Sei sulla pagina 1di 9



Name: Roll no: Branch: College: D.Haritha 083g1a0520 III-II CSE KMMITS,Tirupathi. .


of course, the losses that matters most are not even captured by these statistics,

Every minute, on average, at least one person dies in a crash .We have achieved significant progress in the driver assistance systems through the introduction of the features such as brake assist, electronic stability,

because there's no way to put a money value on them. Supercomputers now let designers create car frames and bodies that protect the people inside by absorbing as much of the energy of a crash as possible. As a result, the number of fatalities per million miles of vehicle travel has decreased. But the ultimate solution, and the only one that will save far more lives, limbs, and money, is to keep cars from smashing into each other in the first place. By applying advanced

acceleration skid control and a lane departure warning system. But the ultimate solution is to avoid the cars from smashing into each other in the first place. Adaptive Cruise Control {ACC) is an expansion of existing cruise control systems, which in general maintain the vehicle speed through a link in the vehicle power train. With the help of this ACC, we can automatically

microprocessors, radars, high-speed ICs, and signal-processing chips and

algorithms in R&D programs that mark an about-face in the automotive industry, we can advance from safety systems that kick in after an accident occurs,

maintain a set head way distance to a preceding vehicle. It prevents the car from colliding with others on the express way. This paper discusses about the design, features, benefits and future prospects of acc.. 1. INTRODUCTION

attempting to minimize injury and damage, to ones that prevent collisions altogether. With the help of this ACC, we can automatically maintain a set head way distance to a preceding vehicle. While

Every minute, on average, at least one person dies in a crash. All told, the hospital bills, damaged property, and other costs will add up to 1-3 percent of the world's gross domestic product. And,

doing so it automatically controls the host vehicles speed by activating the throttle actuator or the brake actuator. It involves a millimeter wave radar

technology that promises to make driving easier.

2. COLLISION AVIODANCE Innovative driver-assistance systems could halve the death toll on roads across the world and ultimately approach the goal of accident-free driving. We are aiming to reduce all road accidents and this is achievable so long as vehicles are all equipped with driverassistance systems. The main factor for accidents is human error and other factors which Influences are traffic density, vehicle speeds and weather conditions. There are various driver assistance systems which help the driver in accident free driving. We discuss about adaptive cruise control which contains following features:


Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an expansion of existing cruise control systems, which in general, maintain
2 vehicle speed through a link in the

vehicle's power train.

a) What is adaptive cruise control?

With the help of the adaptive cruise control (ACC) system, we can automatically maintain a set headway distance to a preceding vehicle. This ACC system uses the vehicle speed set by the driver as an upper limit for automatically controlling the host vehicles speed so as to maintain a certain

1. Brake assist

2. Electronic stability.

desired distance from a vehicle ahead. The driver can set the speed at any

3. Lane departure warning system.

arbitrary level between approximately 50 and 100 km/h, and the headway distance

4. Acceleration skid control.

to a forward vehicle can be set at three different levels.

5. Adaptive speed control with vehicle sensing.

b) Requirements of adaptive cruise control.







automatically controls the host vehicles speed by activating the throttle

The adaptive cruise control system requires the following components: Millimeter wave radar Image processor Stereo camera Fusion processor Head control unit Links in the power train

actuator or the brake actuators so as to maintain the set distance between the two vehicles A millimeter-wave radar technology that promises not only to make driving easier, but to ignite a market for galliumarsenide and other compound

semiconductor components d) Which fares better radar or lidar? LIDAR: Lidar is less expensive to

produce and easier to package but performs poorly in rain and snow. The light beams are narrower than water droplets and snowflakes, pushing down the signal-to-noise ratio in bad

weather, which is precisely when you need it most. Another problem is that accumulations of mud, dust, or snow on the car can block lidar beams. E.g. at present, only one automaker, Lexus, uses a laser-based ACC system, in its LS430 luxury sedan. c) Principle of adaptive cruise control. In terms of its specific operation, the system measures the distance to a preceding vehicle and the relative velocity of the vehicles, based on information obtained by millimeterwave radar installed at the front of the Radar: Radar-based systems, on the other hand, can see at least 150 meters ahead in fog or rain heavy enough to cut the driver's ability to see down to 10 meters or less.

The choice of radar or lidar depends on the designers' philosophy: proponents of the laser-based systems insist that a collision-warning system should not work far beyond what the driver can see. To do so, they say, would encourage people to drive too fast in conditions of poor visibility and lead to crashes when the collision-warning system failed to detect an obstacle. Conversely, The relative velocity is calculated from the difference in frequency between the

proponents of radar-based systems argue that the driver needs the most help in conditions of poor visibility.

transmitted and reflected waves. 4. WORKING OF ACC A camera and radar report on the width, distance, and speed of objects ahead, and the processor The millimeter-wave radar unit continuously transmits and combines the data, feeding it to a unit that controls the car. The radar and the cameras work together to track the car ahead and distinguish it from

receives a radio wave pulse. It computes the distance to a forward object from the time it takes for the reflected wave to be received.

extraneous nonmoving objects more rapidly than would be possible with either alone. In the event a preceding vehicle decelerates or another vehicle cuts in front of the host vehicle so that the headway distance is shorter than the value set by the driver, the ACC closes system the


throttle valve to decelerate the host vehicle until it returns to the preset distance. When the situation necessitates even greater deceleration, the system also automatically




performance on tight curves, enabling it to continue tracking the lead car as the latter enters the curve and moves to one side or the other.

applies the brakes.{the system can decelerate the car at a maximum rate of 3.5(m/sec^2) }. Once the headway distance becomes longer than the set distance, as a result of the preceding vehicle or the host vehicle example, changing the lanes, for By automatically accelerating or decelerating the host vehicle to maintain a set headway distance to a preceding vehicle, the ACC system can help to coordinate driving behavior with the flow of traffic and also reduce driver fatigue and stress. It is a highly practical system with ample braking capability because it can control both the throttle and the brakes when decelerating the host vehicle. Moreover, function the braking control smooth


ACC opens

system the


throttle valve and gradually accelerates the host vehicle until the set distance is reached. It then acts again to maintain the desired headway distance to preceding traffic. The driver can override the operation of the ACC system by braking or accelerating the


deceleration comparable to that ordinarily obtained when the driver decelerates a vehicle. The range of conditions under which the system can be used has been expanded by adopting

vehicle manually. In this case, the control system is released and precedence is given to the drivers action. The camera's wide field, along with the radar's wider than average 16-degree field of view,

millimeter-wave radar, which is capable of recognizing forward

traffic regardless of rain or other inclement weather conditions. Ability to track a car in the lane ahead using forward-looking radar. If the distance to a vehicle in front is below a pre-set value, the ACC system is designed to slow the car down, using brakes if required, to track the speed of the vehicle in front, then returning the car to its pre-set speed once the lane ahead is clear. Intelligent lane prediction using steering angle and yaw rate sensors predict curves in the road, and to ensure that any vehicle ahead being tracked is in the same lane as the car itself.

These 2nd generation ACC systems will be able to stay in control of a vehicle's engine and brakes at speeds of anything between zero and 250 kilometers per hour, in a straight line and in road bends of much tighter radius than before, and handle the situation of vehicles cutting in front of you. They can even cope with traffic coming completely to a halt and starting off again, a situation typical of today's congested roads. Road Eye is a new multi-beam radar sensor with a more sophisticated antenna system, a wider angle of view (hence the abilities with road bends), and an IC architecture

optimized for low-cost production.

6. ROAD EYE RADAR 7. KEY BENIFITS OF ACC The Road Eye radar sensor is a vital component generation in of the new second Cruise Reduction in accident rate for


Control (ACC) systems for vehicles. Unlike the ACC fitted to several up market cars today, the coming second generation systems need to be able to handle very low speeds and dense traffic (hence the project name) where vehicles may be

vehicles fitted with collision avoidance type systems Reduction in driver fatigue Increase in fuel efficiency due

to very gradual speed increase / decrease in traffic Interconnection to more

typically only 15-16 meters apart.

advanced future systems.

8. Future prospects of ACC:







communicate and work together to a) Architectural approaches used for automotive radar. We auto engineers are working on the next generation of active cruise control that can bring a car to a complete stop. "ACC could bring radar to the mass market, which could lead to other products such as automatically slowing the car down before it hits a pedestrian." avoid a collision. This technology may let cars follow each other at intervals as short as a half second. In that trial, a group of three test vehicles used a communication protocol in which the lead car broadcast information about its speed and acceleration to the rest of the group every 20 ms. additionally, information b) Cooperative collision avoidance each about car its transmitted speed and

acceleration to the car behind it. The cars communicate with one

another by exchanging radio signals; much 1as portable electronic devices talk to each other using the Bluetooth wireless protocol. When one car pulls up behind another, the two will scan to determine whether the other is equipped for CACC. The cars will then work out a safe following distance on the basis of their actual performance characteristics-for example, the condition of the brakes of the trailing vehicle Though conventional ACC is still an expensive, the next generation, called cooperative adaptive cruise control, or CACC, is already being tested. While ACC can only respond to a difference between its own speed and the speed of the car ahead, cooperative systems will


Active cruise control and its radar unit could also bring the auto industry closer to the electronic cocoon. In theory, the cocoon is a blanket of technology and sensors that protects the car and its occupants. These features, using radar, could include such things as automatic braking to avoid a collision to warning a driver who is about to pass that another vehicle is in the blind spot. One of the potential; advantages of ACC is the foundation that it provides for next generation advancements. In time you will have a sensor field around the car, which will be used by the vehicle's intelligence. It's the beginning of the microwave electronics. era in automotive