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Joshua Bateman Mrs.

Vogt Hamlet Act I Vocabulary Avouch: proof Emulate: like a rival Supposal: estimate Retrograde: contrary Crescent: growing; increasing Character: write Pledge: toast Impartment: conversation Porpentine: porcupine Matin: morning

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Questions Did Shakespeare write in what is classified to be modern English or Old English? modern Setting: Tis now struck twelveI charge thee, speak! The opening scenes of the play establish the mood. What tone, or mood, does the opening scene establish for the play as a whole? ominous What words and phrases establish this mood? Atmosphere of cold & night reinforce terror of scene dreaded, night, beating, struck, bitter cold, sick What is the significance of midnight? Witching hour when spirits thought to roam the earth The opening scenes of the play also introduce the principal characters. Briefly identify the following dramatis personae: Hamlet: prince of Denmark Horatio: Hamlets best friend Laertes: Polonius son & Ophelias brother Polonius: Counsel to Claudius, father to Laertes & Ophelia Claudius: brother to King Hamlet, husband to Gertrude, & uncle to Prince Hamlet Gertrude: Prince Hamlets mother, widow of King Hamlet, & wife of Claudius Ophelia: daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes, & girlfriend of Hamlet That can Iclimatures and countrymen. Plot: Flashback What important details about what happened before the death of King Hamlet does Horatios speech provide? Strife between Denmark & Norway is reason for Denmarks military state of readiness What purpose does the flashback serve? Provides necessary information w/o disturbing the flow of the drama (exposition) Who immediately takes revenge? (Be ready to contrast to Hamlet later) Fortinbras (his action later contrasted to Hamlets inaction)

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I

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Plot: Foreshadowing And then it started, like a guilty thing As ne0edful in our loves, fitting our duty? What images in Horatios description are effective in foreshadowing the evil to come? Interprets appearance of the ghost as a bad omen Portents preceding assassination of Julius Caesar Graves tenantless Sheeted dead in streets Meteors Disasters in sun The Elizabethans believed that the universe is a system, a structure in which each part is related to all the other parts. Thus, disturbances in nature usually foretell or accompany disturbances in what? Human affairs (just as a stone dropped into the lake will send ripples over the whole surface, so will any disturbances in the universe trouble the whole, & the great disturbance caused by the murder of a king will trouble the world greatly) Imagery: Cock: metaphor = trumpet of the morn Personification = dawn walks Dawn = in russet mantle clad Russet formerly name of rough homespun used for the clothing of country folk How does Marcelluss description of the cock in the season wherein our Saviours birth is celebrated contrast with the setting and the mood of Act I, Scene i? Direct contrast: birth v. death & good v. evil Does this seem to be a hallowed and a gracious time in Denmark? No; its the opposite (almost a literary foil) Suspense: Though yet of Hamlet our dear brothers death and let your haste commend your duty. Why did Shakespeare open Hamlet with a ghost? Grab attention, foreshadow evil & unrest, create suspense What does a ghost represent to Elizabethans? Recognize as symbol for unrest Whose fear adds to the suspense? Guards fear Characterization: Claudius But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son-- Our chiefest courtier, cousin, and our son. How, specifically, does the style of the kings first speech project authority and decisiveness? Majestic sentences containing many subordinate clauses that qualify his meaning

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I Why did Claudius, rather than Hamlet, succeed to King Hamlets throne? Danish custom of royal elections rather than hereditary succession How does Claudiuss speech show the use of balance? 8: 10-13 What does this balance convey to others? Leadership & power

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Characterization: Hamlet Hamlets three speeches give the reasons for his discontent. What are the three reasons? Cite a line that illustrates each assertion. Resentment of his uncle: A little more than kin 10:68-69 Grieves for his father & is saddened that others seem to have forgotten their grief so quickly: Ay, madam, it is common. 10:78 Recoils from falsity sees around him: I know not seems 10:81 and (10:71) What ironic puns does Hamlet use to mock Claudiuss graceful speech? Kind, sun, common What does this wordplay suggest about Hamlet? Hamlets intelligence & his highly developed sense of the ambiguity (vagueness; uncertainty) of language Theme: Mortality (10:67 12:123) What theme do Gertrude and Claudius introduce when they urge Hamlet to forget his grief? Mortality of all humankind Given the fact that Hamlets father has been dead only two months, what may seem ironically tactless in Claudiuss observations about the death of fathers? Says all fathers die so not big deal Theme: Appearance and Reality O that this too too sullied fleshfor I must hold my tongue. What other theme is introduced when Hamlet says, Seems, madam? Nay, it is. Appearance and reality Keeping this theme in mind, what could be one reason for Hamlets relatively large number of soliloquies? Hero is forced to conceal his true thoughts How does Hamlet prove himself an ingenious, resourceful actor? He ironically tells Gertrude that he knows not seems Can an actor get lost in the character so much that s/he loses touch with reality? Yes, Hamlet proves to be so good an actor that his performance in feigning madness is so intense that he actually transcends the boundary of sanity What does Hamlet have which passes show?

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I grief

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Soliloquy: (12:135 -13:165) What does this soliloquy reveal about Hamlets thoughts at this point in the play? He is beginning to confront his essential dilemma What is Hamlets essential dilemma? To live or die Theme: Mortality/Corruption If it assume my noble fathers personto mens eyes. (16:267- 17:282) What theme is reflected in this soliloquy? Hamlets morbid wish reflects the theme of mortality in the form of suicide What religious belief prevents Hamlet from committing suicide? Suicide is unforgivable Hamlets soliloquy in which he compares the world to an unweeded garden also introduces which leading theme of the play? Corruptiondeeds of people, kingdom, & nature Give an example of how the deeds of people are corrupt. Claudius crime Give an example of how the kingdom of a whole is corrupt. Marcellus famous line, Something is rotten in the state of Denmark What allusions and images in this soliloquy convey the theme of corruption? Hyperion to a satyr in Greek religion and mythology, a Titan. He was the husband of his sister Theia and the father by her of Helios, Selene, and Eos. It is sometimes said that he was the original sun god. satyr but no more like my father/Than I to Hercules Characterization: Hamlet What does this passage reveal about Hamlets character? Develops contrasting sides of his character Reveals his determination to speak to the ghost that resembles his father shows that he is capable of courage and decisiveness in contrast to his melancholy mood Concluding lines reveal that he might have harbored suspicions about the death of his father (End of Scene II) Characterization: Laertes Think on it no moreAnd recks not his own rede. (17:13 - 19:54) What might make Laertes think that Hamlets intentions toward Ophelia are not honorable? At the moment his warning is without foundation

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I 10-6-10 Will shortly see that his excessive moralizing parallels that of his father, Polonius Laertes speech suggest that he, not Hamlet, has misled young ladies Characterization: Ophelia Yet here, Laertes?... I shall obey, my lord. (19:59 22:143) Does Ophelia seem to realize that her brothers character is not as honorable as he would like it to appear? Yes Although generally regarded as sweet and obedient, Ophelia is capable of giving an ironic answer to her brother. What is it? 19:48-54 Why does Ophelia so readily obey her brother? (Include role of Elizabethan woman) Elizabethan women were taught to obey their fathers and brothers, and so such obedience would seem natural to her She loves and respects her brother and is sure he has her best interests in mind She is innocent and inexperience Oedipus Complex A son's amorous obsession with his mother. The phrase is derived from the story of the ancient Theban hero Oedipus, who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Literary occurrences of the Oedipus complex include Andre Gide's Oedipe and Jean Cocteau's La Machine infernale, as well as the most famous, Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. Electra Complex A daughter's amorous obsession with her father.

The term Electra complex comes from the plays of Euripides and Sophocles entitled Electra, in which the character Electra drives her brother Orestes to kill their mother and her lover in revenge for the murder of their father. Characterization: Polonius But to my mindTo his own scandal. What is one of his few endearing traits? Concern for both his son and his daughter How do his speeches show him? Be specific. Pompous, meddlesome, and domineering Poloniuss suspicions of impropriety between Hamlet and Ophelia serve as a counterpoint to what that happens earlier in the scene? Laertes advice to his sister How do Poloniuss maxims (sayings; adages; proverbs) ironically serve to cancel out one another? Be specific.

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I 10-6-10 Polonius actions are exactly opposite to the advice he gives Laertes (hypocritical) (End Scene iii) Theme: Corruption (23:16 24:41) It beckons you to go away with itGo on, Ill follow thee. (24:62 - 25:87) What is the catalyst for Hamlets speech against corruption? Claudius revelry (festivities, celebrations), but Hamlet goes beyond the indictment of one mans drinking to condemn the deterioration of the Danish character What does this speech show about Hamlets own character? Essential nobility What about him allows him to draw principles from observations? Deep intelligence and sensitivity Plot: Suspense I find thee aptHamlet, remember me. With what does Hamlets determination to speak with the ghost clash? Horatios fears that the spirit may lure him to madness and a violent death What about Elizabethan culture makes Horatios fears quite reasonable? Elizabethan willingness to take ghosts seriously Hamlets exit leaves the audience in a high state of tension How does Hamlet display courage in this scene? Nemian lions nerve 25:93 Theme: Revenge (26 27) Revenge tragedy was a distinct genre of Elizabethan drama. Why does the ghost seek to be avenged? Horrified Of what is the ghost horrified? at having been killed without a chance to cleanse his soul in preparation for death (28:84-86) Theme: Corruption

I find thee aptHamlet, remember me. (27:37 - 29:118) Give examples of images of corruption and disease found in the ghosts denunciation of Claudius and Gertrude and his account of the workings of the poison in his body? And duller shouldst thou be than the fat weed That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf, Wouldst thou not stir in this. So lust, though to a radiant angel link'd, Will sate itself in a celestial bed, And prey on garbage.

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I 10-6-10 With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial, And in the porches of my ears did pour The leperous distilment And curd, like eager droppings into milk, The thin and wholesome blood: so did it mine; And a most instant tetter bark'd about, Most lazar-like, with vile and loathsome crust, What do the images of corruption suggest about Claudius and Denmark? They reinforce the picture of Denmark as a decaying country led by a corrupt king, Claudius Plot: Foreshadowing Lord Hamlet!...Nay, come, lets go together. (30:21 - 33:216) What does Hamlets bizarre reaction to the entrance of his friends reflect? His swift decision to feign madness in order to conceal his plans to avenge his fathers murder What statement to Horatio foreshadows Hamlets antic disposition in Act II? 32:196-197 What other evidence in this scene suggests that Hamlet has taken a sane, deliberate decision to pretend to be mad? For every man has business and desire, Such as it is; and for mine own poor part, Look you, I'll go pray. Never make known what you have seen to-night. And what so poor a man as Hamlet is May do, to express his love and friending to you, God willing, shall not lack.

Overall questions: How soon after King Hamlets death did Gertrude marry Claudius? Less than two months How was King Hamlet murdered? Claudius poured poison into his ear while he was asleep in the orchard What can you infer from Claudiuss elaborate justification to the court of his marriage to Gertrude? His defensiveness suggests that he feels guilty How do you account for Hamlets strange behavior after the ghost departs in Scene V? Most critcs agree that Hamlet indulges in deliberately strange behavior in order to conceal his knowledge of the ghosts revelations. Given his situation, he feels he must proceed with the utmost caution at court lest Claudius learn of his plans for revenge. Why might life seem intolerable to a person in Hamlets position? (You can base your answers on details Hamlet reveals in his first soliloquy.) Base answers on the details that Hamlet reveals in his first soliloquy His apparently deep melancholy, which stems for his fathers death, was compounded by his mothers hasty remarriage to her brother-in-law

Joshua Bateman Mrs. Vogt Hamlet Act I

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Writing: Prewriting: Reread Act I, paying special attention to Hamlets first appearance in Scene ii. Make a list of passages that you think are especially important in conveying aspects of his complex character. Due: At the beginning of the story, Marcellus, Horatio, and Bernardo begin talking about what they have seen at night. It is a ghost. Then the king and the queen come in talking about how sad it was for the King Hamlet to die. Writing: Describe Hamlets character as it has thus far been presented in the play. Due: Hamlet is not yet king I believe it is young prince. He is the son of King Hamlet. He is distraught because he is stressed. Hamlet is upset for he thinks his uncle caused his fathers dead.