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Jose Rizal - The National Hero (1861 - 1898) Jose Rizal's real name was Jose Protacio Mercado Alonzo. He was born in Calamba, Laguna on June 19,1861. His parents were Don Francisco Engracio Rizal and Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda. Jose entered Ateneo de Manila University in 1872. There he registered the excellent scholastic marks. He went on to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree obtaining highest academic honors. He wasted no time in taking up Philosophy of Letters at the University of Santo Tomas as preparatory for a medical course. He was not able to finish medicine here because he left for Spain when he was only 21 years old. There he continued his studies in medicine. He stayed in Spain for three years where he finished his doctorate degree in medicine in 1885. He toured many countries in Europe and studied the different cultures and languages of each country he visited. At age 27, he already became an expert on western culture and language and was recognized as a certified linguist. It was in Germany and France where he became interested in studying ophthalmology. He made use of his knowledge in eye surgery after he successfully operated on his mother's cataract. After his medical studies, Rizal focused on the field of literature. He wrote many articles and books that depicted the cruelties suffered by Filipinos at the hands of their Spanish conquistadors. Two of his novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo drew so much attention. The two books bravely exposed the brutality of the Spanish colonizers to the helpless Filipinos. Many believed that the two books were the main reasons why Spanish colonizers ordered for Rizal's execution. It was during the peak of the twin novel's popularity in 1887 that Rizal decided to go back to his home country. This heightened the anger of the clergymen and Spanish authorities. Fearing for his safety, Rizal's parents asked him to go back to Europe. On his way there, he visited Japan and the United States of America. On June 3,1892 he formed a secret society that goes by the name "La Liga Filipina." Its prime objective was to unite the Filipinos and work for their independence.But this only made the Spanish authorities and clergy more furious. They ordered for his arrest and sent him into exile in Dapitan on December 7. 1892. Rizal's exile in Dapitan did not go to waste. He cured many sick people, performed eye surgery to half-blind folks and built school houses, which he himself taught. He also planted crops and raised farm animals, collected insects, which he studied and preserved and built irrigation systems for the rice fields.

He became the savior of the needy and the sick in that remote town in Mindanao. The townsfolk learned to love him and he was treated like a real son of Dapitan. It was also in Dapitan where he met and loved Josephine Bracken. Rizal sought permission from the Spanish authorities to allow him to leave for Cuba to help cure Spanish injured Spanish forces fighting there. Cuba was under Spanish rule that time. Governor General Blanco granted Rizal's request but his enemies did not stop pressuring the Spanish government until they see Rizal dead. Rizal did not reach Cuba anymore. He was arrested and jailed at Fort Santiago in Intramuros. While in jail he continued to write subversive articles against the Spanish occupation. It was here he wrote his immortal masterpiece "Mi Ultimo Adios" (My Last Farewell). Rizal was killed by musketry. He was supposed to be shot at the back but he insisted to be shot facing his executioners because he wanted to symbolize that he did not betray his countrymen. The leader of the execution team did not agree to this. When he was about to be shot, Rizal bravely turned to the front side and faced his killers. Rizal died as a hero and martyr on December 30,1896 in Bagumbayan, now popularly known as Luneta or Rizal Park.

Andres Bonifacio - The Great Plebian and Father of the Katipunan (1863 - 1897) Andres Bonifacio was born on November 30, 1863 in Tronzo, Tondo, Manila. His parents were Santiago Bonifacio and Teodora Catalina de Castro. He was named after St. Andrew the Apostle who was the patron saint of Manila. Andres had five siblings. They were Ciriaco, Procopio, Esperidiona, Troadio and Maxima. Being the eldest in the brood, he stopped schooling. With his brothers and sisters, they helped each other, earned a living by making and selling paper fans and canes. Andres also worked as a warehouse man/ clerk-messenger and sales agent of rattan products. While working, he studied the English language since already knew how to speak and write in Spanish. He bought books about The French Revolution by Robiespiere, The Wandering Jew by Eugene Sue/ Les Miserable by Victor Hugo, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo by Dr. Jose Rizal, The Ruins of Palmyras, the Holy Bible, International Law, Penal and Civil Codes, Lives of the Presidents of the United States and some of the novels Written by Alexander Dumas. Andres joined La Liga Filipina because of his ardent admiration of Jose Rizal. When Rizal was exiled in Dapitan, he believed that the time has come for the Filipinos to take up arms to achieve the freedom they were longing for. He wrote the essay What The Fillipinos Should Know? (Ano Ang Dapat Malaman ng mga Pilipino?) He said in the essay that Filipinos would never get a fair treatment from their Spanish colonizers. Andres, together with Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata and Deodato Arellano founded the first triangle of the Katipunan on July 7, 1892. He and Gregoria got married in 1893 at the Binovndo Church barely a year after Andres founded the Katipunan. Andres and Gregoria had a son but died of smallpox. Andres and his party scaled the mountains of San Mateo and Montalban on April 12,1895 where they discovered the Makarok and Pamitihan caves. They chose Pamitinan cave as their initiation site for the would-be members of the Katipunan. Andres called a meeting among Katipunan leaders at the house of Apolonio Samson in Kangkong (Pugadlawin) on August 21. There they talked about their planned revolt. August 23,1896 would be remembered in history as the First Cry of Balintawak. It was then when Andres and other leaders of the Katipunan tore their cedulas and shouted Long Live the Philippines! They vowed to fight the Spaniards no matter what the cost. Aguinaldo was elected president. Andres was chosen minister of the interior. However, Daniel Tirona questioned the credibility of Bonifacio because he does not hold a law degree. Andres almost killed Tirona because he could not bear the insults he hurled at him.

Andres refused to recognize the Aguinaldo government. He founded a new government that questioned the results of the Tejeros Convention. More than 40 Katipuneros signed the military agreement on March 24. Colonel Agapito Bonzon and Jose Ignacio Paua, Aguinaldo's brother-in-law arrested Bonifacio and his party on April 26,1897. They were brought to a military court headed by General Mariano Noriel. They were charged with treason and was sentenced to die. It was on May 10,1897 when Andres and his brother Procopio were brought to Mt. Buntis in Maragondon. Major Lazaro Makapagal and his men killed them. To this day, Filipinos honor Bonifacio as the true "Father of the Philippine Revolution."

General Gregorio del Pilar - Hero of the Battle of Tirad Pass (1875 - 1899) Gregorio del Pilar was born in Bulakan, Bulakan on November 14, 1875. The Hero of the Tirad Pass was the son of Don Fernando H. del Pilar and Felipa Sempio. Gregorio del Pilar was the youngest and the most picturesque general in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He studied under the tutelage of Maestro Monico. He also studied at the school of Pedro Serrano Laktaw. He went to Ateneo de Manila University after finishing his secondary education where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He was only 19 years old when he joined the Katipunan. He became a leader of the rebellion despite his young age because of his exceptional ability and bravery. Soon, he was promoted to colonel status. At age 22, he was already a brigadier general. Gregorio and his men made an assault in the town of Bulakan to get rid of the Americans. They followed it with an attack in Quingwa (now Plaridel). They were able to win over the Americans notwithstanding their small number. The most colorful part of his life took place in Tirad Pass. Tirad Pass was the passageway to Aguinaldo's hideout. Gregorio's group was assigned to defend it. He showed his fearless character. In spite of handful followers, only 60 men. They defended Tirad Pass against the Americans contingent composed of more than 400 soldiers. A Filipino traitor showed the way to the location of the young general. The Americans gunned him down to his death. The date was December 2, 1899.

General Emilio Aguinaldo - President of the First Philippine Republic (1869 - 1964) General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born on March 26,1869 in Kawit, Cavite. He was the seventh child of Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy. He had six siblings. His first wife was Hilaria del Rosario. Maria Agoncillo was his second wife. Aguinaldo came from a wealthy family of sugar planters. He studied at Cavite and at Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. At 17 he served as Cabeza de Bgrangay of their town. At 26 he was Capitan Municipal, a position equivalent to Gobernadorcillo at that time. He joined the Katipunan founded by Andres Bonifacio when the revolution erupted; He led Magdalo group, another faction of the Katipunan in Cavite and because of his excellent leadership they were able to subdue the Spaniards in the towns of Kawit, Imus and Binakayan. On March 11, 1887, an election was held at the Tejeros Convention. He was elected its president. Later on, the Spaniards decided to make peace with Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo thought the Spaniards were sincere so he went on self-exile at Hongkong with some of his loyal followers. The Spanish authority gave him P400,000 as war compensation. Little did he know that it was just a ploy to suppress the growing support of the people to the rebellion. He made a deal with Commodore George Dewey and U.S. Consul Pratt to let the American and the Filipino soldiers join forces against the Spaniards. They easily triumphed over the enemies in Luzon except Manila. Aguinaldo proclaimed the Philippine independence at his Kawit home on June 12,1898. He headed the Revolutionary Government after convening the Malolos Congress that formally approved its independence and constitution on January 21,1899. As head of the Philippine provisional government, Aguinaldo resisted American occupation. He continued to lead the struggle against the United States forces until March 23, 1901 when General Frederick Funston and his men captured him at Palanan, Isabela. In April 1901 he took an oath of allegiance to the United States and retired to private life. Aguinaldo was taken into custody in 1945, during World War II, by invading American troops and held on suspicion of collaboration with the enemy during the Japanese occupation. He was later acquitted. Aguinaldo died of heart attack on February 6,1964 in Quezon City. He was 95.

Apolinario Mabini - Sublime Paralytic and Brains of the Revolution (1864 - 1903) Apolinario Mabini, the Sublime Paralytic and Brains of the Katipunan, was born in Tanauan, Batangas on July 22, 1864. His parents were Inocencio Mobini and Dionisia Maranan. They were poor. They only lived in a small hut. Apolinario Mabini is also known as the "Ang Dakilang Lumpo". Despite of poverty, Mabini went to school. He did not mind the long distance he had to travel on foot everyday to reach school. Neither did he mind hunger. After finishing high school he went to Manila to pursue higher education. However, it did not take long before he stopped studying due to lack of money. He returned home. In order to save some money, he taught in a local school. When he had saved enough he continued his studies. He graduated with a law degree jn the University of Santo Tomas. What he achieved he gave back to his country. He joined the Katipunan and was a big help to General Emilio Aguinaldo in the Revolutionary Government. He rallied with other Filipinos in the fight for freedom. It was 1896 when Mabini was suddenly paralyzed after an unusual bout of high fever. This resulted to his lifetime paralysis. His condition did not hinder his desire to serve his Motherland and his countrymen. His handicap did not prevent him from carrying his duties. Instead, he wrote articles igniting the emotion of freedom-loving Filipinos. He had also written El Verdadero Decaloga Programa Constitucional dela Republica Filipina and Ordenanzas de la Revolucion. Mabini was the chief and the most trusted adviser of Aguinaldo. He helped Aguinaldo in running the revolutionary government. He became the 1st Prime Minister of the Philippines of the First Republic. When the Americans took over the Spaniards, they arrested Mabini and send him away in Guam. With him were other fellowmen who fought and supported the rebellion against the Americans. He was freed and sent back to the Philippines in 1903. Unfortunately, he contracted cholera. He died on May 13,1903.

Emilio Jacinto y Dizon - Brains of the Katipunan (1875-1899) Emilio Jacinto y Dizon was considered as one of the greatest military genius during his time. He was very close to Andres Bonifacio. Like Bonifacio, Emilio also comes from a poor family. He was born in Trozo, Manila on December 15,1875. His parents were Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. Despite being orphaned, he managed to send himself to Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He was also able to study law at the University of Santo Tomas although he was not able to finish it because his Spanish classmates often abused him. Emilio was only 19 when he joined the Katipunan. He was known as the brains of the Katipunan when it comes to military matters. His book entitled Kartilya was the one used by the Katipuneros as their guide in fighting the Spanish colonizers. It contained the constitution and by-laws ofthe Katipunan. Reading books was one of Emilio's greatest passions. One of his favorite books was the one about the French Revolution. He also has in his collection a book on how to make gunpowder and dynamite. He also learned quite a few things about the art of war, military strategies and ways of making weapons of war. Dr. Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar inspired him to be a good writer during his time. He used Dimes Haw as his pen name. He also wrote A la Patria, which he based from Dr. Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. He was seriously injured in one bloody encounter that resulted to his death on April 16,1899 in Majayjay, Laguna at a young age of 24.

General Antonio Luna - Cofounder of La Independencia (1868 - 1899) Antonio Luna was born to parents Joaquin Luna and Laureana Novicia on October 29,1868 in Urbiztondo, Binondo, Manila. He was the younger brother of internationally famous Filipino painter Juan Luna. Antonio studied at Ateneo Municipal. He also went to the University of Santo Tomas where he took up Pharmacy. He continued his medical education at Universidad Central de Madrid in Spain. Moreover, he studied War Science in Germany. While in Spain, he met Filipino propagandists Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. This made him stopped studying medicine. Instead, he specialized in the study about military science. He also contributed articles in La Solidaridad. When he came back to the Philippines, he saw the ineptitude of the revolutionary forces. Poor training and lack of discipline was common to the Filipino soldiers. He joined the armed forces against the Americans. He trained the Filipino soldiers in scientific warfare. As a leader, he was a disciplinarian. This demoralized a lot of Filipino soldiers. He founded the Philippines' first Military Academy. When he was appointed general, he set up the Department of War in order to unite all provincial units. When rebellion erupted between the Filipinos and the Americans, he was appointed Secretary of War and Commander-in-Chief under the leadership of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. His first encounter with the American forces happened in Manila. He later established a stronghold in Bulacan. He was gunned down in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija on June 5, 1899. He died at the age of 31. Antonio also founded and edited the revolutionary newspaper La Independencia.

Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) - Mother of Balintawak (1812-1919) Melchora Aquino, who is more popularly known as Tandang Sora was born on January 16, 1812. She was not able to get formal education due to poverty. But despite her lack of academic knowledge, she lived a colorful and meaningful life. At age 84, Melchora was still able to play an important role in the Filipino revolution against the Spanish colonizers. She took care of countless injured Katipuneros and attended to almost all their needs. The Spanish authorities learned of the Katipuneros planned uprising. They rounded up the male population, arrested and tortured them. Many were injured and eventually died. A few lucky ones managed to escape and survived. They hid at Melchora's house. She took care of them. Since then Melchora's residence became the secret meeting place of all the Katipuneros. When full-blown war erupted, all the wounded Katipuneros were brought to her house. She took care and fed them. A Filipino traitor reported her charitable activities to the Spanish authorities. She was arrested despite her old age and brought to Spain. She was jailed at the Guartel de Espanya. When the American'troops conquered the Spanish colonizers, Melchora was able to return to the Philippines on February 23,1903. She enjoyed full freedom since then until her death at the age of 107. Because of her heroism, a place in Quezon was named after her. The place is now known as Tandang Sora, Quezon City.

Graciano Lopez-Jaena - Greatest Filipino Orator of the Propaganda Movement (1856-1896) Graciano Lopez Jaena was a native of Jaro, Ilollo. He was born on December 18, 1856 to parents Placido Lopez and Maria Jacoba Jaena. Having a very religious mother, Graciano was persuaded by her that priesthood would be the best for him. She enrolled her son at the Seminario de San Vicente Ferrer in Jaro. While studying, he worked as secretary to his uncle, Claudio Lopez, who was then the Vice Consul of Portugal in lloilo. Despite her mother's wishes, Graciano chose to pursue a degree in Medicine. He was denied entry at the University of Santo Tomas because he did not have a Bachelor of Arts degree, a course, which was not offered from his previous school. Nevertheless, he was taught as an apprentice at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. When he returned to Jaro, Graciano practiced his knowledge in medicine to the remote parts of their province. His frequent visits to the poor and ordinary people in the remote areas made him realize how bad their living conditions are under the Spanish rule. He was 18 when he garnered much strength to write Fray Botod. The satirical novel tells story of fat, lazy and immoral priests, who speaks nothing but saintly verses but could not see their own wrongdoings. This infuriated the Spanish clergy. Graciano was forced to leave for Spain to avoid threats to his life. While in Spain, he became the best literary and oratorical spokesman for the restoration of freedom to all the Filipinos. He continued his studies in medicine at the University of Valencia but again failed to finish it. His focus was shifted to journalism. He joined the Propaganda Movement. He was one of the original members who founded La Solidaridad on 1888. Graciano used the pen name Diego Laura to hide his true identity. On October 12, 1891, he published the weekly newspaper El Latigo National, which became the mouthpiece of the La Solidaridad. Graciano decided to return to the Philippines. He solicited funds needed to sustain their crusade for freedom. The Spanish authorities felt threatened with Graciano's exposes. Even the Bishop of Spain sent a message to Graciano, offering him a high-paying job if he ceased writing against them. He rejected the offer. Graciano possessed an awesome oratorical talent. He bravely spoke in every social gathering about the evils of the Spanish rule in his country. Graciano died on January 20, 1896 in Barcelona. According to some historians, of the renowned triumvirate of Filipino propagandists that include Graciano, Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Dr. Jose Rizal, it was Graciano who actually started the Propaganda Movement.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar - Greatest Journalist and Moving Spirit of the Propaganda Movement (1850 - 1896) Marcelo H. del Pilar was born on August 30, 1850 in Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan. He was the son of Julian H. del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaitan. He was baptized Marcelo Hilario. They adapted the surname del Pilar in accordance with the decree issued by Governor General Narciso Claveria. Toribio, his brother, was a priest. Marcelo married his cousin Marciana. They had seven children. He studied at the school of Jose Flores, San Jose College and at the University of Santo Tomas, where he completed his law degree in 1882. Marcelo detested the Spanish friars. He once argued with a friar. This made his parents so frightened that they sent Marcelo to Spain so the friar could not get hold of him. He continued criticizing the friars though. He wrote articles, pamphlets and booklets against the presence of Spanish friars in the Philippines. Together with Graciano Lopez Jaena, they founded Diaryong Tagalog in 1882. He also founded La Solidaridad. He exposed the cruelty of the Spanish friars against the Filipinos. He used different pen names to conceal his true identity. Some of these were Dolores Manapat, Piping Dilat, Kupang and PlarideL Marcelo was not able to see his family again. Burdened with so much stress, extreme poverty and loneliness, he contracted tuberculosis and died in Barcelona, Spain on July 4, 1896.

GOMBURZA - the three martyr priests Father Mariano (1799-1872) Father Mariano Gomez was born in Sta. Cruz, Manila on August 2,1799 to parents Francisco Gomez and Martina Custodio. After studying at San Juan de Letran he proceeded to take up Theology at the University of Sto. Tomas. June 2, 1824 was a memorable date for him. It was on this date when he was designated as the head priest of Bacoor, Cavite, Aside from taking care of the town church's spiritual needs, he also taught the townfolks agriculture and cottage industry. He also helped in maintaining a harmonious relationship with his co-priests. He fought for the Filipino priests' rights against the abuses of the Spanish friars. The Spanish authorities got mad at him and ordered for his arrest. He was sent to jail along with Fr. Jose Burgos, Fr. Jacinto Zamora, Joaquin Pardo de Tavera and Maximo Paterno. Fr. Gomez along with Fr. Burgos and Fr. Zamora were executed on February 17,1872. They were later known as the three Filipino martyrs Gomburza. Fr. Gomez was responsible for publishing the newspaper La Verdad, meaning The Truth. This paper served as the voice of the Filipino propagandists against the Spanish colonizers. Father Jacinto Zamora (1731 - 1763) Father Jacinto Zamora was one of the three martyr priests of the Secularization of the Filipino priests, the Gomburza. Father Jacinto Zamora was born in Pandacan, Manila on August 14, 1835. His father was Venancio Zamora. His mother was Hilaria del Rosario. It was his childhood dream to be a priest. He did everything to follow the desire of his heart. He studied well and finished his Bachelor of Arts degree in the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He continued his studies at the University of Santo Tomas where he completed his Bachelor of Canon Laws. He took up examinations to qualify him for priesthood and passed, them with flying colors. This however did not give him the opportunity to be given permanent position by the Spanish friars. When he was transferred in Manila, he saw the unjust treatment of the Spanish friars against the Filipino priests. He pitied them that he resolved to fight for their rights. He led a campaign against the abusive Spanish friars and fought for equal rights among priests.

The Filipino priests loved and admired Father Zamora. But the Spanish friars detested him. They hatched a plan to get even with him. They accused him of collaborating with the rebels who led an uprising in Cavite. Like the two other priests, Father Burgos and Father Gomez, they arrested and detained him. Father Zamora was executed by strangulation together with the two martyr priests on February 28, 1872. Father Jose Apolonio Burgos (1837 - 1872) Father Jose Burgos was the youngest of the three martyrs. He was born on February 9,1837 in Vigan, llocos Sur. His father was Don Jose Tiburcio, Burgos and his mother was Florencia Garcia. Antonia and Maria were his younger sisters. He dreamt to be a priest while still a child. Since he was orphaned at an early age he was forced to stay with a relative in Manila. He enrolled at San Juan de Letran on August 11, 1847. At age 17, he finished his Bachiller en Filosopia on February 11,1855 with the highest honors. He likewise achieved the highest honors when he completed his degree, Bachiller en Teologia, on January 21,1859. A year after, he was ordained on August 1, 1860. He took his master's degree at the University of Sto. Tomas. At the same time, Father Burgos taught Latin in the same university. One of his students was Jose Rizal. It is why Rizal dedicated to him his novel El Filibusterismo. He completed his master's degree, Licenciado en Teologia, on February 21, 1866 and his Bachiller en Canones on February 8, 1866. His thirst for knowledge never ends. He continued his studies and on April 14, 1868, he completed his Doctor en Teologia and Licenciado en Canones on October 29,1868. On April 1871, Father Burgos was also able to complete his Doctor en Canones, the highest degree one can attain in priesthood. His first mass was celebrated at Intramuros. He became the parish priest of Sagrario de Intramuros. He could not help but to be at odds with some senior priests because of his liberal ideas. He also became the parish priest of the Parish of St. Peter, second parish priest in the Cathedral, Master of the Claustral Ceremony at UST, ecclesiastical fiscal at Sagragrio de Intramuros and canonical magistrate at the Manila Cathedral. The highest position assigned to him was Ecclesiastical Court Fiscal. In spite of the good positions given to him, Father Burgos was never contented because he was witness to the cruelty of the Spanish friars to his fellowmen. With Father Gomez and Father Zamora, they fought for reforms in the government. Almost simultaneous with this was the outbreak of the Cavite Mutiny on January 20,1872. The Spanish friars took advantage of the situation. They took hold of the three Filipino priests and accused them of conniving with the rebels. An unjust trial followed and on February 16, 1872 they were sentenced to die by garrote. The three priests, popularly known as Gomburza, faced their Creator on February 17, 1872.

Pedro Paterno - Peacemaker of the Revolution (1857 - 1911) Pedro Paterno was born in Manila on February 27, 1857. Pedro Paterno was a Filipino statesman as well as a poet and writer. He was the author of Pacto de Biyak-naBato (Pact of Biyak-na-Bato), first published in 1910. He studied at Ateneo de Manila and afterwards at the University of Salamanca. He likewise enrolled at the Central University of Madrid where he completed his law degree. Paterno joined the Propaganda Movement. His greatest contribution to the country was his role as a mediator in the peace agreement between the Spaniards and the Filipinos. Pedro Paterno contributed a lot in Philippine literature too. His writings showed how much he loved his country. He had also given the Filipinos a sense of pride through the honors and achievements he had contributed to our culture and literature. His work El Cristianismo en la Antigua Civilization Tagalog, was one work that achieved so much admiration and recognition. Paterno was one of the representatives in the National Assembly on April 1899. He did not agree in the planned annexation of the Philippines to the United States. He believed that the Filipinos would rather choose to govern their own country than have it ruled by the Americans. Because of his refusal, other Filipinos followed suit. This refusal stirred their emotions to fight against the Americans later on. Paterno died on March 27, 1911 at the age of 53.

Diego Baltazar Silang - Leader of the Ilocano Revolt (1730-1763) Diego was born on December 16, 1730 in Aringay, La Union to parents Miguel Silang and Nicolasa de los Santos. Diego worked as a messenger for the Spanish clergy in Vigan. He frequently traveled to Manila to deliver letters and messages. During those times, there were still no roads connecting Vigan to Manila. One time, while on his way to Manila, the small boat he was boarding was drifted by a strong typhoon to the shores of Zambales. He was rescued by the tribesmen but made him a slave. A missionary priest paid the tribesmen in exchange for his freedom. Diego went back to work as messenger. It was during one of his trips that he met Maria Josefa Gabriela. He fell in love with the young widow from Santa, Ilocos Sur that resulted to their marriage. On September 1762, Diego witnessed a band of armed British troops anchoring in Manila Bay. The British troops ordered the Spaniards to give up the city. When the Spaniards refused they bombarded the whole city. The British Army went on to capture Manila on October 1762. Because of what he witnessed, Diego realized that the Spanish forces had also their weaknesses. He went home to his parents and plotted an uprising. His townmates joined him in his plan. Diego fiercely fought the Spanish forces but he was captured and jailed. He managed to escape with the help of Father Millan, the priest who took care of him before. Right after regaining freedom, Diego fought more aggressively. Governor Anda, upon the orders of the Spanish authorities, persuaded Diego to surrender. He would be branded as a traitor if he would not follow their orders. Diego decided to seek help from the British authorities. He readily got their support. Because of what happened, Gov. Anda plotted for Diego's death. He promised a handsome fee and recognition from the Spanish authorities to anybody who could kill Diego. A Spanish mestizo by the name of Miguel Vicos and a certain Pedro Becbec agreed to Gov. Anda's conditions. On May 28,1763, Vicos shot Diego at the back. Diego Silang died on the spot at the age of 33.

Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang - First Filipino woman to lead a revolt against Spanish colonization (1731 - 1763) Maria Josefa Gabriela Cario Silang was the true name of Gabriela Silang. She was born on March 19,1731 in Caniogan, Santa, llocos Sur. Gabriela was a beautiful young woman. She was so pretty that many men, young and old alike, wanted her to be their wife. She was, 20 when her father arranged her marriage to a wealthy suitor. She became a widow at an early age. Her husband died a few years after they wed. She became wealthy because she inherited all the possessions of her spouse. She met Diego Silang, a brave young man who led a group of courageous fellowmen fighting the abusive Spaniards. They fell in love and got married. They lived in Vigan, llocos Sur where Diego's hideaway was located. Diego was a fearless man. He fought valiantly. In one of the skirmishes with the Spaniards, he was killed. She took over as the leader of Diego's group. Like her husband, she fought gallantly against the Spaniards. She put into practice what she had learned from Diego when he was still alive especially using weapons. Unfortunately, the Spaniards overpowered Gabriela and her men in one encounter. The Spaniard persecuted her by means of strangulation on September 20,1763.

Panday Pira - First Filipino Cannon-maker (1488 - 1576) Panday Pira was the first Filipino cannon maker. He was born in 1488 in one of the islands in the southern part of the Philippines.First Filipino cannonmaker. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. Born in one of the islands in Southern Philippines in 1483. He died in 1576.He was a popular blacksmith and cannon maker. He was tasked by his fellowmen to make cannons for them, which they used against the foreigners. He learned the craft from the Chinese and Arab traders who were then staying at Lamayan, Sta. Ana, Manila. Panday Pira moved to Pampanga when Martin de Goiti stormed Manila. He returned to the city because the Spaniards sent for him. They ordered him to make cannons. He died in 1576 at the age of 88. In recognition of the conrlbution of Panday Pira to the country, a place in Tondo was named after him.

Mariano Ponce - Propagandist, Historian, Diplomat And Managing Editor of La Solidaridad (1863-1918) Another national hero Bulacan province is proud of is Mariano Ponce. Born in Baliwag, Bulacan in 1863, Mariano's parents were Mariano Ponce Sr. and Mariana Collantes de los Santos. He also finished high school in his hometown. He continued his studies in Manila at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and the University of Santo Tomas where he studied Medicine. He proceeded to Europe in Spain to finish his medical course. There he met the three renowned Filipino propagandists Dr. Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo H. del Pilar. While studying in Spain, he learned about the sufferings of his compatriots at the hands of the abusive Spanish colonizers. His sense of patriotism and compassion for his countrymen heightened with what he discovered. This overwhelming feeling got the better of Mariano that he decided to quit his studies to join the Filipino Movement in Spain. The Movement, composed of Filipino expatriates in Spain was fighting for reforms on the Spanish governance of the Philippines. Mariano began to write articles revealing the sad state of Filipinos under Spanish rule. These articles regularly come out on the newspaper published by Graciano lopez Jaena and widely circulated in the Philippines. He left Spain when he , realized that the Spanish authorities were turning a deaf ear on their demands. He stayed in Hong Kong, While in Hong Kong, he continued to write more exposes against the Spanish colonizers in the Philippines. He also stayed in Japan. He went back to the Philippines on the belief that he would be more effective in fighting for his country's cause. Mariano even became a member of the Philippine Assembly in 1909. Plagued by a severe illness, Mariano died on May 23,1918.

General Francisco Makabulos - Leader of the Revolt in Tarlac (1871-1922) Francisco Makabuloswas a Filipino patriot who led Katipunan revolutionary forces during the Philippine Revolution against Spain in 1896. He was born in La Paz, Tarlac to Alejandro Macabulos of Lubao, Pampanga and Gregoria Soliman. He organized the first Katipunan group there after he was inducted into the secret society by Ladislao Diwa in 1896. When the revolution broke out in 1898, he liberated Tarlac and established town councils in areas he liberted. Macabulos refused to honor the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which called for a truce with the Spanish colonial government, and continued operations in Central Luzon. But on January 14, 1898, he disbanded his troops and accepted amnesty after receiving P14,000 as part of Spanish reparations to Filipino revolutionaries. Macabulos distributed the money to his men. However, he resumed operations against the Spanish and on April 17, 1898, an assembly of citizens representing the town councils Macabulos established, calling themselves representatives of Central Luzon, met and drafted a provisional constitution. They created a government that was to exist until a revolutionary government is established. Macabulos' government was headed by a general executive committee, consisting of a president, vice president, secretary of interior, secretary of war and a secretary of the treasury. Macabulos dissolved his government after the First Philippine Republic was created by the Malolos Constitution, which he also signed. He also led his men to free nearby provinces, like Pangasinan where he led revolutionists in the Battle of Dagupan.



Submitted To DR. LITO F. NAROA

Submitted By MS. FLORA RAMIREZ Second Semester, S.Y 2011-2012 SAP Student