependable

immediate more

instant biggest

WANTED oldest

WARNING Original

17. Share a Secret People want to get the inside track. If you can convince your prospect that you have an exclusive message for them, you're one step closer to a sale. 18. Keep It Lively: There are many ways to keep your copy lively. Telling a (brief) story is a strong technique for getting your message across. Separating and highlighting key information or facts is another. Using personal pronouns like "you", we and us will add a sense of warmth to your copy. 19. Go with the Flow Writing copy requires the ability to make a smooth transition from one point to another. Rather than laying them out like a list, learn to use transitional words. Transitional words are used to go from one point to another. 20. Check Your Spelling Take the time and spell-check your work. Finding misspelled words in copy leaves the reader wondering how competent your product or service could be, if you cannot take the time to be sure you spelled the words in your web copy correctly. 21. Use Photo's to Demonstrate: Use photos to demonstrate your product or service. If used correctly a picture really is worth a thousand words. Ads for cosmetics generally use photographs to demonstrate the benefits of using the product smooth skin, fairness, etc. 22. Use Graphics to get Attention: Using buttons, icons and arrows can help direct the reader's attention to important details. If organized correctly they can also help sort facts or messages into categories. The ad for Toyota Qualis uses arrows to draw the readers attention to the unique features of the vehicle such as integrated bumper, wood finish panelling, captain seats, etc. 23. Offer Testimonials

Offer short, reputable testimonials. People want to hear what others have to say about your product or service. Diana Hayden Miss World 1996 offers testimonial for Loreal Hair color. 24 Create a Memorable Logo Create a simple, but memorable logo or custom graphic that your visitor can easily relate to your product or service Examples: Nike swoosh Tata Mercedes McDonald Golden Arches 25. Create an Unforgettable Slogan Use a short, easy to remember slogan that a reader will walk away with on his or her lips. Nike Just Do It. Visa Go get it Pepsi Yeh Dil Maange More Asian Paints Merawalla. 26. Get a response There are many techniques for getting a prospect to respond. Spell it out for them. Tell them to respond. Tell them why they should respond. Give them a reason they should respond now. Offer a bonus or freebie if they respond.

This can be done by using words like order now, order today, for a short time only, last chance, etc.

Ex: Service ICICI Bank Two Wheeler Loans Take Home Passion (Hero Honda Passion) by just paying Rs. 3999 only


Product Manager of Client


Client Service (Agency)

Creative Director

Account Management Team


Art Director

Senior Writer

Acct. Supervisor

Account Manager

Staff Writer

The client company representative (product manager) gives the brief to the clientservicing department of the ad agency. This brief is then broken down into creative and media brief. The creative brief is given to the creative director who passes it on to the art director and the copywriter. These two work in conjunction to create the ad. The (rough) ad is then shown to the account management team consisting of the supervisor and manager. They look into legalities that might affect the ad and whether the ad meets the clients brief and budget. Changes, if any, are communicated to the creative department The (rough) ad is then shown to the client servicing dept. The dept. might also suggest changes. The ad is finally shown to the client for his approval. Once the approval is received, the creative department goes ahead with the actual production of the ad.

Writing the Copy platform In developing the message strategy, the copywriter needs to create a copy platform, a document that serves as the creative teams guide for writing and producing the ad. The copy platform is the written strategy statement of the most important issues to be considered in the ad or campaign the who, why, what, where, when and how of the ad:
1. Who is the most likely prospect for the product?

The copy platform must define the prospect in terms of geographic, demographic, psychographic, and/or behavioristic qualities.
2. Why? Does the consumer have specific wants or needs that the ad should appeal

to? Advertisers use two broad categories of appeals. Rational appeals are directed at the consumers practical, functional need for the product or service; emotional appeals are directed at the consumers psychological, social, or symbolic needs.
3. What product features satisfy the consumers needs?

What factors support the product claim? What is the products position? What personality or image of the product or the company can be or has been created? What perceived strengths or weaknesses need to be dealt with?
4. When and where will the messages be communicated? What medium?

What time of the year? What area of the country?

5. How should this be communicated?

What style, approach or tone will the campaign use? And generally what will the copy say? The answers to these questions help make up the copy platform. After writing the first ad, the copywriter should review the copy platform to see if the ad measures up. If it doesnt, the writer must start again. Another important aspect to be considered before writing the copy for an ad is the broad objective of the ad. The advertising objective must flow from the prior decisions on target market, market positioning and marketing mix.

Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform, persuade or remind.

Informative advertising figures heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is to build primary demand. ads are informative advertising because buying/selling online is a novel concept in India. Through their television commercials, they tried to inform and demonstrate how simple it is to buy/sell online.

Persuasive advertising becomes important in the competitive stage, where a companys objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. Some persuasive ads use comparative advertising, which makes an explicit comparison of the attributes of two or more brands.
Most detergent ads Surf, Ariel, Tide, Nirma, etc. use persuasive advertising wherein one brand is shown as being superior to the others on various counts such as more whiteness, your clothes wont stink after you use brand X, your clothes wont shrink, etc.

Reminder advertising is important with mature products.

Asian paints ad Har Ghar Kuch Kehta Hai does not explicitly talk about the functional benefits of using Asian Paints. This is because the category for paints has matured in India, and Asian Paints is well past the stage of comparing Asian Paints with brand X and showing how it is better than the brand, i.e using persuasive advertising.








for ads for different products will vary according to the position of the product category in the product life cycle.

For example, when Good Knight mosquito mats were introduced, they were the first of their kind. Coils mainly Tortoise, dominated the mosquito repellant industry. Thus, the product being in the introductory stage, the objective of the ad was to create product awareness and trial. It did so by informing the target as to how mats, and Goodknight in particular were different from coils. The slogan for the ad said it all No smoke, No ash, only Goodknight sleep. But today, the category being in the maturity stage, GoodKnight can afford not to have elaborate body copy, detailed explanations about product benefits, etc. It can simply show Lisa Rays face with mosquito bites on one page and without those bites on another, and just use two words in the entire copy bad night below the first photograph and GoodKnight below the second.

MATURITY MARKETING Maximise OBJECTIVES profit while defending market share. ADVERTISING Build product Build Stress brand STRATEGY awareness among awareness differences early adopters and and interest and benefits. dealers. in the mass market.
Thus copywriting differs according to the stage of the life cycle the product is in.

INTRODUCTION Create product awareness and trial.

GROWTH Maximise market share.

DECLINE Reduce expenditure and milk the brand. Reduce to level needed to retain hard-core loyals.

The advertising pyramid is a model for setting advertising objectives based on how people typically behave. The copywriters pyramid related to the advertisers pyramid uses a similar, five-step structure, with only a slight variation in terminology.



Desire Conviction Comprehension Awareness

Desire Credibility Interest Attention

Advertisers Pyramid

Copywriters Pyramid

When following the five steps of the copywriters pyramid, the writers words also help shape the various format elements of an ad- the headline, body copy, boxes and panels, slogans, and more.


Attention An ad is a stimulus. It must break through consumers physiological screens to create the kind of attention that leads to perception. Attention, therefore, is the first objective of any ad and the fundamental building block in the copywriters pyramid. Print ads often use headlines as the major attention - getting device. Many other devices also help getting attention in print media:

Dynamic visuals

The Amity Business School ad attracts the readers attention by showing a sari clad Indian lady, with a red bindi on her forehead, but it is misplaced, i.e. its not at the center of her forehead where it should ideally be. Besides, having the photograph in black and white with a red bindi, which draws your attention, also enhances the noticibility of the ad.

The ad with the kangaroo for Tata Sumo has an unusual layout where a picture of a kangaroo with many baby kangaroos in its pouch is shown on the left side of the page, with a few words in small type supporting the picture. This lends high noticibility to the ad. Unusual layout Bacardi Ad Bottoms up written upside down on a completely white screen Vibrant color Use of bright colors such as red, purple, green,etc helps attract attention. Dominant ad size A full page ad in any newspaper is sure to get the readers attention Example Tata Indica ads just before and during its launch. Even the Tata Indigo full-page ad in the Times of India will attract attention. In electronic media - Special sound effects, music

The Kelvinator Ad showing an old mans dentures, in a bowl clattering every time the refrigerator door opened. Thus the use of sound effect- of teeth clattering attracted attention. Animation

Kellogs chocos - bear Nutrine coconut cookies bunny rabbit. Unusual visual techniques Canon Digital camera showing a human eye with the lens as the eyeball. The attention getting device should create drama, power, impact, and intensity, and it must be appropriate relate to the product, to the tone of the ad, and to the needs or interests of the intended audience. Interest Interest, the second step in the copywriters pyramid, is extremely important; it carries the prospective customer now excited from a successful attention step to the more serious discussion in the body of the ad. It must keep the excitement of the prospect alive as the

information becomes more detailed and specific. To do this, the copywriter can answer a question asked in the attention step or add additional facts that relate to the headline. Research shows that people read what interests them and ignore what doesnt, so the writer must maintain the prospects interest all times. One way to do so is to relate to the prospects psychological screens by talking to them about them, and about their problems, their needs, and how the product or service answers their needs. Copywriters use the word you frequently. Ex: Mastek computers Join Us. Well fire you. As the HEADLINE kind of shocks you and arouses your interest and you are persuaded to read further. There are many effective ways to stimulate interest a dramatic situation, a story, a cartoon, or charts and tables. In radio, copywriters use sound effects or catchy dialogues between characters. Television frequently uses quick cuts from one subject to another to maintain interest in the action and the outcome of the commercial. Credibility The third step in the copywriters pyramid is to establish credibility for the product or service. Customers today are sophisticated, skeptical, and cynical. They want to know that a product or service claim is backed up by facts. Comparison ads can build credibility, but they must be relevant to customers needs and fair. Well known presenters may lend credibility to commercials. Advertisers often show independent test results to substantiate product claims. To work, such proofs must be valid, not just statistical manipulation. Advertisers and agencies must remember that many consumers have extensive knowledge, even in specialized areas. Many publications newspapers, magazines, etc lend credibility to their ads by quoting figures stated by ABC audit Bureau of Circulation, IRS, NRS, etc.

Best employer to work for in India Business today Hewitt Associates survey Jan 2001 Softwares Best Employer Dataquest NFO MBL Study May 2001

An Infosys ad, seeking applicants for vacancies uses the favorable findings of reputed magazines Desire In the desire step, the writer encourages prospects to picture themselves enjoying the benefits of the product or service. Essentially they are invited to experience the process o visualization. In newspaper and magazine ads, the copywriters initiate visualization by using words and phrases like: picture yourself; Imagine; Be the first. In TV copywriting, the main character pulls a sparkling clean T-Shirt from the washer and strikes a wide smile, and says Yeah! In radio, the announcer says, Youll look your best. Ex: Most of the tourism ads use beautiful locales and picturesque scenery to create a desire to visit that place. Malaysia Truly Asia Kerala Gods Own Country The ad for Jaquar Bath Fittings states the attractive prices of the products by using words such as Jaquar Price. What a surprise! and also gives a warranty of 7yrs which would make the target audience desire the product. The objective of the desire step is to hint at the possibilities and let the audiences minds take over. The desire step is one of the most difficult sections of the pyramid to write and that must be why some copywriters omit it. Action The final step in the copywriters pyramid is the action step. The purpose here is to motivate people to do something to send in a coupon, call the number on the screen, or visit the store or at least to agree with the advertiser. This block of pyramid reaches the smallest audience but those with the most to gain from the products utility. So the last step is often the easiest. If the copy is clear about what readers need to do whom to call, how to write, when to act and commands them to act, chances are they will act. Some ads use coupons to get readers involved; others display toll-free phone or fax number in print and broadcast ads to make response more convenient. And direct mail pieces use order cards or order forms with tear off mail-back envelopes. Regardless of the techniques, ads should always request action.

For example: the ad for Indian army has a coupon at the end of the ad to elicit response from interested readers.


Everyone has written an article on the AIDA copywriting formula. A new acronym is the M.A.G.I.C. formula. M.A.G.I.C - Magnetize, Attack, Generate, Interest, Closure. MAGNETIZE Your Headline ATTACK the Innermost Desires of Your Reader GENERATE Credibility INTEREST Your Potential Customer CLOSURE


Usually written by the agencys account managers, a message strategy is a description of an ad campaigns overall approach and specific requirements, called mandatories, which include addresses, logos, slogans, and so on. A message strategy has three components: Copy (Verbal) guidelines for what to say; considerations that affect the choice of words; and type of medium(s) that will carry the message. Art (nonverbal) overall nature of an ads graphics; any visuals that must appear, and the medium(s) in which the ad will appear. Production (mechanical) preferred production approach and mechanical outcome including budget and the scheduling limitations

If the advertising plan doesnt include a message strategy, the copywriter must develop one. To develop the message strategy of a campaign, the creative team first needs to review the details of the marketing and advertising plan, analyze the fact and study the market, the product and the competition.

The Creative Process can be elaborated as follows:

The following are the steps generally covered in developing concepts (central ideas) for campaigns and then writing the copy. It is guide to a reasonable procedure that can be helpful before the copywriter gains enough experience to prepare his/her own procedures. The steps are explained using the example of Cello Techno Tip pen.

Steps: 1) Assemble and analyze all the facts for planning a strategy: The company you are writing for - Cello The audience you are writing to - Anyone who uses a pen The product you must sell - Pen with the tip as its USP The objectives (product and/or institutional) of the immediate advertising sales The medium you are writing for - print 2) Assemble and study the ad facts, mechanical facts about the proposed advertisement : Is this a single ad or a part of a campaign? - single If print, what is the size and shape of the space? Black and white or color? B&W If on radio or television, what is the length of the commercial? How will it be produced? What is the time slot? Not Applicable 3) Review the product facts; use buyers fact sheets, all research, surveys, trade publications, etc.
4) List all the products selling points - techno tip, rubber grip, ink, shape, size...

Study and number them according to strength; relist them in order. Decide on a cut off point of usable selling points (usually three or so). Determine the most effective copy appeal on the basis of the selling point chosen as the most important and dominant, the one that offers the greatest consumer benefit and becomes the theme of the copy and the headline area techno tip
5) Decide on the copy approach. (at this point the copywriter has developed a

concept) - contrast ad
6) Decide on tentative idea visualization; do lots of vizthinks and thumbnails. Make

notations for the guidance of the art department - ordinary tip techno tip 7) Outline the body copy. Introducing the new Cello Techno Tip with the worlds most advanced tip. Engineered in Germany, the unique tip incorporates REDUCED FRICTION ACTION (RFA) that makes every word glide like silk. giving you the smoothest, finest writing experience ever.
8) Write the headline - In this case the picture as well as words

Steps 7,8,9 are interchangeable. 9) Write the first draft.

10) Check all facts again. Check copy against copy checklists and copy platform. Some of the following may be pertinent questions to ask yourself: a. Does the copy state customer benefits? b. Will it be interesting to a prospective buyer? c. Is it accurate? d. Is it clear? e. Is it specific? f. Does it give adequate information? g. Is it plausible and believable? h. Does it call for proof? If so, is your proof impressive? i. Can it be made more concise? j. Does it make the reader want the product? 11) Confer with the art department on actual layout and artwork.

12) If necessary, rewrite the body copy or details of the copy to fit the final layout

exactly. Be prepared to do a character count if exact typographical specification is required. This is called copy fitting. 13) 14) Write final copy, complete in all details, ready for typesetting. After the advertisement is set in type, see the proofs at every stage.


The elements of the copy, from headline to closing should follow the 4 steps in the selling process A-I-D-A in a logical progression. THE HEADLINE PROVIDES THE A AND I In copywriting, the attention and interest of the potential customer must be caught by the headline, or the page will be turned and the possible sale lost. The headline has 3 functions: 1. To capture attention. Ex: Axe effect red lips creating a sensuous appeal are a very attention seeking ad and the visual acts as the headline. 2. To awaken the interest of the reader in learning more about the product.

The ad for Intelligent Investor, which uses the headline Why being a regular reader of Intelligent Investor is such a healthy habit, would awaken the interest of the readers. 3. To select the special readers who might have a specific interest in what you are selling. Eanadu Pradesh ad targets media planners, hence the headline Perhaps the first ad written with the belief that a media planner is human, and not a counting machine. Once the dominant selling point and copy appeal have been determined, there are several grammatical forms the headline can take. It may be determined as:
A statement or part of a statement

The Business Standard ad uses a statement the headline: Its tough being a Business Standard reporter.
A question

Onida TV ad- Headline should the new Onida TV be banned? Surf excel sample laaney ki kya zaroorat
A command.


get it! Visa Ad for Star News that has a headline, which just says Stop Onida TV headline - Dont! Sub-headline dont just envy the Ondia TV, buy it What a headline contains is more important than the form in which it does it. Headlines may be classified by performance as follows:
1. News or Information:

Conveys real news or important information about a product. Eg. The Times of India ad that boasts of the circulation of TOI as compared to that of Deccan Herald. The Times of India: 301927 copies. Deccan Herald : 147538 copies 2. Selective

Select a specific audience with specific language and words. The Malaya Manorama ad which addresses advertisers. The print ad starts with the headline which says A few commandments to advertisers this Xmas. Media planer ad of Eenadu Pradesh. 3. Claim: Insist that this product has an outstanding record or performs in a certain way. It should not be overly blatant and boastful, if so then it is called Horn-Blowing. DHL: when sending shipments to the US, more of Indias companies choose us. Horn blowing the Asian Paints yamaraj ad this ad just exaggerates the durability aspect of the paints which kind of sounds boastful. 4. Advice or Promise: Promise a real benefit if the product is used. Ex: Dont get a credit card from us and you may end up with the wrong one in your hands - ad. 5. Logo Or Slogan: Stress the reputation of the company behind it. Toyota, Tata both use their logos for most of the ads for their automobiles Camry and Indica respectively. 6. Mood-Setting: Set a mood to create receptivity in the reader. Eg. The JW Marriott ad, which uses the headline The earth is mostly water. So is the view from our hotel. A picturesque scene of girl relaxing supports this
7. Provocative:

It must provoke the reader into probing further. It means startling or interrupting in order to capture attention. If a provocative headline is used it must be pertinent to the product. If it presents a question, the answer must lie in the subheadline or body copy and in the products characteristics, features, and performance.

Sometimes it presents a contradiction or an apparent paradox to the reader, with the explanation provided in the body copy. There are exceptions: Those messages where a headline and very descriptive visuals are able to tell the whole story. The advertisement for HLL looking for baby models Headline Nude models wanted Ad for Amitasha Foundation Her parents cursed the day she was born
8. Visuals are as much a part of headlines as are verbal concepts.

Eg. The bad night Goodknight ad with Lisa Ray .her face tells the whole story and theres no body copy! BODY COPY Body copy carries the selling message. Once the headline and visual have attracted attention and aroused interest, the body copy attempts further to develop the interest of the potential customer, to awaken the desire to own the product, and to close with a call to action. Body copy can be extremely important to the success of an ad. It allows you to fully convince the target audience of the benefits of the product. But unless you can get them to read it, it's a huge waste of your time and your client's money. And most people wont read body copy--in fact, 80% of readers won't read it. So what do you do? You can leave it out of the ad and hope that the ad will compel readers to seek more product information elsewhere (at the Web site, at the showroom, etc.) But sometimes advertising is the most efficient way of communicating all the product information so you have to write good body copy. In that case, you must try to entice readers into the body copy. And the best way to do that is with a great "lead." This is the first sentence of the body copy. No matter what style of copy you're writing, it should draw the reader from the headline and into the text. The copy approach is the way the copy and its appeal are presented. Copy approaches, various as they seem, can be grouped into three categories: 1. Factual, direct or rational approach LIC The LIC ad states the benefits of the Komal Jeevan policy, the eligibility, minimum sum assured, etc. Several ways to work out this approach Direct selling information

Ads that offer information on products like music cassettes, books, CDs, etc, which are sold by the newspaper/magazine in which the ads feature, provide direct selling information. For example The Economic Times Entertainment 2001-2002 report. Implied suggestion (soft sell) Amway the ad does not urge you to buy today or hurry, instead, it lays down the benefits of using Amway products in a subtle way. Besides, since Amway products are made available through personal selling, the body copy does not state any contact address or number. Rather, it states someday soon, someone will suggest that you find out for yourself how exquisite our personal care products are. Testimonial copy 1. When Sachin Tendulkar says Boost is the secret of my energy, he is offering testimony to the benefit offered by Boost, i.e. energy.

2. Ratan Tata lends credibility to the plea made by Dept of Electronics Govt. of India by ratifying the seriousness of the Y2K Bug. Body copy developed for the factual approach:

Amplification of headline in the lead (1st sentence (s) of body copy)

2. Proof or evidence 3. Additional details 4. Closing The ad by Infosys seeking recruits starts with the Headline We need Though Leaders who can assert our Domain Competence.
1. Amplification of headline As a global IT consulting and services organization,

Infosys is at the cutting edge of IT development and a thought leader in business and technology domains 2. Proof or evidence: a seal is shown in the ad which states Best employer to work for in India Business today Hewitt Associates survey Jan 2001 Softwares Best Employer Dataquest NFO MBL Study May 2001

3. Additional details: details about Domain Competency, the focus areas of the

project, eligibility criteria are given. 4. 5. Closing: So, if you are a though leader who wants to fly high, act now! Mail your resume 2. Narrative approach story board Ex: om kotak mahindra A man joins a party and is bewildered by what he sees. He moves forward in a daze and recognizes his own image as an old man. "Ek din, main apne aap se mila. Aur apna bhavishya dekha." He dances together with his vision, and enjoys the carefree moment. "Aatmanirbhar, surakshith. Azaad." They become the life of the party as... ...the MVO adds, "Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance. Jeene ki azaadi." The ad uses the narrative approach to emphasize the USP of Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance, i.e. Independence.

Several ways to work out this approach: Descriptive or human interest story Most NGOs use this approach to elicit a favorable response from the readers. For example, ad for the Amitasha foundation - Nurturing the girl child, show the photograph of a girl in rags, with the headline Her parents cursed the day she was born. So does she.

Slice of life slice of life ads depict situations that one can relate to, situations that could have occurred in anyones life. McDonald, Cadburys dairy milk, etc use this approach

Fictional testimony In the ad for Dove, women who have used Dove narrate the positive effects of using Dove in their lives.

Monologue or dialogue Hindustan Times Humor Most of the Fevicol ads have used humor to make the ads noticeable, interesting as well as memorable. Even the feviqwick ad where two men are shown fishing, has the same effect. The ad - a suave gentleman is shown fishing in a lake for hours, but could not catch a single fish. Then comes a rustic local, who applies Feviqwick at a few places on his fishing rod, dips it in the water and out comes with five fish stuck to his rod. Thus, humor gave high noticibility as well as recall to the ad. Body copy developed for the narrative approach: Predicament Most fair and lovely ads start with a predicament the girl faces problem/s because of her complexion. like the ad in which the father wishes that he had a son and not a daughter. The daufghter comes across an offer for the job of an airhostess, but a after look at her dark complexion in the mirror, only ends up cursing herself.
Transition to the product.

But things change when she uses Fair and Lovely Happy ending Not only does she become beautiful (fair) and confident, she even becomes an airhostess. The ad ends with the female taking her father out for coffee to a five star hotel, and the father proudly calling her beta (son). Closing (suggestion to the reader) Ads, which end with words, like jaldi kijiye, hurry now, etc. Example Safal ad jaldi kijiye - mahurat nikal na jaye 3. Projective or emotional approach This approach puts the reader realistically into the situation, involving him emotionally through a projected factual story or through fictional story about

fictional characters. This approach relies on the customers association with the characters in the story as if it were happening to him. Eg. The emotional impact of this type is often felt in copy written about perfume, cosmetics, lingerie, cars and travel. McDonalds ad. A little boy takes a last look around his old home. Everything is being packed up and stashed away to be moved Saying good-bye to his best friend he gets into the car and they drive out. On the way, he spots a McDonalds restaurant and....he recalls all the fun they had here. The occasions celebrated and the good times come flashing back to him. Cut to the new house. His sister drags him to the window to show him something. The father draws a Mac logo in the air. As they look out, the kid sees a McDonald's restaurant opposite and his gloom disappears. The ad ends with the jingle - McDonald's mein hai kuch baat.


Boxes and panels are great tools for the copywriter. In the information age, writers can access huge amounts of information to support their products utility and demonstrate why customers need it. To avoid having the ads text become a glut of testimonials, data, and off-the-issue discussions, copywriters segregate information of a secondary and supportive nature into boxes and panels next to the main body copy. This allows readers to first focus on the main issues and later study the detailed facts. A box is copy with a line around all four sides. A panel is an elongated box that runs the whole length or width of an ad. Boxes are useful for framing information that the prospect must read e.g. coupons, special offers, contest rules, and the order blanks.

Many slogans also called theme lines or tag lines begin as successful headlines. Through continuous use, they become standard statements, not just in advertising but also for salespeople and company employees. Slogans become a battle cry for the company. Slogans have two basic purposes: to provide continuity to a series of ads in a campaign and to reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief, repeatable and memorable positioning statement.

De Beers ads still use the slogan Diamonds Are Forever/Heera Hai Sada Ke Liye Because of their use in positioning a company or product, many slogans are developed at the same time the product or company is conceived. Slogans should be like old friends- recognized instantly year after year. Effective slogans are short, simple, memorable and easy to repeat, and most important, help differentiate the product or the company from its competitors. Rhyme, rhythm, and reason not to mention alliteration are valuable tricks of the trade for slogan writing.


A seal is awarded only when a product meets standards established by a particular institution or organization. Sunsilk claimed that it had passed the rigid tests and had received the approval of Elida Hair Institute of Paris . Companies claiming to be ISO approved Since these organizations have credibility as recognized authorities, their seals provide an independent, valued endorsement for the advertisers product. The term Seal is sometimes interpreted to mean the company seal or trademark. They are actually called logotypes. Logotypes and signature are special designs of the advertisers company name or product name. They appear in all company ads and, like trademarks, give the product individuality and provide quick recognition at the point of purchase.

There are many acknowledged ways to visualize the product or the concept behind the product.

Illustration of the product alone. (Usually a line drawing in a newspaper or a photograph against a plain backdrop). Rolex watches, Tata Indica full page ads

Illustration of a product in setting (as in an ad for a chair, showing the chair in the living room).

Samsonite - Luggage at airport

Illustration of a product in use (the artwork would show a chair, for example with someone sitting in it). Borosil at the coffee table Wills classic collection

Illustration of a benefit from using the product. (Rosy-cheeked children eating a given brand of bread, with the implication that the look of health results from eating that brand of bread). VLCC Before-after ads

Illustration of the loss or disadvantage resulting from not using the advertised product. Eg 1: American Express Travellers Cheques You could carry cash and let it show. Or carry American Express Travellers Cheques and blend in. This ad shows the discomfort of the man in the picture as a result of carrying cash or not using American Express Travellers Cheques Eg 2: New India Assurance. I dont need insurance.the dont drops.and this gives a warning signal to the audience and creates a perception that the product or service is necessary. Dramatization of the headline

Nature Fresh Headline: Khao light, Jiyo life! In the ad for Nature Fresh oil, the headline khao lite jiyo life (eat light, live life) has been dramatized by showing a young lady enjoying life to the fullest. Dramatizing a detail (where the illustration focuses on a small area of a product or enlarges a detail). E.g.: wills Classic print ads dramatize the details by showing small pictures of details such as the collar of the shirt, the cuff, etc.

Comparison (illustrating the product and another object that is similar in an essential aspect). Eg. Philips Trulite featuring the same object in two lights Philips Trulite and other fluorescent tube lights and showing the difference. Eg 2: Vim Bar ads also compare the effectiveness of an ordinary detergent and that of Vim.

Contrast (illustrating the product and an object that differs in an essential way; for example, before-and-after pictures or the advertised brand and an inferior brand X). The VLCC ads use the before-after effect to highlight the benefits offered by their service.

Cartoons Trade characters Lalitaji of Surf, Gattu of Asian Paints, the Amul girl are all examples of trade characters. Charts and diagrams Many publications use graphs and charts to support their claims about their circulations.

Symbolism (an illustration of an object that has acquired significance beyond its literal meaning). For example the Merrill Lynch bull, golden arches of McDonald. Mood setting illustration (usually a romanticized rendering of the product or a romantic landscape). Eg1: the JW Marriot E.g. 2: Taj Cochin

Illustration of the product in its package (important for volume, price-cutting stores, and supermarket selling where recognition of the product on the shelf is important).

Illustration of the products ingredients or raw materials. The Real Activ (packed fruit juice) commercial not only gives an illustration of a product in its package, but also shows the ingredients that are used in the product,i.e. oranges.

Art refers to a system of principles that guides us in creating beauty. In advertising, art shapes the message into a complete communication that appeal to the senses as well as the mind. So art refers to the whole presentation- visual, verbal and aural- of the ad. The term design refers to how the art director and graphic artist conceptually choose and structure the artistic elements that make up an ads appearance or set its tone.

A layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an ad- headline, subheads, visual, copy, captions, trademarks, slogans and signature. A layout gives a physical presentation (look and feel) of what the ad will look like. It helps the creative team to develop the ads psychological elements- the nonverbal and symbolic components. It serves as a blueprint once the best design is chosen. There are two phases in the design process for advertising (print, television). In the conceptual phase, the designer uses thumbnails, roughs, dummies, and comprehensives- in other words, non final art - to establish the ads look and feel. In the pre press or production art phase, the artist prepares a mechanical the final artwork with the actual type in place along with all the visuals the publisher or printer will need to reproduce or print the ad. Thumbnail sketches It is a small, very rough, rapidly produced drawing used to try out ideas. The artist uses it to visualize a number of layout approaches without wasting time on details; the best sketches are then developed further. Rough layout Here, the artist draws to the actual size of the ad. Headlines and subheads suggest the final type style, illustrations and photographs are sketched in, and body copy is simulated with lines. Roughs are presented to clients- particularly cost conscious ones.

Comprehensive: It is generally quite elaborated with colored photos, sub visuals, a glossy spray coat etc.

Dummy It is a form of rough design used to present the hand held feel of brochures, multi page materials, or point of purchase displays. Thumbnails / Rough Layouts The elements, faces, figures, groups, products, and places, must be well composed. Thus, these elements must have balance, proportion, perspective, contrast, and gaze motion. Various terms The optical center of a layout is the balance point always vertically centered and slightly above horizontal center of the layout around which element weights are placed. It is the focal point for the arrangement of art and copy elements in an ad.

Balance in visualization is concerned with visual weight. Large elements of copy and art weigh more than small units; black is heavier than gray; certain colours have more weight than others; asymmetrical outweigh symmetrical ones; even white space has weight. A layout can be formally or informally balanced. Formal balance is placing of the elements symmetrically with the left side the same as the right side. Informal balance places the elements in balance around the optical center asymmetrically but equally by considering their size, shape and visual weight. Proportion deals with size relationships. Certain unequal proportions of size to size are more exciting to the eye than are regular and predictable ones. The idea visualizer should experiment with different divisions of white space as well as the proportional relationships of the elements to the white space. Perspective deals with relationships that involve distance. It is a way o creating the illusion of moving into the distance. The visual illusion of distance is created by making objects smaller as they move away. Shapes can be made to look three-dimensional by the use of overlapping lines and converging lines. Contrast is the factor that provides emphasis and attention to various elements of the layout by rearranging and comparing their different intensities, proportions, and perspective. Contrast enables you to provide a unit of dominant interest an optical focal point which needs attention. Gaze motion considers the layout arrangement of copy and art elements designed to lead the eye through the message of any advertisement. Certain motions are more dynamic and rapid, leading the eye differently and at a rate different from the more static and organized layout. The idea visualiser should decide which suits the message best. There are several basic formats and compositions of layout that can get you started.
1. The big picture uses a dominant visual in a formal balance with headline and body

copy below. It is simple and direct and can be used for almost any kind of verbal/visual concept.
2. The big copy layout may have visuals, but they are supplemental to the body copy.

An alternative use of the big copy layout is to make the type and typographical style so dramatic and appealing that they function as the visuals.
3. The omnibus layout uses many visuals in spatially divided sections each with its

own headline and copy. The individual spaces are separated by a variety of visual and graphic devices.
4. The mortise layout either uses copy or visuals to form a border or frame, around

the other. It is formal in nature but the verbal visual content can create the dynamics.

5. The free-form layout combines copy and visuals into irregularly aligned or

superimposed relationships using combinations of each to cause perspectives and interesting divisions of white space. This provides dynamic movements and gaze motion through the elements of the advertisement.
6. The scatter layout abounds with many different movements, and while it may

seem undisciplined and brash, it is produced from an organized plan designed to present a readable message.
7. The continuity strip uses many more elements of headline, text, and visuals than

the average type of layout. It resembles a film or comic strip and is utilized for narrative messages, demonstrations of a process, or assortments of merchandise.

Attitudes help us define how we perceive and think about others, as well as how we behave toward them. An attitude is made up of: What you think. (cognition) What you feel. (affect) What you do. (behaviour) Componen Characteristics t Affect Emotional reactions Cognition Behavior Example(s)

"I like ..."; -or- ".... makes me angry" Internalized mental representations, "My co-workers beliefs, thoughts should ..."; -or- "If .... then ...." The tendency to respond or overtly act in a particular way toward the attitude object

Example: An environmentalist's attitude toward the use of cars Affective component = "I hate the use of cars." Cognitive component = "Car emissions contribute to air pollution." Behavioral component = "I ride my bike everywhere."

Cognitive Component The knowledge and perceptions we have about the object. Based on personal experience with the object and information from various sources (e.g., opinions of others, ads, articles, etc.). This knowledge and perceptions commonly take the form of beliefs i.e., the consumer believes that the object possesses attributes and that specific behavior will lead to specific outcomes. Affective Component A consumers emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. Generally a reaction to the cognitive aspect of the attitude. Our emotional state may amplify positive or negative experiences, which then have an affect on our attitude. Behavioral Component Is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that a consumer will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way regarding the attitude object. Frequently treated as a consumers intention to buy. Research shows that consumers who respond positively to an intention to buy question (e.g., yes, I plan to buy it) are more likely to buy the product than consumers who are not asked to respond to an intention question. Implications for Marketing Strategy The following table shows how the components of attitude are focused on by marketers using various models to bring about a favourable change in customer attitude towards a brand/product. MODELS








When marketers use the traditional models to create or change attitudes, they use the various components as follows: At the cognitive level with information. Most medicine ads (over the counter) are directed towards the cognitive components. Ads for hi-tech products also affect the cognitive component. At the affective level with emotionally toned messages Ex. The popular ad Hamara Bajaj has an emotional appeal which has proved to be positive for the brand Bajaj. At the behavioral level with incentives (samples, coupons, rebates) Ex. The Bajaj ad where in they have created awareness about the installment scheme which requires the buyer to take home a scooter at an affordable amount of Rs.999/- entices its target audience effectively.


Advertising is persuasive communication designed to create behavioral or attitudinal changes, usually culminating in the form of a purchase. When changing attitudes through advertising, there are many factors to consider. One must choose a source that is attractive to the target audience, a message that will break through the clutter, and a channel that will maximize comprehension. Advertisers keep the persuasion matrix in mind to persuade the customers to purchase products they advertise. This matrix brings together multiple elements to be considered in the construction and evaluation of persuasive messages. McGuire has provided a

complete how-to guide for the creation of persuasive messages aimed at inducing an attitude change and/or a purchase action. In this time of measuring advertising not just by sales but through brand preference and loyalty, a method of connecting with customers on many levels, such as this, is crucial.

The matrix consists of dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables are the elements that finally lead to persuasion. These elements are addressed using the independent variables (communication components) as shown in the figure above. The five classes include source; message; channel (medium); receiver (audience); and destination (response target). Destination has to do with the type of target behavior desired. What is extent of the behavior desired? What is it that we really want people to do? How can we get them to do it? What messages (verbal and visual) will resonate with the intended audience and help them to perform the desired behavior? The dependent variables can be explained as: 1. Message presentation This includes deciding what information to give the audience, how to give it and through what medium.

2. Attention Even with exposure to message, attention is not guaranteed. In this world of sensory overload, it is necessary for the human mind to accept only a small portion of the deluge of information it receives. Selective perception helps the mind bring information into manageable portions. This involves attracting the attention of the target audience i.e. the source and message elements come into play. 3. Comprehension The step in the attitude change process requires the receiver to grasp the full meaning and implications of the message. It must not only be heard, but also understood and contemplated. 4. Agreement/ yielding After comprehension, an opinion must arise about the believability and validity of the persuasive message. Agreement with the message can be influenced by a number of factors, both internal (such as previously held beliefs) and external (the perception of the source as being credible or the type of appeal used, for examples). McGuire also refers to this step as yielding. 5. Retention Remembering the accepted information is the fifth step in the process. A substantial amount of time may pass between the conveyance of the message and the actual moment a purchase decision is made, as in the grocery or department store. The placement of this information into memory does not mean that it is not susceptible to decay. Delayed processing also affects the storage and reprocessing of information. 6. Behaviour This step is especially important to those measuring advertising's effectiveness through increased sales. Behaviour here means the actual process of purchase. Despite the fact that an individual alone can experience the entire process as he or she goes through it, research has shown that actions do not necessarily follow attitudes. In other words, people often don't know why they do the things they do That is why further investigation into attitude change is necessary. The following figure shows that process of attitude change in a simplified manner.


The basic principles of copywriting are same across all media, so is the AIDA model. But different media have certain peculiarities, which are explained briefly below. Television One might think of television as a bastion for big company advertising. But with the growth of cable and the ability to broadcast to a specific region, it can be used effectively by small businesses too. TV must be utilized carefully, because it can be easily misused a bad ad not only makes you look silly, but can actually lose you customers. Basic considerations for television copywriting Television is a visual medium. You need to communicate your message visually - the viewer should be able to tell what the ad is about with the sound off. Therefore, your visuals should be the most important part of your ad. Your script the actual words used during the commercial - is the least important part. Successful television advertising sells through emotions. Television viewers rarely remember the details of an ad, but they can recall how the ad made them feel. Make sure they feel motivated after viewing yours. Get to the point. You have about two seconds to grab the television viewer's attention, so use a strong opening image - the visual equivalent of a strong headline. You then have a total of maybe five seconds to say what the ad is about if its not clear you've lost the viewer for the entire ad. Keep your message simple. Stress your benefits. And remember to stress them visually. You can do this by "showing" what they are, rather than just "telling" what they are. Be sure to tell the viewer your name visually. Put it right there up on the screen, along with your logo, and your address and phone number. Better yet, hit them twice by having the voice-over announcer read it aloud at the same time. Don't forget your call to action. Tell the view what to do - Call now!!!; Visit your local dealer; Compare the value; Come see us; etc. The writer and the art director prepare a storyboard. An artist sketches video scenes in each frame, the audio and video instructions are typed underneath. Storyboards help both agency and client personnel visualize the commercial, estimate costs, discover any weaknesses in concept, gain management approval, and guide the actual shooting. But storyboards just approximate what the final commercial will look like.

The artists who paint, sketch, and draw in advertising are called illustrators. The artists who produce pictures with a camera are called photographers. Together they are responsible for all the visuals we see in an ad.

Choosing the visual: An infinite number of pictures can be used to communicate the benefits of a product or service. The kind of picture used is often determined during visualization process. But frequently the visual is not determined until the art director actually lays out the ad. Art directors often keep checklists handy (as well as an extensive file or morgue of noteworthy ads, photos) to serve as idea ticklers. The formats Demonstration
Vim bar ads use demonstration to drive home the point Vim is better than the detergent you are currently using.

Problem and Solution

Fair and lovely ads always use the problem and solution format Music and Song The Bacardi Rum ad be what you wanna be Spokesperson

Many companies use celebrities to endorse their brands. These celebrities may be shown as spokespersons in the televsion commercials. For example Diana Hayden acts as a spokesperson for Loreal hair color.

Dialogue The Moov(pain relieving cream) ad shows two ladies talking one complaining about a backache and the other offering a solution i.e. Moov.

Narrative The new Berger paints ad stressing on the MONEY PAINT tag

Radio When you place a radio ad, you're speaking to a captive audience - the listener has to take an action (actively change the station) to pass by your ad. Because listeners are often sitting alone (frequently in their cars), speak to them like your having a one-on-one conversation. Address them directly, and your message will get across. A good radio ad doesn't differ greatly in structure from any other type of ad. Begin with a headline - in this case, a strong opening line that tells the listener what you're going to tell them. Then tell them. Then finish by telling them what you've already told them. End your ad with a call to action - buy our product, read our magazine, call now, etc. On radio, you need to keep your message simple and focused. Choose one theme and stick to it. Remember that it takes longer to say something out loud than it does read it. The average 30-second radio spot contains only about 70 words. Mention your company name at least three times in those 30 seconds. Different radio stations require different types of ads. In his book "Guerrilla Advertising," Jay Levinson identifies two basic types of stations. "Background" stations are on in the background and are typically music stations that are listened to passively. "Foreground" stations require active listening. They would include talk radio, all-news radio, call-in shows, and

the like. Make your ad sensitive to the format to keep the listener's attention - don't use a "voice-only" ad on a music station; don't put a country and western jingle on a classical music station; and don't use a music-driven ad on talk radio. You have two basic choices when it comes to creating a radio ad. You can provide a script and have it read by the announcer. Or you can provide a tape. If you choose the latter, have a professional announcer read the copy; and consider using background music or sound effects as a way of making the ad stand out. If you're using a script, consider placing your ads on the show of a well-known radio personality. By having the personality read your ad, it will sound like a testimonial. And make sure the personality is familiar with your product or service - send them a sample, if appropriate. Repetition is very important in radio, because it takes several airings for the listener to become familiar with your name and product or service. Frequency helps you break through the clutter. Consider running your spots at the same time every day for a week. Take a week off and then run it for another week.

Radio formats Dialogue Britannia Maska Chaska What it is? Ads always use the dialogue form Announcement Celebrity announcers Music Direct Mail: This advertising uses includes any selling message that uses to reach prospective customers. It can be anything from a postcard announcing a fashion show to a six page brochure offering a set of encyclopedia. In writing copy for direct mail, the writer should observe rules that have been set forth for any copywriting i.e. attracting attention, arousing interest which can be done, generating a desire for the product, and inspiring customer action. Inspiring customer action needs the strongest emphasis of all where a real sale is the objective of the mailing. There is almost a physical effort needed to bring a direct mail sale to a positive close. If the ad is accompanied by a coupon then it must evoke a strong urge in the customer to fill it. The coupon must also be explicit its instructions. Outdoor advertising: It is the outdoor display of the advertising message. Its placement is based on the traffic that passes outdoor spots. Because this traffic is moving past the ad, it should be noted that time is an element in outdoor advertising. There is an unwritten rule that many copywriters follow: No more than eight words of copy on a billboard. There are three general types:

1. Posters or billboards are the lithographed sheets that are pasted on boards and

generally illuminated at night. 2. Painted bulletins are placed in more important traffic sites. The artwork and copy are painted directly on an appropriate surface. They are almost invariably illuminated at night. 3. Spectaculars: particularly stand out among the various types of outdoor advertising. They are built of steel beams and sheet metals; they may use plastic, they make unusual use of flashing lights, smoke, and steam- anything that will attract attention. Transit advertising: It is the generic name applied to the poster advertising in terminals and stations and inside trains, subways, and buses (where they are called car cards). They are also found in large posters on the on the outside of buses. The copy for this medium calls for a slogan, a product name, or the products campaign idea. The same rules for outdoor advertising would apply to transit ads, which are, in effect, mini - billboards. E.g. orange ads painted on trains Point of Purchase advertising: This advertising is often part of a container or rack for the self service merchandise that it describes. In retail stores, posters and signs are very often part of display. It is the poster at the entrance to a shop, the card at the base of an interior display, the card in the window etc. that would be included in this category. Here again, the copy must be simple: one idea, one product benefit, one fact. This may be where to find the item, its price, where it fits in the current fashion. The slogans, the campaign idea, often, are enough to remind the purchaser to choose your product.

"Advertising is a splendid device for helping to keep the money going round in a free enterprise society. You make the product, you advertise that product, and people buy it. The greater proportion of all sales come about because advertising has influenced the buyers. A lesser proportion of sales come about via word of mouth or because the product happens to be in the same place as the buyer at the point of sale - when he feels the impulse to buy. So advertising plays a very important part in shifting of product. The basic standard ad contains the following elements: 1. The headline This features the main product benefit 2. The illustration: This demonstrates the product in relation to the headline benefit

3. The body copy: An opening paragraph enlarging on this benefit. To communicate a message in the smallest space, via the least number of words, in the shortest possible time. 4. Further paragraphs of facts to support the benefit claim 5. Penultimate paragraph warning the reader of what he will miss if he doesn't buy the product. 6. Final paragraph as a call to action. (Get in touch right away) 7. The company logo: A symbolic device whose function is to give immediate identity to the company 8. Tag line: A phrase designed to leave the reader with a comfortable impression of the company Copy questions Concept questions What is copywriting? What is a copy platform? List the elements of a copy State the components of attitude Note down the principles of copywriting What are the elements of message strategy? What is a layout? Long answers What are the principles of copywriting? What is the AIDA model and how is it applied in copywriting? What are the stages in copywriting? What is the creative process of copywriting? What are the elements of a copy? Explain the importance of each. Explain in detail the components of attitude and explain their relevance to copywriting What do you understand by Persuasion Matrix? What is an ad layout? What are the types of layout?


The range of advertising media is so wide that it is not possible to attempt a definition other than in the broadest terms. An advertising medium is any means by which an advertiser may decide to spend the money he has allocated to advertising.


Effective advertising refers to informing the public about the right product at the right time through the right medium. Conveying a right message through a wrong medium at the wrong time would definitely a waste of resources. For e.g. cigarette advertising. The target market for this is man in the age group of 25-60 years. The advertiser would consider placing ads in magazine having a predominantly male readership. Advertising in magazines having a predominantly female readership would be mostly wasteful for this product. It may be true that rarely does any magazine have a 100 % male readership. Therefore, the right media selection is the crux of the success of the entire advertising campaign. The effectiveness of a well-designed advertising message depends upon when & where it is realised. There are time &place decisions. In short we may say that the success of advertising depends upon the right selection of media, the timely release of the advertisement message, its frequency and continuity, and the place of its release. To get the most out of the advertising rupees sent, the primary concern of the advertiser is media selection. The cost of buying space or time is weighed against the number of audience secured by such advertising. Media ability covers such qualitative values as audience characteristics, editorial personality, and contribution to advertising effectiveness; above all it refers to media image capable of enhancing the perception and communication value of a given message. For e.g. channel A and channel B deliver the same message and the same extension of advertising exposure to the same audience; but if say, channel A has a better reputation for honesty and good editorials, the advertisement in this may receive a higher perception and communication among its audience than if it is inserted in channel B. The specific positioning of the ad in the newspaper improves demographic selectivity. For women products, the fashion page or the food page may be more desirable, whereas for mens products, many advertisers specify the sports page. Many newspaper offer split run facilities. The split run is a process by which alternate copies of the same newspaper are printed with different ads for the same product. Normally, the location of ads in both the editions is the same. The newspapers do charge extra for this split-run service.

Evaluation of a particular medium for inclusion in a campaign rests upon what it contributes to the cumulative effect. Any medium comprises of 4 elements. Character Atmosphere Reach and frequency Cost In addition to this, we should also realize that the value contributed by the medium also depends upon the size of the advertisement or length of the commercial and the position of the advertisement. By the word character, we mean the objective characteristics of the medium; type of coverage, seasonal implications etc. By atmosphere we mean the effect on the mind or emotions of the mood and circumstances in which the advertisement in the medium is perceived by the audience. We shall now see these two elements in detail.

There are ten aspects to character. - Geography - Class - Age - Power to reach special groups - Physical characteristics of the medium - Assistance to selling - Duration of interest - Timing - Impact or repetition - Indirect effects on influential groups like retailers Geography. The coverage of every medium is limited by area. Coverage may be limited, as with a national newspaper to a national basis. Within this lies another limitation, as in a national paper may also have a strong degree of coverage in some areas and lighter degree in others. Coverage may also be limited as with a television or radio station to a specified region. Within this it is further influenced by fluctuating factors like signal strength, booster transmitters or pattern of relay services. This factor is important not only to small regional advertisers but also to national advertisers whose sales patterns and resistance varies from region to region.

Class. Most media have overwhelming bias towards any social economic class, being read and seen so widely that the class distinction is largely eliminated. But there are also many media in which the class bias is obvious or atleast definable eg. High priced fashion magazines are biased towards high society women. Age groups. The age factor may be extremely important for some products. For eg. Its no use trying to sell toothpaste to people with false teeth. General observation and common sense shows that certain types of media vehicles, by the virtue of their content itself, appeal to certain age groups rather than others. In contrast, certain other media evidently have equal chance of reaching all age groups eg. Posters, billboards etc. Power to reach special groups. Even within socio-economic groups there are certain special groups that could be important to advertisers. Different media are available for reaching a pre-selected target audience as required by the advertiser. Eg. The Motoring Times targets males interested in Motor vehicles. Physical characteristics of the media. Another important character aspect is the physical characteristics of the medium. Whether it is oral, written or visual. Whether it admits movement or not, etc. For eg. A message that requires demonstration would use the television medium, but which require personal interactive demonstration would use exhibitions or POP demos. Assistance to Selling. Another aspect of character is the degree to which the medium assists the process of selling. Some advertisements aim at hard core selling where as some require the creation of a prestigious atmosphere. Mediums differ in the level of assistance to selling. For eg. Mediums like POPs have a high level of assistance as compared to television. Choosing the medium according to the advertising objective is extremely important. For eg. Using only down-to-earth mediums for the brand building exercise of expensive cosmetics would not only be detrimental to the brand but also poor returns for the money spent. Duration of interest. The time given by the audience to the advertisements in a particular medium is another very important aspect. Some advertising messages are just reminders so mediums which have only a few seconds of observer time like posters serve the purpose. But other messages may require mediums with higher duration of interest. Timing. The moment at which the message is seen or read is also of immense importance. For eg. For products that have a casual or impulse buying pattern, its imperative that the media used for advertising used is as close to the point of purchase as possible. The day of the week, month, time of the day, season etc also affect the degree to which the message is effective. Impact and repetition. The characteristics of the medium also affect the impact offered by the medium. For eg. An inch-high font size might be effective on a full page newspaper

ad, but a foot high font size is totally ineffective for a hoarding. The cost of the medium also determines the ability to use it for repetitions. For messages where repetition is more effective then lengthy once in a whiles. Using TV for short advertisements is more effective then for longer duration films. Indirect effects on influential groups like retailers. Another important value of the advertising budget is that it gives the retailer confidence to stock the goods and to display them prominently. This confidence can be formed only when the retailer respects the ad or sees the ad in the course of events. This many a times becomes an important deciding factor between two equivalent media. For eg. For a womens product sold through grocers, if the choice is between a womens magazine and a daily newspaper, it is more likely that the grocer will see the ad in the newspaper, thus the newspaper is a more efficient medium.

The character of a medium is essentially a very objective and largely physical aspect. The other element is the subjective and atmospheric aspect of any medium. Atmosphere is the mood of the audience and the relationship between the message and the atmosphere of the medium carrying it. Evaluating atmosphere begins with drawing the distinction between media whose primary function is advertising eg. Posters, and media whose objective is different eg. Entertainment for television channels, where the advertising matter is the intruder, whether acceptable or otherwise. Many media have the ability to reach customers when they are deciding their purchases. Any advertising message at this moment is not only acceptable but is also considered helpful. This increases the level of assistance to selling tremendously. For eg. A magazine that talks about beauty and fashion is highly effective in telling its readers about the latest beauty products available. The atmosphere of this particular medium is highly conducive to the advertisements of beauty products. POPs as an example, rates very high on atmosphere as it is not only acceptable but also extremely relevant to the context. The customer is there to buy and these aid the process of selection. On the other hand, cinema, radio and television fall into the opposite category where advertising is generally intrusive. Another aspect of atmosphere is the character of the medium, the atmosphere in which the medium is viewed. Eg. Cinemas are generally a cheerful escape for the audience into a world of glamour and fantasy. Advertising for happy, glamorous products would be more effective in this case rather than for hard core household products. The newspaper would be more effective for news oriented messages like an upcoming discount, or a sales promotion. Another variation of atmosphere lies in the prestige of the medium and particularly in its capacity to instill confidence in the buyer about the goods. For eg. National daily papers are more effective as a selling media rather than local weekly papers because their credibility is much higher. This aspect is two way, it follows the company-you-keep

concept, where not only does the advertisement derive its atmosphere from the medium but also vice-versa.

The media are classified into two categories:
Above-the-line media : press, TV, outdoor, posters, cinema and radio. The

recognised agencies get commission from these media.

Below the line media: those who do not give commission to the ad agency. Examples

are direct mail, exhibitions and sales literature.

A. Print media :
1. Newspapers: (a) daily

(b) weekly ( c) Sunday (d) weekend supplement

2. Magazines: (a) consumer magazines: general interest or special interest.

(b) business publications: trade publications, institutional publications, etc. 3. Direct advertising: direct mail.

B. Electronic media:
1. Radio: RADIO MIRCHI, RADIO CITY, ETC. 2. TELEVISION: channels like ZEE, AAJ TAK, STAR NEWS, etc. 3.

Narrow cast media: video and cable TV, cinema, ad films.

C. Outdoor media: D. Transit advertising media

E. Other media:
1. Specialty media: t-shirts, caps,etc.

2. Direct marketing.


PRINT MEDIA Advertising in the print media is the oldest and largest in terms of advertising billing. More than 50% of the space is devoted to the print ads. The print media has two sources of income : Circulation and subscription and Advertising revenue. Newspapers There are several type of newspapers:

Daily Weekly Special interest Evening, etc.

Newspapers can also be classified as regional, local, national, etc.

Each newspaper has its target audience. For example ECONOMIC TIMES targets businessmen and the student community, INDIAN EXPRESS targets people who want quality news, MID-DAY targets people with funky attitude, etc.

The marketers need to identify various target audiences and then use it as a medium of communication.

Advantages Of Newspaper Advertising:

Local advertising possible: Newspapers have a lot of ads which are local and help the companies to communicate with the local people. Only a few ads are national. E.g. in the Mumbai edition of TOINS there are a lot of local ads like MARS RESTAURANT, IMS CLASSES, etc. Inexpensive medium when used selectively. Wider reach in the future: due to the increasing literacy levels in INDIA, people have started reading newspapers. This is a good sign and the marketers would find it easy to reach wider audience. For instance TOINS has become the largest circulating English newspaper in the world. This would lead to a larger audience. System of tabloid inserts are gaining popularity. A multi page tabloid is inserted in the newspapers and then is distributed by the news agencies along with the dailies. Although the newspapers charge a fee, the fee is very nominal. Reinforcement medium: the ads that appear in television hardly lasts for about 45 seconds. The brand features can be reinforced on the minds of the people through print ads. This is because when the people read newspapers they tend to look at the advertise very keenly. Thus they start building opinions about the brand. For instance, the LG microwave ads were first shown on the television which was then followed in the media.

Disadvantages Of Newspaper Advertising

Short life span: it only when the reader is reading the newspaper does he have a look at the advertisement carefully. But after the newspaper is read then the person tends to remember very little about the ad. Quality of paper used: if the quality of the paper used is of bad quality then the print ad appears in bad shape. This would downgrade the quality of the ad. Using better quality paper can solve this. But the cost might increase. Some of the local language dailies use very bad quality of paper.

Strategically awkward positions: sometimes the ad is not positioned in an area which is highly visible. Such ads go unnoticed. If you try to put it is a strategic position then your costs may increase.

ROP BASIS : sometimes the advertisement is placed on run-of-paper basis, which means that the newspaper has the right to place the ad according to its own discretion. Informal reading: newspapers are generally read casually. They are read in a hurry. People might skip over an advertisement.

Clutter problem: sometimes the newspaper is so full of ads that the noticeability is very low. In such a case the ad losses its value.


Most magazines are weekly or fortnightly or monthly. They are in many ways different from newspapers. The major difference being the class of people catered to. While newspapers cater to the mass, magazines have a niche audience. For example TOINS is circulated to 10 lakh people daily , while a magazine like BUSINESS WORLD has an audience that has interest in knowing about the current business happenings. A newspaper is read daily or on the day it appears while the magazine is read over a long period of time.

Classes of magazines:

One classification is on the basis of size. Magazine may be of pocket size, standard size, etc. Another basis of classification is the type of readership. magazines, etc. i.e. biz magazines, sports

Then comes the classification on the basis of frequency of publication. They are weekly, fortnightly, monthly, etc. Magazines could be information providers like INDIA TODAY, CSR, etc. or it could be leisure type like SPORTSTAR, FILMFARE, etc.

Advantages of magazine advertising:

Attention of the readers: as the magazine is read over a period of week, fortnight, etc. they tend to attract the attention of the readers. They are read not at one sitting but at various time intervals. Therefore the reader tends to look at the ad frequently. Quality of paper: the quality of paper that is used in magazines is very good and the ad looks very attracting. The colour and art is clearly reproduced.

Good supplement to TV: magazines reach special target groups which is not possible only through TV ads. It provides more information to the interested audience. High growth rate of special interest magazines have led to a spurt in the ads appearing in the magazines.

Disadvantages of magazine advertising

Time limitation: for the ad to appear in the magazine the ad has to be planned in advance which is very time consuming. Also high costs are involved for creating a creative print ad. Not suitable for small scale sector: the businessmen who dont have large businesses and those who concentrate on local markets find the magazine as an unprofitable medium to advertise. It is only suitable for those businesses that have a nationwide network and reach.

Television: Television was introduced in India on September 15,1959. Previously only Delhi had TV transmission center but later the centers spread across India. Now a days more and more companies prefer to advertise on television because it creates a visual appeal and also television enables demonstrative effect. It is because of television that the MNCs have been successful. After LPG the reach of television has increased tremendously. It has changed the way the rural people perceive things. The rural people have also started using the new tech products and this has really led to the growth in the GDP.

Characteristics of commercial TV: TV is a home and a family medium. Viewing TV is effortless. National channels like DD enable to reach national audiences while international channels like STAR enable to reach global audiences. The viewers can closely associate with the product. Advantages Of Television Advertising:

TV has immense effect: no other medium can compete with TV when it comes to effective presentation. It attracts the attention of the viewers very easily. It also arouses interest. Audio as well as visual appeal. Role model advantage: here the advertisers have celebrities as endorsers. These celebs are role models of the youth and the youth always ape to be like them. To associate them with the brand means that the youth will be tempted to buy that brand. E.g. in case of FIAT PALIO it has become a hit car because of SACHINS image. Reaches vast audience: the LPG era has led to a boom in television sales resulting into high penetration levels. Even the smallest retailer watches TV and he may be lured to stock a particular product. Creation of AIDA: advertising in TV attracts Attention that creates an Interest and Desire that can lead to Action in the form of final purchase. Demonstration effect: advertising helps companies to show the demo effect so that people know the uses of the product. This is useful to companies who are into white goods business. E.g. the washing machine ads generally demonstrate as to how to use the machine. Creative use of environment: sometimes the sponsored program can be effectively used to produce a commercial. E.g: KSBKBT. In KSBKBT the company KOPRAN PHARMACEUTICALS advertised the brand SMYLE by having SMRITI MALHOTRA (TULSI) as brand endorser.

Demerits of TV advertising :

Time consuming to produce an ad: it is very time consuming to produce a TV ad. The company has to hire a production company. After this is done there is a long

procedure of selecting the models, the location of shoot, etc. Therefore if not rightly produced the ad looks crude.

TV ads alone do not suffice: in order to make the campaign successful TV ads have to be supported with other media like print or radio. TV ads should have high frequency: this is because by the time an ad for other product appears the viewer forgets the ad for a particular brand. So it is necessary to penetrate the minds of the viewer and create brand awareness. Immobile medium: radio and other print media is portable and can be carried anywhere. TV is fixed and impossible to carry places. It can penetrate only those places where there is a TV. Difficult to gain inquiries: the problem is that the television ads last only for a few seconds. So it is difficult for the viewer to know about the product in that moment of time. It is difficult for him to note the inquiry number in a spate of a second. For eg: very few people remember the ASIAN PAINTS help line number.
Costly affair: it is very costly for producing a TV ad. Professionals have to be hired

and they charge high fees. The COLA giants pay more than a 10 million rupees to its celebrities.

Statutory controls: the TV ads have to adhere to the I&B rules. Surrogate advertisements have been banned. The ads of liquor companies have been banned. Also some ads like the CLOSE-UP ad having MARC ROBINSON created furore.

Till recently, the importance of radio was not realized in a country like India. In fact Radio as a medium has far greater importance than TV. It is the real mass medium. Radio is very easy to use and does not require technical abilities. It is the least cost form of communication. Radio was the medium that helped in spreading the messages of various freedom fighters during independence. 90% of the rural India has access to Radio.

Advantages of radio advertising:

Largest reach: 90% of India has access to Radio which is unmatched by any other media. Radio is not only the medium of hearing news but also is a source of entertainment and advertising for the rural masses.

Low cost medium of communication: radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. Also radio ads can be produced quickly. Low literacy rates mean that the people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. They cant afford a TV set. Therefore radio is the most popular.

Disadvantages of radio advertising:

Misunderstanding: sometimes there might be a misconception regarding the radio ad as it is only heard. In television the chances of such misconception is less as it is audio as well as visual. RJ needs training: it is very important that the Radio Jockey is trained enough to deliver the ad. Sometimes the voice really matters. If the voice is irritating then there is a chance that the campaign may flop. No proper research available: no proper research has been available on the area of radio listening. So there could be a problem for the marketers in the sense that they might advertise on wrong channel at a wrong time.


Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. The modern outdoor media include outdoor advertising in several form such as posters, billboards, hoarding, roadside signs, highway advertising; and transit advertising placed on vehicles and rail, bus and air terminals.

Advantages of outdoor media:

The outdoor offers long life. It offers geographic selectivity. The marketer can vary the ad message according to the particular segment of the market. The ads can be local, regional, national and even international. The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. These dealer imprint strips are called snipes. The outdoor ads offer impact. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminder by the stores when they drive down the lane where the store is located. Since the display is huge it creates an impact on the prospective consumer. SHOPPERS STOP generally follows this type of advertising.

Outdoor ad allows displaying the slogan, product name and logo properly which are an integral part of the product.

Disadvantages of outdoor media: Outdoor advertising when employed on a national basis proves to be expensive. Outdoor advertising is not selective in the sense that once the outdoor ad is put it is seen even by people who are not the target audience. Blind spot is the most dangerous thing marketers fear. The term is used to refer to a campaign that is sustained for a long time. The audience gets bored seeing at the same hoardings. As in the case of FROOTI the DIGEN VERMA campaign bored the people. AMUL is one of the companies that constantly innovates. Advantages of transit advertising: Low cost medium. It offers a sure exposure and repetitiveness Reaches a large population One of the recent examples of transit advertising is the PRIYA GOLD biscuit ads behind the BEST bus tickets. Disadvantages: Cannot reach the rich urbanites who move about in their own automobiles. Direct marketing, cinema and miscellaneous media Direct marketing is defined as any activity whereby you reach your prospect or customer directly as an individual or they respond to you directly. Advertising can initiate a sale but it is only through DM that the sale is finally made. DM also helps in maintaining customer relationships. One time communication does not built a relationship. We have to get married to our customers. This is possible largely due to DM. DM is affordable only when the margins in the business can afford the cost of sustained contact. DM helps in long term. There is a huge opportunity for DM in India. DM may exploit new technologies like Email, TV, etc. For DM to be successful the customer database has to be really good. The pharmaceutical industry is most acquainted with this type of marketing.

Cinema advertising is when the ads are shown in the movie theatres before the start of the movie, interval and at the end. The following are the merits of cinema advertising: Cinema ensures captive audience: the people coming into cinema halls come with their own wish and their enthusiasm to see a movie is very high. they are very engrossed into the screen as soon as they arrive. Cinema is ideal media for niche marketing: the advertiser an reach the audience of his choice. Economical: the cost is very negligible.

Miscellaneous media: Video and cable TV, Point of Purchase advertising, window display, trade shows, exhibitions and fairs, etc.

Inter media comparison TV Merits 1. creative flexibility 2. high impact 3. rapid penetratio n 4. regional selectivity. Demerits 1. Transient nature 2. high production cost 3. message restriction s Radio Merits 1. low cost Press Merits 1. long life Outdoor Merits 1. long life Cinema Merits 1. captive audience 2. regional selectivity

2.regional 2. interested 2. color selectivity. audience 3. good for 3. national 3. young. medium localised/national 4. vast 4. color audience Demerits 1. non visual Demerits 1. effort absorb 4. low cost

5. high frequency Demerits Demerits to 1. creative 1. limited limitations coverage

2. transient 2. long copy 2. low impact nature date

Theres no surprise in learning that over 70%, (roughly 670 million) of Indias teeming masses live in rural areas. Of these, some 260 million live in almost complete media darkness, without access to TV, radio, and beyond the reach of newspapers and magazines. Widespread illiteracy allied with the multitude of languages and dialects puts the most of these people beyond the reach of conventional media planning.Yet the villagers are increasingly important as consumers. A survey by Indias National Centre for Applied Economics and Research revealed double-digit rural growth rates in a cross section of products ranging from scooters to confectionery between 1995 and 1999 A Table for understanding the media penetration in India Table 1: Macro Indicators - A Comparison Media Penetration (%) Radio Satellite Urban'95 Rural'95 25 19 21 3 Urban'9 Rural'9 9 9 50 26 35 5

English Publications Hindi Publications Local Language Publications Any Publication Source: IRS-95 and 99

14.5 23.4 29.7 55.0

1.7 7.4 12.1 20.4

16.4 26.6 31.9 58.5

1.9 8.6 14.5 23.2

Every individual media has its special value for certain types of advertising problems press for giving news at length, posters for reminding, television for demonstrating products and their effects, exhibitions for providing the opportunity of prolonged contact with special groups and so on. Advertising problems are of all types and sizes and while there may be many which can be satisfied with a single medium, there are many others which need a combination of media and where the budget size permits of a fully effective job being done in more than one medium. Once the media selection is decided upon, the next logical step is to determine the combination of the mix of the media one must use. Considering the advertising companys marketing objectives will arrive this at, its target market, media characteristics, and its matching with the target market. Also, the overall advertising budget does influence the nature of such a mix, in addition to t he available gross audience. As an example, to achieve certain advertising objectives, one may require to use a mix of 50% television, 35% magazine and 15%news paper however more than 1 mix may fulfil the advertising objectives and yet be within the overall budget cost But once should aim at a balanced mix. It should not be heavily weighed in favour of either frequency or reach. Frequency as explained earlier is the ability to deliver an ad messages often as possible within a given period of time whereas reach is the no. of households or individuals reached by a given media or a given period of time. Some advertisers prefer to concentrate on anew media type mix, whereas others like to have widely varied media mix, while the former offers the advertiser an opportunity to make a great impact on specific market segment, the latter being an assortment of media , can deliver different messages about the same product to different market segments. The primary need for a combination of media naturally arises from the necessity to reach more people in more ways than any single medium can encompass. There are few other needs too.

The need for getting the campaign message over to different types of public, such as professional people as well as consumers, or retail traders as well as both. The combination of a short term and a long term element in the campaigns objective, which cannot be satisfied within the limits of a single medium; e.g., the

need for building up the products reputation while giving reminder at point-ofsale. The superimposition of a piece of marketing news, such as a new size or a special pack, on top of a steady long-term development of the brand image. The combination of a need for detailed and perhaps technical specifications with a more superficial appeal to a much wider market. The different attitudes which different sections of the population bring to the choosing of a given product, and the consequent need to catch each section in the appropriate mood. Competitive circumstances which necessitate a strong temporary impact superimposed on the steady long-term effort. Differences of buying psychology at different times of the year, e.g., holiday seasons compared with normal seasons.


Studies have shown in the past that consumers undergo a purchase pathway before buying a product. A simple pathway would follow this route: a trigger for purchase, search for the product, consider a product, choosing and buying the brand and finally the experience from the purchase.

Communication channels play a crucial role in influencing the consumer as he/she passes through each milestone in this pathway. Providing 360-degree channel solutions would be more logical and quantifiable if one understands the purchase pathway of the consumer. What is evident is that channel communication acts as influencing points as the consumer passes through the purchase pathway. But one should keep in mind that the pathway could differ from category to category and market to market. We believe once the influence of each communication channel are determined at each of the pathways,

then the total communication channel solution for a brand could become more logical and measurable.

Understanding the buying system among consumer groups in terms of trigger, search, consider, choose and buy. Understanding the role played by various communication channels at different stages and eventually arriving at the most effective communication mix to influence sale is not just important but essential today.

As pointed out earlier, the purchase pathways, the influencers for brand choice and the role of communication channels would vary depending on the product category and hence the communication channel mix has to be specific to a product category.

For example, do most high value purchases, like electronic goods, automobile etc follow longer purchase cycles, with greater emphasis on gathering information about them? On the other hand, is the purchase of fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) less planned, more simple and impulse-driven? Is it almost out of habit for household/mass consumption products like toilet soaps or tea/coffee? Or are there certain products (for example, skin care products) that exhibit more layered purchase pathways? The communication channel mix could also vary across consumer groups within a category. The purchase pathway in case of refrigerators and colour TVs involves some degree of thought, consideration and information seeking - more so among first-time buyers/upgraders and switchers (switchers within older brands, switchers to a new brand). This behaviour would also vary across age/life stage segments, SECs and regions.


In today's world where media chases consumers' share of time, there is a need to go beyond mass media selection and explore what actually determines communication contact points, thus providing 360-degree channel solutions. Emergence of interactive media, television catering to more focused geographic locations, birth of new forms of media like interactive kiosks are expanding the horizons of media. A key implication on communication channel planning is to redefine the communication channel selection process. That is because the consumer's share of time on traditional mass communication channel is on the decline as more and more options evolve. The reality is that media houses are scrambling for the consumers' share of time. They want to be with the consumer at all times. So the challenge for the media planner is to understand the efficacy and role of all the consumer communication points and to arrive at a total communication channel solution for the brand.


With the regular hikes(on an average 2 or 3 times per year by the national English dailies and also by doordarshan) in media rates, large advertisers are increasingly turning to other media. Once of the most attractive strategies has been to sponsor sports events, music festivals and other cultural programmes. Traditional festivals like the Kumbhmela, Ganapati Durga Puja, Pongal are also being sponsored or exploited for massive ad campaigns. In Mumbai, the Ganapati festival and the Dassera Garba disco nights are occasions for a dazzling Display of banners of advertising. Retailers and even national manufactures participate.

Since tobacco and liquor manufacturers are not permitted to advertise on radio and television, sponsorships have come in handy to grab attention on the playfield, and when the sponsored sport is televised. McDowell, the liquor manufacturers, for instance, sponsor the Indian derby, and ITC, the tobacco company, several sports events like the Asian track and field meet.


The quest to deliver the right message to the right audience at the right time and place, has always compelled advertisers. This desire, compounded by the Internet's transactional nature and the low cost of acquisition of new customers has lead to a renewed interest in the development of online media vehicles. For many, the Internet is a place that can only be reached through a person's desktop computer, yet this is no longer the case. Greater advancements are being made every day as we see cell phones and electronic planners gaining access to the online environment The trick in the future will be to deliver less, though more targeted advertising messages. This will be possible through the use of the Internet's ability to track consumers attitudes, online purchases and browsing behavior. "The goal must be to create messages so in tune with the consumer at the time and point they receive them that they suck the messages from us (Carter 2000)."






INTERNET ADV. (IA) It is dynamic with multimediasupporting text and graphics video sound all together. Space is a problem, as regards size of the banners etc.

Space is not a restricting factor

The proportion of advertising to A web page would be 91% editorial editorial is high sometimes 50:50. and 9% advertising. Does not evoke immediate action. Invokes immediate action as you atleast need to click on the ad.

Response to the action is not First response is immediate as when immediate. the user clicks, the person is directed to other web page with more details. Advertisements received. are passively The user has high attention level and concentration while using the net, and hence they notice the ad. (please refer the chapter)

Advertising does not always target a This can be very focussed. very focussed audience. Advertisements are ubiquitous. Advertisements catch users when they are on the lookout for some thing. For example the search is for travel on a search engine there are ads of travel agents on the net. Difficult to track the exact number of This is quite possible with Internet people who saw the advertisement. advertisements. Ads are graphic intensive and avoid Both copy and graphics are restricted copy overload. by the banner size specifications. The costs would be prohibitive to There are no such constraints. reach a global audience.


Throughout the history of advertising, media vehicles have had the task of proving their worth as commercially viable advertising channels. The challenges that advertisers faced decades ago with the introduction of the radio and then the television are very similar to the challenges faced in the 80s with the widespread adoption of cable television, and today with the seemingly unstoppable force of the Internet. That challenge is media fragmentation. In the early 80s, television advertising planning was rather simple, as the choice was between three broadcast networks. However when cable television started to become a success, suddenly there were hundreds of channels on which to advertise. In addition to this, new broadcast networks were formed. The face of television in the 90s was far different than in the early 80s. However advertisers did not shy away from the challenge, and found that advertising could work in any medium that allowed mass communication. This is the challenge we face today with Internet advertising. It is simply a further fragmentation of the media. People are taking time away from television and radio to spend time on the Internet (Internet Advertising Bureau 2002). So advertisers simply follow suit. That is, advertising budgets will always follow consumers media habits. As more consumers start spending time on the Internet, more advertising money will be spent on the Internet. Regardless of the lack of measurable success of Internet advertising, it is apparent that Internet advertising is not only a viable means of communicating, but will soon become an imperative for companies who want to communicate brand messages to consumers. The Internet is a communication tool that is gaining widespread acceptance as a form of entertainment, information, and even commerce. However its viability as an advertising medium is yet to be proven (Bayan 2001). What is a virtual certainty is the adoption rates and vast reach that the Internet is attaining while still in its relative infancy. No other medium has experienced the explosive growth that the Internet has. For broadcast radio

to reach 50 million people took 38 years. For television to reach that same mark took 13 years. The Internet accomplished this task in merely 5 years. Regardless, the question remained; can we use the Internet to advertise effectively? In 1994, a new age in advertising was born. That was the year that the now ubiquitous banner ad was first introduced . The common sense idea that the Internet could be used as a marketing communication tool became a reality. In the seven years since, the Internet advertising industry has exploded. Of course since the first banner ad was placed online, both the technology and the medium have evolved. Rich-media technology is now transforming banner ads from static images to highly creative and engaging ads. It is also common for the banner ads to include interactive elements. Higher bandwidth connections and more sophisticated programming techniques have fueled this transformation allowing for high resolution, high color images, and complex animations to be the rule, rather than the exception, of banner advertising. What has not evolved however are the strategies that firms have been using to judge Internet advertising success. Direct response rates to banner ads have been in a steady decline since the first banner ads achieved click-through rates well into double digits. Now, average click through rates for banner ads has been reported anywhere from 0.55.0%. These declining response rates have made many question the usefulness of banner ads. However to say that the Internet is not a viable advertising medium because direct action response rates are low is much like saying that print advertising is not effective because direct mail response rates are low. The Internet is not constrained to be used as a direct selling medium. While it can be used in direct selling campaigns, the Internet can also be used simply as a pure communication vehicle. Building brand awareness, recall, and strengthening attitudes towards brands is a task that is taken on by nearly every medium out there, and yet many say that the Internet has failed as a medium simply because, as a direct selling tool, it appears to be ineffective because of such low click-through rates.


From the days of immensely popular Binaca Geetmala to current countdowns, radio has seen and gone through it all. A hundred years since Marconi's achievement, the humble radio with its phenomenal reach is poised to become one of the most sought after tools for advertising in today's modern world. Listening to radio today is a total different experience. Although film music still dominates most of the programmes, English music has a major audience especially among the younger generation. Again songs are not all you hear today on radio. News, daily city updates, traffic control, train schedules, sports news, interviews, contests are always on air.

Radios have turned up at all the nooks and corners like malls, lounges, cinema halls, rickshaws, taxis. School and college goers are seen with a radio handset, traveling by car has become so simple and relaxing with the music on for 24 hours a day. With the opening of the sector to private stations, increased competition, the quality of the songs has become even better, which in turn is benefiting the listeners. The new players in the FM Radio in Mumbai are: Radio City 91FM Go 92.5FM RED 93.5FM Win 94.6FM Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM The definition of channel surfing has developed another dimension. The listeners have a variety of channels to listen to their favourite songs. The radio's ultimate advantage is that it is portable and it can be carried anywhere. It is very specifically targeted at the commuters who have longer traveling hours, or for those who take time to reach the airport form the tip of the city. In Mumbai itself, there are about a million cars on roads, which has radio on while traveling. The radio channels have special programmes for the different age groups. This also suits the requirements of the listeners. The listeners are again any and everyone. From school going kids to college goers, office goers to shop keepers, travelers to housewives, all listen to radio. The radio channels cater to the needs of all the audiences. It has advanced by taking up live coverage of events, interview with celebrities, giving the daily city updates of business, fashion, education, events and restaurants. It also takes live opinion polls and innumerous contests. All this adds colours to the working of the channel. Is advertising on FM radio effective? Is advertising on radio effective? And what will the explosion of channels mean for advertisers? To start with, radio has many advantages. Many people spend hours listening to radio. After all, there is little one can do if stuck in the chaotic traffic of New Delhi or Mumbai. And market research indicates that most listeners tune in to one or two favourite stations. In theory, advertisers have it simple. Identify the stations that best fit their target audiences, and then identify the time slots when most listeners tune in. Bingo! Its time to get the message across.

Until now, the radio was a reminder media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. - N. Bhaskara Rao, of the New Delhi-based Centre for Media Studies. However, the scope of advertising will also depend on the product category. For example, a retail store can effectively advertise on radio alone. Advertisers can effectively build brands using different communication strategies on television and radio, but emphasizing on the same product benefits. Things may not be all that easy. For advertisers, radio comes only after television as a medium of advertisement, that is, in the majority of cases. I dont think that the multiplication of channels will have much impact. Initially, there will be a rush of listeners trying out the new channels, but then the listenership will go down. - Kapil Khanna, creative services, A/V, McCann-Erickson In fact, there has already been a shakedown of sorts, with the number of licences taken being far short of the ones that the government was willing to give out to start with. Analysts say that the explosive growth that FM radio witnessed when the sector was first privatised is unlikely to be repeated. And then there is the problem of listener fatigue. Radio advertising is really cheap. The price is low, and it becomes a suspect medium. And so, it is not valued highly. It is a vicious circle. Success will really depend on what is delivered. Like in other media, quality will be king. People who deliver quality will stand apart. The key to success will be the creation of niches. The days of just two or three channels are over. In a free market, it will be the consumer who decides. The rules are different. Too often, in radio advertising, the stuff is not too hot. FM is a tremendous opportunity. Used properly, with the right mix of editorial and advertising content, a brand can be made to come alive.

Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication, the emergence of new media have enhanced reach on several levels. The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach, specific in targeting and most of all, lower in cost. Voice Reach : Voice Reach advertising is an exciting new medium for advertisers which enables them to broadcast audio messages to a precisely defined target audience. The idea behind this service is simple and powerful. It allows people to communicate with each other within and across cities, at the cost of a local telephone call. How it works is as follows. A person in Mumbai can call up a local number and leave a message for his friend, relative or business associate in Mumbai and Delhi. The system will deliver the message to the recipient's mailbox or voicebox, which can be accessed by calling a local number in Delhi. Thus, it provides the convenience of listening to a familiar voice, which otherwise is a rare occasion and expensive. It is cheaper than long distance calling, more convenient than e-mail and requires no knowledge of the Internet or PC. To hear/access the messages posted in their inbox, users have to hear a commercial announcement. These announcements are targeted according to the profile submitted by users at the time of registration. This service is not just convenient, but also completely free. Moreover, all the technology required to use this service is a telephone. All these factors promise to make the Voice Reach service immensely popular. Advertising & Promotions Voice Reach is undoubtedly an advertising platform with massive potential. As expected, this enormously valuable service is drawing users across all ages, occupations, socio economic classes and geographical areas of India. Advertisers, in effect, not only have an ever-growing user base to target, they also have the advantage of reaching out to their specific target group. Voice Reach advertising promises: o Better one-to-one marketing capabilities than the Internet o Guaranteed ad consumption : The advertisement comes before a user hears or sends messages o Target-based advertising o Interactive Advertising Commercial announcements are just the beginning of a strong line-up of services which Voice Reach offers. Customised Promotions & Contests Everybody runs contests. But are these contests really effective? How many people do they reach? How many people respond? How many people actually remember to fill up a postcard, or send a fax (if they can), or remember to send an e-mail. The fact is - very few

do. Geography is no longer a limiting factor, your audience can now be an active part of your contests just by dialing a local number. Make your television programs more interactive, let your viewers talk to you. Your viewers, anywhere in India, can call a local number and leave a message for you. These messages in turn will be delivered at your doorstep. A very valuable service for any broadcaster on television or radio. Voice Reach, thus, is the perfect medium to carry messages from the viewer to the broadcaster, enabling your audience to enter your contests with a simple phone call. Highlights o Customised contests - National Participation through a local calls. o Making TV shows more interactive o Messages transferred over a local telephone could be Requests Feedback Queries Opinion polls The Vidiwall: The Vidiwall is an intensely captivating advertising medium which truly represents the best of today's technology. The Vidiwall is essentially a mega screen capable of broadcasting high quality audio-visuals, banners, logos & slides of stunning size, resolution and picture quality. Placed at Mumbai's premier shopping plaza, Crossroads, the Vidiwall is fast being recognised as a medium that grabs attention like nothing else. Vidiwalls, a trademarked Philips solution, have been adapted for dedicated Point-Of-Sale and Point-Of-Information usage. Known to have a tremendous impact on people, the Vidwall is a highly effective tool to maximise brand recall. The Vidiwall is an exceptional means for advertisers who wish to target Mumbaiites. Crossroads boasts of shopper strength of 10,000-20,000 footfalls per weekday and 32,000-60,000 footfalls per weekend. The minimum cummulative of which is 4,76,000 footfalls per month. The consumer profile of Crossroads' visitors ranges from SEC A/B/C+ lying in a Catchment area of Colaba to Bandra. Another interesting facet that speaks of the involving effect that the Vidiwall has on Mumbaiites is its arresting nature...the mean for one-time viewers of the Vidiwall is 2.9 mins, whereas, the mean for 2 or more time viewers is 4.3 mins. A clear indicator of its addictive nature.

Advertisers are beginning to experiment with the mobile phone and text messaging as an advertising medium, but as yet, there are no fixed guidelines for the correct ways in which to use it. That means the potential for abuse is vast. There are two ways that an advertiser can potentially use SMS as an advertising medium. The first is to simply obtain a database of mobile phone numbers and send messages directly to end-users.

This is similar to bulk e-mailing, which counts among the marketing tactics that irritates customers and prospects the most. However, the annoyance of unsolicited e-mail will pale beside the nuisance of having hundreds of unwanted text messages broadcast to one's cell phone every day. There is certainly a place for this kind of direct messaging, but it does need to be exceptionally well thought out and executed. Most importantly, end-users that are contacted through this mechanism need to agree to it, and should be able to easily opt out of receiving the messages if and when they wish. There is, however, another way that advertisers can reach the large audience of users that have cellular phones. It is much less problematic than direct messaging, which is believed to represents the future of SMS advertising. This approach involves the placement of a short tag-on, normally no longer than 34 characters, at the tail of every message sent out via a service such as When a user sends a message, it goes out with an unobtrusive short brand message tagged on the bottom. This is the very sort of viral marketing technique that has allowed itself to grow to more than 6,5m users in less than two years. These tag-ons can also be used where content is being delivered to users who have opted in to receiving daily news, stock exchange, sports or weather updates on their cellphones. What marketers should be aiming for in SMS advertising is non-intrusive delivery and relevant targeting. Meeting these criteria is at the heart of the service's popularity and success


When compared to other media, SMS was found to be the most efficient as SMS messages have to be read before they are deleted. Medium Reach Cost Strike Rate Television One of the Highest Very High Good Radio Medium Medium Poor Internet (Banner) High Medium Dropping Email High Extremely Low Extremely Low Print Media Low High High (Flyers) Billboards Medium Medium Medium Moving Media Medium High Medium Telephone Medium High Medium Fax Low Medium Low Standard Mailers High High Medium Personal Low High High Interaction SMS EXTREMELY EXTREMELY EXTREMELY HIGH LOW HIGH The only disadvantage of SMS advertising is it is restricted to just 160 characters. So the advertising message has to be SHORT and FOCUSED yet POWERFUL!


In addition to the conventional media vehicles, a lot of innovative mediums are used in rural advertising and marketing. Some of the most striking ones are: Puppetry Puppetry is the indigenous theatre of India. From time immortal it has been the most popular form and well-appreciated form of entertainment available to the village people. It is an inexpensive activity. The manipulator uses the puppets as a medium to express and communicate ideas, values and social messages. Life Insurance Corporation of India used puppets to educate rural masses about Life Insurance; enlisting the help of the literacy house in Luck now. These plays were shown to the audience in villages in UP, Bihar, & MP. The number of inquires at local Life Insurance Companies during the period immediately following the performance was compared with normal frequency and found to be considerable higher. The field staff of the corporation also reported a definite impact on the business. Folk Theater Folk theaters are mainly short and rhythmic in form. The simple tunes help in informing and educating the people in informal and interesting manner. It has been used as an effective medium for social protest against injustice, exploitation and oppression. Government has used this media for popularizing improved variety of seeds, agricultural implements, fertilizer etc. Punjab Agricultural University produced Two Audio Cassettes. A) Balliye Kanak Biye - Wheat Cultivation. B) Khiran Kepah Narme - Cotton Cultivation. Both were well received by farmers. BBLIL used Magician quite effectively for launch of Kadak Chhap Tea in Etawah. Demonstration: "Direct Contact" is a face-to-face relationship with people individually and with groups such as the Panchayats and other village groups. Such contact helps in arousing the villager's interest in their own problem and motivating them towards self-development. Demonstration may be A. i. Method demonstration ii. Result demonstration B. i. Simple Demonstration ii. Composite Demonstration In result demonstration, help of audio -visual media can add value. Asian Paints launched Utsav range by painting Mukhiya's house or Post office to demonstrate that paint does not peel off. Wall Paintings

Wall Paintings are an effective and economical medium for advertising in rural areas. They are silent unlike traditional theatre .A speech or film comes to an end, but wall painting stays as long as the weather allows it to. Retailer normally welcomes paintings of their shops, walls, and name boards. Since it makes the shop look cleaner and better. Their shops look alluring and stand out among other outlets. Besides rural households shopkeepers and panchayats do not except any payment, for their wall to be painted with product messages. To get one's wall painted with the product messages is seemed as a status symbol. The greatest advantage of the medium is the power of the picture completed with its local touch. The images used have a strong emotional association with the surrounding, a feet impossible for even a moving visual medium like television, which must use general image to cater to greatest number of viewers.

Media - 1

Advertising media Types of media Urban media Vs Rural media Media mix Innovative media What are the advantages and disadvantages of print media? What are the advantages and disadvantages of broadcast/electronic media? What are the advantages and disadvantages of outdoor and transit media? What are the elements of any media?

LONG QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. what is the importance of media in advertising? what are the elements of any media? explain the diff types of media classes explain the need for a media mix. explain internet as an emerging media option. what is innovative media? Explain with examples.