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The distance between the object and the source of light or the sceen

Shape Light travelss in straight lines Shadows Size Ray diagrams Uses in everday life Light can be reflected Side mirror of a car Mirror at a sharp bend of a road

The position of the source of light or the object

Mirror in a barber shop Telescope Devices Kaleidoscope

1.1 Light Travels in Straight Lines

1 Light travels in all directions from its source. 2 At night you can easily see a beam of light.

3 When your father switches on the headlights of his car at night, the beams of lights shining from the headlights show clearly that light travels in straight lines. 4 You could easily see the light of a candle through a straight tube.

5 In contrast, you cannot see the light of the candle when the tube is bent.

1.2 How Shadows are formed

1 A shadow is formed when an opaque or a translucent object blocks the light falling on it. 2 A shadow always falls on the side opposite to the light source. 3 If the source of light is on your right-hand side, the shadow will be on your left-hand side.

4 Similarly, in the morning when the sun arises from the east, your shadow will be on the west. 5 The change in the position of the sun results in change in the length and position of the shadow.

6 Under whatever conditions, the shadows will always be black. 7 The shadow of an object is not affected by the color of the object or the source of light. 8 A dark black shadow of an object is formed because the object is formed because the object does not allow any light to pass through it. 9 In contrast, if an object blocks off only some of the light, a light shadow or partial shadow is formed.

1.3 Size of Shadow

1 The size of a shadow varies depending on (a) The distance between the object and the source of light (b) The distance between the object and the screen 2 When the distance between the object and the source of light decreases, the size of the shadow increases. 3 In contrast, when the distance between the object and the screen decreases, the size of the shadow is decreases.

1.4 Shape of Shadows

1 Remember that shadows are the dark shapes formed on a surface. 2 Therefore, the shape of the shadow depends on (a) The position of the source of light. (b) The position of the object. 3 The shape of the shadow is similar to the outline of the object.

2.1 Reflection of Light

1 We are able to see objects around us because the objects reflect the light shining on them from the source of light. 2 Diagram 6.10 explains in a simple way that we can see the chair. 3 This is because the chair reflects the light from the bulb into our eyes.

4 This is why we cannot see objects in the dark because there is no light.

2.2 Observation on Reflection of Light

1 You can easily observe the reflection of light when you direct a lighted torch onto a mirror as shown in Diagram 6.11.

2 A mirror will reflected the ray of light from the torch. 3 The reflection of light can be shown in the form of a ray diagram. 4 Mirrors and aluminum foils can reflected the light better than other object because they have smooth and shiny surface.

How Images are formed in Plane Mirror 1 When rays of light from a light source falls on you, the light will reflected into the mirror. 2 The image will form in the mirror and the mirror reflected the image into your eyes. 3 Thus, we can see the image in the mirror.

2.2 Uses of Reflection of Light in Daily Life

1 The side mirrors of a car allow the driver to see the vehicles behind without turn his head. 2 This is to avoid accidents on the road while the car is moving.

B. Mirror at a Sharp Bend of a Road 1 This is another way to avoid accidents on a dangerous stretch of a road or a T junction of a road. 2 A concave mirror is placed at one side of a sharp bend of a road. 3 This will help the driver to observe any vehicle coming from the opposite direction. 4 The concave mirror allows the car driver to have a better view through the mirror.

C. Mirror in a Barber shop 1 A barber uses two plane mirrors, one in front and another one at the back of the customer. 2 The image from the first mirror will be reflected by the second mirror. 3 Therefore, the customer can see the back of his head while the barber is cutting his hair.

D. Periscope 1 A periscope is a device used for looking at objects over a barrier. 2 A periscope is used in a submerged submarine. 3 It is used to look at ships above the surface of the sea.

2.3 Devices which Make Use of the Reflection of Light

A. Periscope 1 A simple periscope consists of a tube containing two plane mirrors. 2 The mirrors are arranged parallel to and facing on another. 3 Each mirror is fixed at an angle of 45 with the horizontal.

4 With the arrangement, the light from the object is reflected through 90 by each mirror. 5 You can use a periscope to see over the heads of a crowd or around corners. B. Kaleidoscope 1 A kaleidoscope is a tube containing two or more plane mirrors. 2 The mirrors are fixed at define angles so that the image of one mirror is reflected by the other mirrors. 3 One end of the tube has a pinhole.

4 The other end of the tube is closed with a piece of opaque glass. 5 Inside the tube are several loose fragments of colored paper or plastic. 6 When we look through the pinhole, we can see several images of each fragment. 7 This is because the image formed in one mirror is also reflected by the other mirrors. 8 By shaking the tube, the pieces of paper fragment move and form different patterns.