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INDEPENDENT STUDY MODULE MEDICAL RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES & DESIGN FOR HIP IMPLANTS USING CAD

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION & JUSTIFICATION ............................................................................... 3 RESOURCES ................................................................................................................... 6 RAPID PROTOTYPING INTRODUCTION ....................................................................... 7 Rapid Prototyping Process ...................................................................................... 8 Rapid Prototyping History ........................................................................................ 9 HIP REPLACEMENT INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... 12 Hip replacement History ........................................................................................ 14 RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................... 16 Stereolithography ................................................................................................... 16 Selective Laser Sintering ........................................................................................ 17 Fused Deposition Moulding .................................................................................. 18 Electron Beam Melting .......................................................................................... 19 Solid Ground Curing............................................................................................... 20 CAD CAM .................................................................................................................... 22 3D Modelling Software .............................................................................................. 23 CAD Models ................................................................................................................ 25 Model 1 .................................................................................................................... 25 Creating Model 1 ............................................................................................... 26

Finished Model 1 ..................................................................................................... 31 Model 2 .................................................................................................................... 32 Creating Model 2 ............................................................................................... 33 Finished Model 2 ..................................................................................................... 38 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................. 39 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 40 TABLES .......................................................................................................................... 42 FIGURES ........................................................................................................................ 43

INTRODUCTION & JUSTIFICATION

A report will be written on a study of medical rapid prototyping for hip replacement using CAD software. The author has previously studied rapid prototyping methods for an HND report at Motherwell College; the author has a close family member who has recently undergone their second hip replacement which has influenced him to increase his knowledge and comprehension in this discipline using the study of medical rapid prototyping for hip replacement using CAD software.

This reports purpose is to research the advancement of hip replacement in the medical industry since the introduction of Computer Aided Design and 3D rapid prototyping. The report will explain how 3dimentional modelling software (CAD) has changed the development and manufacture of orthopaedic implants. The report must meet the requirements of the Individual Study Module at the University of Paisley.

The aim of this report is to produce a 3D CAD model of a replacement orthopaedic hip that a Rapid Prototyping machine can form into a fully functional implant. This will be done after research into Rapid Prototyping and advancement in hip replacement has been conducted by the author.

The report must meet the requirements of the Individual Study Module at the University of Paisley.

There are four parts to the structure of this report; the first feature is an introduction to Rapid Prototyping which will explain the requirements involved for each process, the history of Rapid Prototyping Technology, Its applications and the materials that are used to create models. There will be an introduction to hip implants and the history behind the operation.

The second section will comprise of different Rapid Prototyping methods, from the knowledge that the author has gained in researching this subject he will convey to the reader a description of the different Rapid Prototyping systems that he has obtained knowledge of. An abridged clarification of each system and the manner in which they perform will be given with their file types, compatibilities, cost, advantages, disadvantages and operating time. Stereolithography Selective Laser Sintering Fused Deposition Moulding Electron Beam Melting Solid Ground Curing

The third section of the report will consist of the technology used in determining the dimensions of the hip through CT scans, some of the software that is applicable and 3D models that the author has created using Autodesk Inventor. These models are representations of the hip Implants that have been discovered through his research. From the information and knowledge gained in the process of constructing this report these models will be constructed and displayed with the appropriate information and illustrations.

The fourth section concludes the report with a review from the author to demonstrate that the purpose and aims of the report have been achieved and what the author has learned from the study.

RESOURCES

The author has listed below some resources that will be utilised in the research for this report.

Mitchell Library UWS Paisley Athens British Medical Journal

CITY OF GLASGOW S MAIN LIBRARY LIBRARY


HTTP :// AP7.AUTH.ATHENSAMS .NET / MY/ RESOURCES HTTP ://WWW .BMJ .COM /

RAPID PROTOTYPING INTRODUCTION

Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology that can automatically produce a physical prototype (Figure 1) from a Computer Aided Design (CAD) drawing. Having this technology enables designer to quickly create a quantifiable prototype that can be physically held, these models make excellent visual aids for conveying ideas with other designers or clients. Additionally prototypes can be used for design testing before being put into manufacturing which dramatically reduces the cost to the company. The technology has advanced to a point that some models can be manufactured to production-quality. These reasons are making RP machines more popular as the technology evolves.

Figure 1, image shows the process from CAD to Printer to Prototype (HTTPWWW.DESKTOP -3DPRINTERS .COM3D -PRINTING-EXPLAINED)

Rapid Prototyping Process

The physical models are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology; the process is initiated from the RP machine (Figure 2, 3) interpreting CAD data being fed with the required design. These designs are further converted into wafer-thin horizontal cross sections of the model; the process is then repeated creating successive layers continuously until the completion of the prototype. There are different methods and materials used in rapid prototyping but the process is basically the same.

Figure 2, Image of 3D printer HTTP :// WWW.ZCORPORATION .COM / EN/ HOME .ASPX

HTTP :// WWW.ZCORPORATION .COM / EN/ HOME .ASPX

Rapid Prototyping History

The history of Rapid Prototyping starts in the late 1960s when automated machines where just establishing their importance in the evolution of industry once introduced to the factory floor. A professor of engineering at the University of Rochester called Herbert Voelcker examined the boundaries of controlling automated machine tools with computer programing. To do this he developed the basic tools of mathematics that could be programmed into design software and clearly translated into the desired format. The algorithmic and mathematical formula that he produced resulted in the principles that govern basic solid modelling in most 3D software packages.

HTTP :// WWW.MAE .CORNELL.EDU/ PEOPLE /PROFILE .CFM ?NETID=HBV 1 HTTP ://ENGG.HKU.HK/ MONG/ AVOELCKER .HTML

Charles W. Hull is recognised as the creator of rapid prototyping as he patented Stereolithography on March 11th 1986, (Table 1) these models are produced by an ultraviolet beam curing a layer of liquid polymer into a solid. Once a layer has been cured it drops to let another layer of polymer be struck with the light, this action is continued until the process is complete.

Apparatus for Hull; production of three1986 4575330 Charles dimensional objects by W. stereolithography

UVP, Inc. licensed to 3D Systems, Inc.

stereolithography

4575330: Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography INVENTORS: Hull; Charles W., Arcadia, CA ASSIGNEES: UVP, Inc., San Gabriel, CA U.S. CLASS: 425/174.4

Table 1, Charles W. Hull patent Stereolithography on March 11th 1986 HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS 2.HTM

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In 1987, researcher Carl Deckard from the University of Texas developed a layer based manufacturing procedure that used Voelckers formula to translate a virtual simulation into a physical prototype. This became patented as Selective Laser Sintering (Table) technology that produced a 3D solid from design software, constructing the prototypes form using a high powered laser to unify metallic, ceramic, glass or plastic particles into a solid formation.

Method and apparatus for 1989 4863538 producing parts by selective sintering

Deckard; Carl R.

Board of Regents, The University of Texas System licensed to DTM, Inc. subsequently acquired by 3D Systems

selective laser sintering (SLS)

4863538: Method and apparatus for producing parts by selective sintering INVENTORS: Deckard; Carl R., Austin, TX ASSIGNEES: Board of Regents, University of Texas System, Austin, TX U.S. CLASS: 156/062.2

Table 2, Carl R. Deckards patent for Selective Laser Sintering in 1989 HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS 2.HTM

HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS _2.HTM

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HIP REPLACEMENT INTRODUCTION

Hip replacements are among the most commonly used orthopaedic techniques that are carried out in the field of surgical medicine, the procedure has been performed on hundreds of thousands of patients for over fifty years. The surgery is required when the original joint is dysfunctional or arthritic (Fig 3) which causes restriction in movement and crippling pain. During replacement the head of the thigh bone (femur) is removed, a metal cup is then positioned in the socket (acetabulum) which can occasionally be fixed with 1, 2, or even 3 screws. A plastic, metal or ceramic insert is placed; a metal stem is inserted into the femur with a ball fitted on top. The diameter of the ball can be
Figure 4, Image shows the stages of a total hip replacement J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR. JU.EDU. JOJMJ Figure 3, Image of an arthritic hip J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR.JU.EDU.JO JMJ

J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR. JU.EDU. JOJMJ

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Anything from 28mm to 58mm and made from metal or ceramic, this is then fitted into the cup creating the new joint.

Using metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymeric materials in the artificial hip joints has resulted in the increased success in of the biomechanical integration with the host. Function and longevity have dramatically increased with the introduction of modern materials and the technology involved in their incorporation into the medical industry.
Figure 5, Image showing how the implant is fitted. J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. HTTP :DAR.JU.EDU.JO JMJ 42(2)

J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR. JU.EDU. JOJMJ

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Hip replacement History

The history of hip replacement starts in 1925 when a surgeon in Boston, Massachusetts, Marius N. Smith-Petersen, M.D. fashioned a piece of glass into the shape of a hollow hemisphere with the idea in which it would fit over the ball of the hip joint providing a new smooth surface for improved movement. These factors were successful as well as the biocompatibility but the glass could not endure the stress put upon it while walking.

In 1936 the invention of a cobalt-chromium alloy that had the vital combination of properties for success was invented. The next step in the evolution of the implant occurred when a complete ball of the hip was developed by Frederick R. Thomson of New York and Austin T. Moore of South Carolina. Sir John Charnley a master surgeon from England was trying to solve the same issues, during his research he became the object of ridicule from his peers to a point where he was ostracised, he still managed to carry on his work in a hospital that was converted from a tuberculosis sanatorium.
Figure 6, Image of Sir John Charnley HTTP :// RHEUMATOLOGY .OX FORDJOURNALS .ORG/ CONT ENT/41/7/824. FULL

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This is where he tried Teflon for the first time but did not achieve the desired results; after this he borrowed a material called polymehtylmethacrylate from a dentist, this material was also known as bone cement, the results obtained from this were set to be the starting point of the Total Hip Replacement, procedure that is performed in present day theatres.

HTTP :// WWW.HIPIMPLANTATTORNEYS .COM /HIP IMPLANTS .HTML

HTTP :// RHEUMATOLOGY .OXFORDJOURNALS .ORG/ CONTENT/41/7/824. FULL

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RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES

Stereolithography

Commercially this was the first of the R.P processes and is still the most frequently used in industry today. The process begins the same way as all the other R.P machines with some form of CADD drawing file being loaded into it. The machine uses the file information to laser the CADD drawing onto the surface of liquid photopolymer a layer at a time. After each layer is complete the basin is lowered and the laser outlines another layer, every section is bonded together as the liquid is self-adhesive. All parts have overhangs and undercuts that have to be supported which the software does automatically by fabricating them. Once the model is completed and removed from the machine they can be dethatched leaving the finished model.
Figure 7, Image showing the process of Stereolithography
HTTP :// RAPID-PROTOTYPING.HARVEST TECH.COM / MATERIALS _SLA. HTM

HTTP :// WWW.CUSTOMPARTNET .COM / WU/ IMAGES / R PROTOTYPING/ SLA.PNG/28/11/2011

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Selective Laser Sintering

This manufacturing process involves a high powered laser that fuses small particles of materials (metal, plastic, ceramic or glass) in a powder form into a solid 3 dimensional model. This technique is accomplished by data in the format of a drawing file being loaded into the machine then the top of the powder bed is scanned with the drawing file layer by layer. As each of the layers is finished the bed drops ready for
Figure 8, Image showing SLS method HTTP :// WWW. ARPTECH .COM .AU/ SERVICES / SLSDI AG. GIF /28/11/2011

the next this process is repeated until the model is complete.

HTTP :// EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/ WIKI/SELECTIVE _LASER _SINTERING

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Fused Deposition Moulding

Once the CADD drawing has been loaded via an STL file the machine starts to build the model layer by layer. Unlike the previous methods these layers are formed by a thermoplastic being fed out through the end of a heated nozzle. The model is built up instead of a tray being full of the compound and dropping every layer. The layer is fed onto it a support base and columns. When the model is completed the base and columns can be removed leaving only the finished 3D form.

Figure 9, Image showing the FDM method HTTP :// WWW.MATERIALISE .COM / FUSED -DEPOSITION MODELLING

HTTP :// WWW.MATERIALISE .COM / FUSED-DEPOSITION -MODELLING

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Electron Beam Melting

This type of R.P is for metal parts as in the other methods items are manufactured from a 3D CAD model file being loaded on the machine. Then a laser melts metal powder layer by layer, the difference with EBM is that the parts are created in a vacuum making them fully dense and thus suited for manufacture in reactive materials. The powder is a pure alloy of the models chosen material this omits the need for further heat treatment to achieve the properties of a mechanical part.
Figure 10, Image showing the EBM method HTTP ://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/ WIKI/ELECTRON_BEAM _MELTING

HTTP :// WWW .EETIMES .COM / DESIGN/ INDUSTRIAL - CONTROL /4013703/R APID- PROTOTYPES MOVE- TO- METAL - COMPONENTS

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Solid Ground Curing

SGC uses photosensitive liquid in a layer by layer process; however the main difference is that it exposes an entire layer at one time. Before the process can begin, a series of plates must be printed. Software splits the CAD model up into thin layers, and each layer is printed (2-dimensionally) onto a plate. The plate acts as a mask; any model cross-section is transparent while the rest of the plate is opaque. The machine first sprays a layer of photopolymer into the working area. The first printed plate is loaded right below a UV lamp; a shutter opens and the entire plate is exposed to the photopolymer at once. The cross-section that was exposed hardens the photopolymer, and afterwards the uncured photopolymer is sucked up by a vacuum. Next a layer of wax is put down over the unexposed area (evening out the bed) and the entire layer is milled so that it is completely flat (all of the excess material From the milling stage is vacuumed up).
Figure 11, Image shows the SGC method J OURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS VOL. 21/WO.6 2002

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Another layer of photopolymer is sprayed on, the next plate is loaded, and the process continues. At the end the model is contained within a block of wax, which gets melted away. No other post processing is necessary.

J OURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS VOL. 21/WO.6 2002

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CAD CAM

Recently computer navigation has been used for hip replacement, CAD CAM (Custom Aided Design Custom Aided Manufactured Hip) the key to this innovation is medical imaging with a CT scan. Medical images in 3D solid models have become an immensely important tool for viewing the internal structure of the human body and helping doctors quickly and accurately diagnose illness. All reconstructed 3D solid models can be converted to RP physical models through CAD software such a Pro/Engineer or Autodesk. When the CT scan is used for the hips construction all of the appropriate dimensions are recorded (Figure 7, 8) and duplicated as there may be some forms of abnormality in the bone structure. Modeling each the implant is an individual task designated to the patient, this is the reason for the accuracy in the geometry.

Figure 13, Geometry assessed with the use of touch probe scanner
REPRINTS @EMERALDINSIGHT . COM

Figure 12, Geometry assessed with the use of touch probe scanner
REPRINTS @EMERALDINSIGHT . COM

REPRINTS @ EMERALDINSIGHT .COM

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3D Modelling Software

There is several different 3D modelling software packages available that are used to design a wide range of components for industry, the designs are simple geometry that is built into a 3D model with the use of the systems tools.

Pro/Engineer is powerful modelling software that is widely used in the design and engineering that is needed in the manufacturing of a many complex projects. Sophisticated tests can be carried out on the models to ensure they are to a standard that satisfies the pro forma specifications before it goes into production.

Figure 14, Screenshot of Pro/Engineer user interface (PTC.COM)

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The author has knowledge of Pro/Engineer through his studies at University of Paisley that started in October of this year; accordingly his level of competence and experience in the software is limited.

The author has a good working knowledge of Autodesk Inventor through his previous studies in CAD and has found the execution of the design tools are similar to Pro/Engineer but their layout is still unfamiliar. For these reason the author will use Autodesk Inventor to create a 3D model of a hip replacement as there are some complex modeling techniques involved in its production.

Figure 15, Autodesk Inventor User interface (DESK ENG.COM)

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CAD Models

Model 1

There are two hip replacements that will be modelled, the first (Figure 16) is a model of a femoral prosthesis that was designed and developed at the University of Aveiro. The geometry of the implant is determined using a touch probe system. (Page 22 Figures 12 and 13) This ensures the correct parameters were met within the accepted tolerances. The author has selected this implant to replicate using Autodesk Inventor as it is a feasible option that could be modelled within the parameters of his skill and knowledge of the software.
Figure 16, Image shows a CAD model and the master mould that is produced from it
WWW.EMERALDINSIGHT .COM / REPRINTS

WWW .EMERALDINSIGHT .COM / REPRINTS

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Creating Model 1

Autodesk Inventor software is opened and a new project is initiated with the name Ramos Hip, then a (mm ipt) standard part file is created for the model. The first step in producing the implant representation is for its geometry to be sketched in 2D and constrained to the workspace, (Figure 17) this gives a fixed point for the model to be constructed. Finishing the sketch leads to the modelling stage, this allows the geometry to be manipulated through the use of the tools available. (Figure 18)
Figure 17, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the first basic geometry of the Ramos Hip (J AMES CLARK)

Figure 18, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor modelling toolbar (J AMES CLARK)

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This stage of the process involves the loft tool which was used in making the top part of the model that connects to the socket. (Figure 19) Loft creates complex and organic shapes such as those found in the automotive, marine, and consumer products industries.

Figure 17, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the loft tool producing the first part of the model (J AMES CLARK)

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The next part is produced using the profile from the preceding command as the first source of reference for the loft tool, the second point of reference is created from a projected plane that sits parallel to the first. (Figure 20) This plane has the desired geometry of the next segment it will be connected.
Figure 18, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the loft between 2 planes (J AMES CLARK)

The next tool used in the construction of the model is Extrude, (Figure 21) this command can increase the height or length of any chosen profile in a positive (adding to the profile) or negative. (subtracting from the profile)

Figure 19, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing Extrude command (J AMES CLARK)

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The command that will be used in the next part is rotate, (Figure 22) this is done by selecting the desired profile that has to be rotated, then choosing the axis for it to be rotated from in order to accomplish the desired curve.

Figure 20, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing revolve command (J AMES CLARK)

The images shown next have been constructed with the use of previously explained commands; each image will have a written insertion bellow of the command used to create it.

Figure 22, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing Rotate command (J AMES CLARK)

Figure 21, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing Extrude command (J AMES CLARK)

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To achieve the correct curve revolve is used again with a different radius. (Figure 23)

The next step creates the shaft that is inserted into the leg bone, first the profile from figure 23 is used as the start, and this is lofted to a sketch on a parallel projected plane. (Figure 24)
Figure 23, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the Loft command (J AMES CLARK) Figure 24, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing Rotate command (J AMES CLARK)

The final part is produced with the loft tool by using the existing profile being connected to a point on a projected plane; this creates the end of the implant that is inserted into the leg bone. (Figure 25)
Figure 25, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the Loft command (J AMES CLARK)

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Finished Model 1

Figure 26, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the finished model (J AMES CLARK)

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Model 2

The second model is of a custom hip design form Stanmore Implants. Each individual unit is made to the specific measurements of each recipient from young children to adults; every size of person can be accommodated as all parts of the geometry can be modelled to suit. This is accomplished using a touch probe system. (Page 22 Figures 12 and 13) The author has opted to replicate this design using Autodesk Inventor as it is a feasible model that could be fashioned within the parameters of his skill and knowledge of the software.
Figure 27, Image of custom implants from:
HTTP :// WWW.STANMOREIMPLANTS . COM / CUSTOM -HIP -IMPLANTS .PHP

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Creating Model 2

Autodesk Inventor software is opened and a new project is initiated with the name Custom Implant, then a (mm ipt) standard part file is created for the model. The first step is sketching the basic geometry that can be manipulated using the modelling tools; (Figure 28) shows this step with the outline of the lower shaft.

Figure 28, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the basic geometry of the lower shaft of the model (J AMES CLARK)

The next step is to use the sweep command following the desired curve of the model; the result is the lower part of the model that inserts into the femoral bone. (Figure 29)

Figure 29, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the basic geometry being manipulated with the sweep tool (J AMES CLARK)

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The sweep command is used in this step by using the profile created by the previous sweep, this profile is instructed to follow an arc in the opposite direction to the first, (Figure 30) This constructs the centre of the shaft.

Figure 30, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile of Fig.29 being manipulated with the sweep tool (J AMES CLARK)

The top part of the shaft is created with the revolve tool, the end profile from figure 30 is used with the required radius (Figure 31) and then revolved with a measurement in degrees. The input of the degree is required in order to prevent the tool completing a full revolution.
Figure 31, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile of Fig.30 being manipulated with the revolve tool (J AMES CLARK)

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The next step involves the loft tool, this command is in two stages, the first is to use the profile created in the previous step as the starting point. (Figure 32) From this profile a working plane is projected to the specified distance and a sketch of the required geometry created for the loft to connect to. (Figure 33)

Figure 32, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile that will be the start for the loft (J AMES CLARK)

Figure 33, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the sketch to be lofted to. (J AMES CLARK)

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The next step is a loft which is created in the same way as the previous by using the profile from the last command and a sketch that has been created on a projected plane with the desired geometry. (Figure 34, 35)

Figure 34, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile to start for the loft (J AMES CLARK)

35, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile to finish loft (J AMES CLARK)

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To create the ball that inserts to the hip joint, the outline of the ball is sketched onto the Z plane that is central to the model, (Figure 36) the outline is then halved with the line kept to be used as an axes for the revolve tool.

Figure 36, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the profile of the ball ready to be revolved. (J AMES CLARK)

The model is finished with a loft of the bottom profile to a projected plane below it; the projected plane has a point sketched on it for the profile to be lofted to. (Figure 37) This creates the pointed end that is inserted into the hollowed leg bone of the implant patient.

Figure 37, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the point to be lofted to. (J AMES CLARK)

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Finished Model 2

Figure 38, Screenshot of Autodesk Inventor showing the finished Ramos model (J AMES CLARK)

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CONCLUSION

Now that the models have been completed the author feels the aims and purposes of the report have been achieved.

Research was carried out of rapid prototyping, hip implants and an explanation of 3d modelling systems through medical technology was given.

An explanation of the software used to create the finished models was given. Models were constructed giving an explanation on how complex shapes were formed with images matching the explanations.

The author is pleased with the quality and outcome of the final report, the report did not run as was planned due to bad time management from the author, The author has gained a greater understanding of rapid prototyping and its applications while researching for this report and a new interest in the medical rapid prototyping industry. He has also realised the importance in time management of any project.

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REFERENCES

HTTPWWW. DESKTOP -3DPRINTERS .COM 3D -PRINTING -EXPLAINED

7 8

HTTP :// WWW.ZCORPORATION .COM / EN/ HOME .ASPX

HTTP :// WWW.MAE .CORNELL.EDU/ PEOPLE /PROFILE .CFM ?NETID=HBV 1

HTTP ://ENGG.HKU.HK/ MONG/ AVOELCKER .HTML

9 10 11 12 13 14

HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS _2.HTM

HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS _2.HTM

J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR. JU.EDU. JOJMJ J MED J 2008; J UNE: VOL. 42(2) HTTP :DAR. JU.EDU. JOJMJ
HTTP :// RHEUMATOLOGY .OXFORDJOURNALS .ORG/ CONTENT/41/7/824. FULL

HTTP :// WWW.HIPIMPLANTATTORNEYS .COM /HIP IMPLANTS .HTML

HTTP :// RHEUMATOLOGY .OXFORDJOURNALS .ORG/ CONTENT/41/7/824. FULL

15 16 17 18

HTTP :// WWW.CUSTOMPARTNET.COM / WU/ IMAGES / R PROTOTYPING/ SLA.PNG/28/11/2011

HTTP ://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/ WIKI/SELECTIVE _LASER _ SINTERING

HTTP :// WWW.MATERIALISE .COM / FUSED-DEPOSITION -MODELLING

HTTP :// WWW.EETIMES .COM / DESIGN/ INDUSTRIAL -CONTROL/4013703/R APID -PROTOTYPES -MOVE TO -METAL -COMPONENTS

19 21 22

J OURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS VOL. 21/WO.6 2002


REPRINTS @EMERALDINSIGHT . COM

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Pro/Engineer user interface (PTC.COM) Autodesk Inventor User interface (Desk Eng.com)
WWW.EMERALDINSIGHT.COM / REPRINTS

23 24 25

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TABLES

TABLE 1, CHARLES W. HULL PATENT STEREOLITHOGRAPHY ON MARCH 11TH 1986


HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS

2.HTM ...................................................................... 10

TABLE 2, CARL R. DECKARDS PATENT FOR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING IN 1989


HTTP :// WWW. ADDITIVE 3D.COM / MUSEUM / MUS

2.HTM ............................................................. 11

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FIGURES

FIGURE 1, IMAGE SHOWS THE PROCESS FROM CAD TO PRINTER TO PROTOTYPE .................................. 7 FIGURE 2, IMAGE OF 3D PRINTER HTTP ://WWW.ZCORPORATION.COM/EN/HOME. ASPX ...................... 8 FIGURE 3, IMAGE OF AN ARTHRITIC HIP ................................................................................................ 12 FIGURE 4, IMAGE SHOWS THE STAGES OF A TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT ................................................ 12 FIGURE 5, IMAGE SHOWING HOW THE IMPLANT IS FITTED. ................................................................... 13 FIGURE 6, IMAGE OF SIR JOHN CHARNLEY
HTTP :// RHEUMATOLOGY .OXFORDJOURNALS .ORG/ CONTENT/41/7/824. FULL .......................... 14

FIGURE 7, IMAGE SHOWING THE PROCESS OF STEREOLITHOGRAPHY ................................................... 16 FIGURE 8, IMAGE SHOWING SLS METHOD
HTTP :// WWW. ARPTECH .COM .AU/ SERVICES / SLSDIAG . GIF /28/11/2011 ..................................... 17

FIGURE 9, IMAGE SHOWING THE FDM METHOD HTTP ://WWW.MATERIALISE .COM/FUSED DEPOSITION -MODELLING ............................................................................................................ 18

FIGURE 10, IMAGE SHOWING THE EBM METHOD


HTTP ://EN.WIKIPEDIA. ORG/ WIKI/ELECTRON_BEAM _MELTING ............................................... 19

FIGURE 11, IMAGE SHOWS THE SGC METHOD ...................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 13, GEOMETRY ASSESSED WITH THE USE OF TOUCH PROBE SCANNER .................................... 22 FIGURE 12, GEOMETRY ASSESSED WITH THE USE OF TOUCH PROBE SCANNER .................................... 22 FIGURE 14, SCREENSHOT OF PRO/ENGINEER USER INTERFACE (PTC.COM) ........................................ 23 FIGURE 15, AUTODESK INVENTOR USER INTERFACE (DESK ENG.COM) ............................................. 24 FIGURE 16, IMAGE SHOWS A CAD MODEL AND THE MASTER MOULD THAT IS PRODUCED FROM IT .... 25 FIGURE 17, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE LOFT TOOL PRODUCING THE FIRST
PART OF THE MODEL (J AMES

CLARK) ......................................................................................... 27

FIGURE 18, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE LOFT BETWEEN 2 PLANES (J AMES CLARK) ........................................................................................................................................ 28

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FIGURE 19, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING EXTRUDE COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 28 FIGURE 20, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING REVOLVE COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 29 FIGURE 21, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING EXTRUDE COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 29 FIGURE 22, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING ROTATE COMMAND (J AMES CLARK). 29 FIGURE 23, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE LOFT COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 30 FIGURE 24, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING ROTATE COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) 30 FIGURE 25, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE LOFT COMMAND (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 30 FIGURE 26, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE FINISHED MODEL (J AMES CLARK) ...................................................................................................................................................... 31 FIGURE 27, IMAGE OF CUSTOM IMPLANTS FROM: ................................................................................. 32 FIGURE 28, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE BASIC GEOMETRY OF THE LOWER
SHAFT OF THE MODEL (J AMES

CLARK) ....................................................................................... 33

FIGURE 29, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE BASIC GEOMETRY BEING
MANIPULATED WITH THE SWEEP TOOL (J AMES

CLARK ) ............................................................. 33

FIGURE 30, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE OF FIG.29 BEING
MANIPULATED WITH THE SWEEP TOOL (J AMES

CLARK ) ............................................................. 34

FIGURE 31, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE OF FIG.30 BEING
MANIPULATED WITH THE REVOLVE TOOL (J AMES

CLARK) ......................................................... 34

FIGURE 32, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE THAT WILL BE THE START
FOR THE LOFT

(J AMES CLARK) .................................................................................................. 35

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FIGURE 33, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE SKETCH TO BE LOFTED TO. (J AMES CLARK) ........................................................................................................................................ 35 FIGURE 34, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE TO START FOR THE LOFT (J AMES CLARK) ........................................................................................................................... 36 35, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE TO FINISH LOFT (J AMES CLARK) 36 FIGURE 36, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE PROFILE OF THE BALL READY TO BE
REVOLVED. (J AMES

CLARK) ........................................................................................................ 37

FIGURE 37, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE POINT TO BE LOFTED TO. (J AMES CLARK) ........................................................................................................................................ 37 FIGURE 38, SCREENSHOT OF AUTODESK INVENTOR SHOWING THE FINISHED RAMOS MODEL (J AMES CLARK) ........................................................................................................................................ 38

45