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I

CBI First

Woodhead

Ltd

Conditions of sale AU rights reserved. No may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without perm1sswn m from the No is assumed by the persons or as a matter of products from any use or operation of any ucculvu;:,, contained in the material herein. for any injury and/or damage to negligence or otherwise, or instructions or ideas

British Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British ISBN I 855 73 088 X by Geoff Green (text) and Chris (jacket). Best-set Kong. St Suffolk, England.

vn

..

5 6
8

2
13

31 31 37

52

5
96

1
1 136 1 1 1

it.

a
to

its use.

tension

years,

to mcrease main driving force

to exorcise

16 E6013 E7024 1.2 mm .6 mm .2 mm 2.4 mm solid solid metal-cored rutile FCW

--o-2 -

10

13

5
interest m gas mixture

wire

w1re.

Wire feed unit

Gas nder

Mains power

w1re.

Arc

Arc

extinction

l
1
m

currents.

w1res

w1res

to

over m

areas

w1re

to argon mixtures claims After an a degree

wire wires are soft steel,

user

Solid wire: narrow poor tolerance

Metal-cored wire: wider and better tolerance

nPI'lPTr:;c!TI

w1res.

Fig.

24

Tubular>..Vire welding

2.3 Surface of weld bead made with metal-cored wire, showing


small slag islands.

Even when basic components are not present in metal-cored wires, many are capable of matching basic wires in terms of weld metal hydrogen levels. The oxide film which surrounds the droplet, which is provided by designers mainly to encourage spray transfer; also inhibits hydrogen pickup. For this reason, some of the earliest high strength wires were of the metal-cored type. Other alloy types available include nickel-bearing wires for low temperature toughness, Cr-Mo wires for creep-resisting applications and copper bearing wires for weathering resistance, although the latter are being increasingly replaced by 1% Ni or 2.5/o Ni types. Metal-cored tubular wires even in their standard form may be used for submerged arc welding given a suitable flux and equipment and with some modification they can be made to perform even better. Some productivity advantages are described in the next chapter, but the ease with which a small quantity may be produced, rather than the minimum 20 tonne or so needed to

to

arc Wires

near

remains

mam

SIZe.

a new

it

i i;

Wire

(centre)

over-

'I

I'

Wires

concentric

Butt weld

Fillet weld

Position 3G Steel CE: 0.35 Preheat: 20 lnterpass: 250 Backing. Ceramic

ac

ac

0-1 mm ~

12

t
4mm Pass No. Wire diameter, mm 1.2 1.2 Amps Volts Speed, em/min Shielding gas

1 2-8

140 180

21 24

6 21-27

Ar/20% C0 2 Ar/20%

wire.

oints

MMA

maximum by a w1re any

7
6
..c

----D-

1T-1) Rutile 1.2 mm Self-shielded 1.73 mm


Self-shielded 2.0 mm 1 Self-shielded 2.0 mm for fill & cap Self-shielded 1.73 mm for pipe root

-c
0
Ul

Cll .:;,:

w' +-' m ,_

4 3
2

:=:
0
Q.
Q)

L--------L--------~------~------~

100

200

300
Current, A

400

500

w1re

rates.

on

raise

wires. is able current a special for

a gaswire designed

wire

use

1
minimise mam

I,
'

;I

resource

I
I

!j

25-30 mm extension

transfer

measures. gases are more amounts of

a VISCOUS

slag-

see, or

lost or nse to

wires are predecessors not especially. susceptible to oxygen-induced shielding, it

Gas trails on the surface of a weld made with cored wire.

flux-

once claimed nearly UK Many of for deoxidation on manganese, a weak a strengthening agent, whereas 1 wires use a balanced mix of deoxidants the same without excessive increases in strength or loss of toughness. For welding over badly scaled plate, users should these wires T -2 types. extreme cases, especially give little away to the welding over primer, basic wires may needed. Nitrogen is an insidious contaminant of welds since its source, rust or grease, is Unless steps are taken to the nitrogen, porosity set in nitrogen level reaches 300-400 ppm. Unfortunately, needed to react this strong so far have use unwelcome therefore Gas-shielded

18
\

17
16
\ \
\

15
\ \

14
13

20

15 Gas

10
I/ min

200

400

600

gas

rate

to escapes. allowed,

to weld, long hose systems. Consideration to back-purging root in sensitive systems, though needed to effects

argon-based mixtures. Stainless wires

wires are freedom from nitrogen ""-r""

to ensure use, even out is generally a sign voltage has moisture can a or the wire has commonest

hydrogen came Core contained hygroscopic powders, although may been use, moisture once the w1re Traces were on the wire. levels above 30 23 were recorded. methods wire to porosity is a sign the wire has abused in some Manufacturers' packs are generally well enough sealed of pack, some wires absorb moisture . Even wires hydrogen can occasionally produce surface gas flats argon-rich gases at high currents Increase 1n should be enough to Special the
\--U.UHUU,

cracking, more specifically engmeers and m the 1960s diseases of the slums has been largely hygiene. Solidification cracking cooling weld act on intergranular films of phases. two most their effect is
'-'HHU.,U\..,

variation changes in changes in current or electrode size, because used

current as high as 2

was
i

I I

12

10

8
Hdiff, ml/1 OOg 6 4
2

stickout

Current

260 A

current

0
9

8
7
0
0
,---

6
5
4

::::::,

3
2

0
Wire A Wire B WireC

of

gas on

content.

it is tern per a tures expulsion. some into the These

as

'

''I. '
!

II
I!
Iii
j,l 1.111

::i

jt

i~ '

i.l

are.

I
,II

11

;,I' '!:.'' i

ansmg

gases, prEN

20/o

20
100 80
0

Ill

Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill

0
N

60 40

@J

Ill

'

Ill

Ill

20 0

50

100
Weld

150

200
ppm

250

300

on

140 120

II

Metal-cored wire Basic flux-cored wire Rutile flux-cored wire

-o--

Q. Q.

E 100
(!)

-co
""0
(!)

........

80
60

E
$
c

40
20 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

in gas, ppm

or as a

Wires can as good as

Notch here sa unrefined weld metal

amount designed designed microstructure toughness is

even

wires microstructures can also give designed though, to date, U.H.''-'"'"" types senous use strength

to so nitrogen Unfortunately, nitrogen is one

to remove 5 or 6 mm to remove

some these.

can be some

to

in damage to a clean tissue is needed in assessing wires surface is, may appear they are. graphite smce and torch graphite shows an excess Clogging of not have Most manufacturers often by meaa

seam any roughness

users

or

arc

a '-'-'LJ''-'-'"' wire surface

wear
excessive effects. common

wear.

offers extra reassurance Because

written procedures are being followed. used over a

Monitors on widespread use. Newer systems or use a solid-state one versiOn parameters can be interfaces conclusion feed speed

wire feed speed digitally 1 are 1n to a

welding the parameters represet values monitoring the wire feed speed of effective is a good lS stickout is critical some installations

Microprocessor monitor using a 'sm.art card'.

means

a gauge

over

lS

Because of processes, or even good welds the

welders are used to other can produce some users have the process was more proper Some elements theory,

the starting wires are easiest to set because show no transition in transfer behaviour over a wide range of currents. 1.2 mm wire operate 140 to 300 m spray transfer. The by means of wire feed speed wire unit. The voltage

currents m electrode positive.


m

range of currents into a to insist on a 1.2mm wire

some

made in wires are at higher currents metal-cored wires come into own. more practical is to run possible at a high current, for example to ust 1.2mm produce high speed. be noted voltage he w1re m spray, so that an occasional crackle is feedback in response to be to provide a degree movements . Basic wires do not transfer and always be a slight crackle in most m setting up, however, is wires are to run m tolerance quite narrow spray areas. first stage in setting to m shortto set a wire speed hence range - perhaps 80 to 180 A

too

precept in designing wires. designed to mimic electrodes

voltage recommendations are necessarily conservative. Makers w1res, perhaps more conscwus others particular generally not these, manu-

are generally accustomed to, correct stickout be

Basic wires are

varymg or welds, a penetration and gas coverage. more 10 mm leg (7 mm throat thickness) is required, more than one pass be needed. first pass is made as before and aimed at toe of the

81

11

w1res.

technique

(gravity)

j!

a must be used as described in welding

or a 3. Welding techniques are in most cases, weaving it were not need to

first one or two runs are later layers are made

weavmg across severe heat or no weaving must met or two or more runs each using a weave of technique,

necessary. welding vertically with most size 1 mm IS application calls a proportion a positional are used positionally in larger diameters, often between 1. 7 . . smce are to m have been optimised to give tenstics at densities voltages. wires are used vertically in may range to 250 on heavy IS more all-positional welding of 12mm

weave

weave

beads
sequences

ceramic backing tiles are one of . The root is weave pattern to ensure the joint edges are with a a side-to-side Subsequent passes are reg uiremen ts heat weave. Unless a single weave to a followed by a

~~
1st pass
Fill

~
Fill

and cap

and cap

basic

is possible wires. The the

WireS.

an arc voltage and do so

techniques for positional not contain to 25 V to produce flat singlethe

on gas-shielded wires.

semifor being used to the on metre best economic argument have an economic process change has been briefly
. I

II

to

own

Example 1: welded crane beam

1 Welding crane beam.

for 130 tonne capacity overhead cranes were fabricated large high recovery (E 7024) electrodes. Preheating was manually j took 5 hours '""'"u""' was mechanised using two beam

Welding blast furnace.

jackets were in steel to using E 7018 electrodes were re-dried before use. Extra supervision was required to maintain preheat ternperatures, electrode in general. change was to a basic gave a hydrogen weld heat increased and <5 /100 g preheat I 00 C. deposition rate also increased, supervision levels and overall saving was estimated at 36o/o. using both gasfurnace was successfully Wire. total all-positional wire and defect rate was 15 te of consumables were used

:.I

wires were used in assess relative economic performance and the following costing was welding parameters. 43 made to the

Diameter, mm kg/h efficiency, % Duty cycle, % Consumable $/kg Labour and overhead, $/h Deposition rate, kg/h Consumable cost, $ Labour cost, $ kg cost, $per kg

&4 L8 60 25 1.32 15

2 2.3 80 40 2.70 15 0.

2.20 55.56 57.76

3.38 20.38 23.76

wishbones

Weld

water
1000 mm

~I

500 mm

Water heater

water

9
a at

400
to give s, some 30% were use to speed was 11.8 m

Example 6: water tube boilers

Welding of boiler.

Boilers, Fig. 5.6, were being wire for

a
rnrrPn

processes seem based on companson of approaches fabricators suggests Ill 1971, some approaches 45 46 were described , but were also

pass software can m 1980s assumed that

: a verswn shielding gas

wires electrodes can efficiencies ratio of coated types as measured the stub ends are not deposited to electrode consumed, of 50/o of deposited consumed have to be paid site. to electrodes

Consumable mabie weight area nt weight

Consumable

cost
'%

Gas

Deposition rate

Arc time

Labour

Labour cost

cycle

Joint completion time

cost

cost

costing algorithm calculation.

sources can

too a change to

as is a danger of overestimating changes:


IS

calculated as wL/11F.

the metre is nearly always be largest item the greatest savings wire welding.

ISm

VIeW.

wire. wire density


a

is now less common In cycle changing be

0.l.U.U.H-l.l.

Digger

w1re cross31 /o increase in changing a metal-cored The

main mm this

5.2

Option 1 53 Solid E70S-6 1.6 mm 400 35 C02 50 1.30 1.15 0.08 13 0.46 7.7 95 0.413 0.435 3.23 6.46 0.57 0.09 0.06 1.40 0.05 2.17 9.29

Option 2 53

-500

wire 2.0mm

C02
1.74 1.15 0 13 0.46 11.4 95 3 0.435 2.18 3.96 0.76 0.06 0.06 0.86 0.03
L 15.17

50

\1
mm

AI8 l.6mm solid Voltage, Stickout, mm gas cycle,% . price, /kg Gas price, /m 3 pnce rate, /h Capital rate, /h Deposition rate, kg/h Deposition efficiency, % weight, kg/m Consumable weight, kg/m Arc Consumable cost, Gas cost, /m Electricity cost, cost, /m Capital cost, m/h cost, /m Productivity, 400 33 20 80/20 40 0.57 0.80 0.05 25 6.7 95 0.254 0.267 2.27 5.68 0.15 0.04 0.02 2.36 0.00 2.58 10.57

1.6mm 420 35v(-) 20 80/20


40

L6mm 400 38 20 40 2.01 0.05 25 7.8 85 0.254 0.298 1.95 4.88 0.60 0.02 0.03 2.03 0.00 2.67 12.31

2.4mm 450 34 30 C02


40

1.89 0.80 0.05 25 8.8 95 0.254 0.267 1.73 4.32 0.50 0.03 0.02 1.80 0.00 2.36 13.89

1.86 0.40 0.05 25

85 0.254 0.298 2.08 5.21 0.55 0.02 0.03 2.17 0.00 2.77 11.52

..

Power source w1re.

wne feed unit for gas-shielded

sets was

w1re

some corners were good remams

amounts

sources. designed available even in only, wires are enough on AC, using an feeder as

were 2 mm

fi

Wire feeder

twin drive motors.

to feed wire over longer distances yet have not made the might seem to warrant. straightening effect rolls, is long stickouts or in robotic applications seam following is distance the power source to the cannot easily be reduced to a few metres, as for example in shipyards, repeater or wire feed may be , portable feeders the 'suitcase' type, a small wire spool inside, are increasingly popular. These can a facility for selecting the parameters at a pre-programmed range without the need to return to the power source.

guns or wire are generally

or

Wires more coating. More thought ensure smooth feeding

prEN because tolerances 0.02-0.06 mm gas ,,,_.._..._,H."' the early days gas'"'-'-'-.... -'-'"'- as main design some might claim it taken second place to ergonomics in design. in 1960s 1 showed best shielding, it was necessary for the gas emerged simplest way to achieve is to torch is as long as possible mm long welding a

a new versiOn

IS

for electrode, tensile strength of 2 10000lbf/in or lOksi, Fig. 7.1.

electrodes, by a digit or digits in A5.20

N/mm
digits 6 and each percentage

mcreases

......._.__ Gas
Suitable for

wire

spray

rutile-based Tubular wire

70 ksi tensile

w1re

13

single or use types can used positionally Self-shielded, giving 'spray good toughness Self-:shielded, As T-3 DC-, said to 6.4mm As 'spray toughness any

T-6

LU<'-"-H'-00

as two classes 1m age

of strucespecially They are transfer

the basic or shielding gas. modern T -5 wires long appeaL sought,

porosity nor occupy a where

testing at

grease wire to 1s described as having a

15

T -8 class has an at -29C). A5.20 has not yet

wires 10 T-11 types in 1979 issue. 10 wires in being designed for high-speed welding, instead of

users. been

Tubular wire

No gas

wire

EN

not be

The mmimum signated 4


IS

g1ven

certain to use two digits to represent yield strength one strength. strength toughness common to for consumables processes. grades of strength appear in the existing

m or N indicating Gas or No gas indicates slag

18

Metal-cored For high deposition rate, single run, high speed, flat and

u v

slag Basic slag Metal

core

or Basic/fluoride, slow slag fast freezing slag types

types

z
E
3 1

Standard

No.
Tubular wire
460

Hctiff<5 ml/1 00 g

under conditions For mixed gas

Toughness 47J@ -30C

Gas-shielded basic

1% Ni

u'"''-"'""'

to go into the slag wires were operating characteristics.


a
-'-J.'-'J''-'"''-'

categories: V, wires designed and

Electrodes classed wires types 7 wires. and some chemistry and not MMA slags went into the and fact few people 'basic/fluoride' resulted in now embraces this class, the older wires main slag newer w1res contain fluorspar as Ill smaller amounts of fluorides in general and specific the self-shielded wires pass, description systems of is type single and basic/fluoride slag

12

In-

well as steels, of

to 750N as pressure vessel

to some stabilised E308 becomes E309Cb. It seems

a stabilised E309 becomes more representa10 3.

guidance are mixtures.

gave necessary approach to over capital investment basic wire.

successfully was pulsed arc deposition rates m

w1re

8.1 The world's oldest all-welded ship was launched in 1920. Shipbuilding is the largest user of flux-cored wires today.

Some current shielding, corrosion protection or solvent ers, C0 2 shielding or

in terms

gas

127

Wires can toughness

years ago, it is pressures have overcome and that yards.

conservatism used in

steel to 550, 690 550 N /mm 2 wires can levels, only basic wires are at wires offering

I i

use of

to

wires are gammg is strong, m in general, accurate can J use

good speeds (844 mile) Argentina More

rates in 30 in (610-762

1985. 54

using the CRC process withE SIT-I Nil wire Pass No Process Travel direction Electrode diameter, mrn Wire feed speed, m/rnin Shielding gas Gas flow rate, !/min Wire extension, mm Current, A Voltage, V Travel speed, m/rnin Root MMA Downhill MMA Downhill 4 Fill I FCAW Downhill Fill 2 FCAW Uphill
1.4

Fill 3-4 FCAW FCAW !.4

2
FCAW

1.4 6.6 80/20 40 12

l.4 7.6 80/20 40 12 280-300 23 0.20

.4 5.3 80/20 40 12 220-240 22 0.18

7.6 80/20 40 12 280-300 23 0.15

5.3 80/20 40 12 220-240 22 0.18

As req As reg

As reg As req

240-260 22.5 0.28

30

1.4mm

f----_____lT

l_
X

60 mrn pipe

21 mrn wall thickness

w1re.

wires have scrap content the desired residual, mild steel long been a of high have wires for submerged arc increasingly seen in

represents a welding

stainless steel rotary thicknesses to 48 mm

section wue.

wires

mm wires are accurate processmg exceptionally corrosive, good so surface cannot food required.

practices change.

arc to recommends welding, grades appropriate to be chosen: Grade 1 Grade below l 75 A currents. levels are present, as practice, it is not workers passers-by who are most at risk from radiation. exposure to arc can give rise to a painful known as 'arc eye' which become apparent some eyes water as arc welding is at higher currents it is warn

stops. is not subjected to more most cases extractor hoods


'-''-'U.H.v'--'

effects are not cover in 24 to 48

welding, personal fed helmets into

recent 0.05 mg/m is probably is removed


3

arc

to Processes large to generate less ozone because is absorbed in the arc region. such as ozone to

In

welding can generate significant amounts IS tetrafluoride, disperse harmlessly since is remote Carbon monoxide can also evolved paints and coatings. arc welding processes can produce phosgene (OEL 1 chlorinated degreasing are not is usually preceded

2
3

gases', P

6 7 8

9 0

2
3 4 15 6

1
18

19

21

1961 8 (ll) 52625


Association, Nov 1967.

26

containing 0 Grong, Conference Proceedings Welding .Science and Technology', Tennessee, 1993, 569-571. 29 computer, developed and software documentation in welding', J Hoejgaard, J N E Proceedings ' International Conference on
Computer Technology Welding',

1990.
arc sensmg Crookall L

,J

31

' J

41

costs 50%', Welding

'B p 'Economic Aspects of Welding Technology',

1971, 27-37.
terms, 'Economic Aspects of

1971, 227-235. 47 encountered in applying Proceedings 'Economic Aspects nology', The 1971, 21 21 'Self-adjusting arcs', J C Needham 19541 (2) 71-77.

51

m Proceedings Pipeline Technology Conference, of Sciences, 1990, 2.29-2. 73. 31 stainless steel', wire welding Metal Construction, 1987 JL

1978.
m

acicular 69- 71 alloyed wires, 29 aluminium in tubular 26, 29 American Welding Society, 10, 13 Specification A5-20, 13, 26 arc instability, 72-74 arc stabilisers, 12-13 argon mixtures, 20, 22, 44-45, 57-58 austenitic steels, 29-31 back-gouging, 71 barium compounds, 27 basic wires, 13-16 basicity, 14 British Standards BS 449,8-11 BS 5135, 60, 61, 65 BS 6693, 61 BS 7084, 61, 63 burn-o:lfrates, 45-47 carbonates, 13, 26-27 CEN (European Committee for Standardisation), lO C0 2 , 20, 22, 30, 44, 53, 57-58 cold cracking, 60-65 cold laps, 6 contact tip, 8 excessive wear, 74 copper, 60 29

soaps, 7 duty cycles, 3 electrode extension, II embrittlement, 68-72 European Standards EN lOll, 60, 65 EN 439,66 EN 729, 75 EN 758, 23, 63 filling ratio, 23, 31, 35-36, 65 fluorides, 13, 25-26, 28 guns, 8 heat 69 high strength steels, 29 hydrogen, 7, 14, 15, 17, 29, 58-65 41-43, 53 K-preparation, 68-69 Kjellberg, Oscar, l lack-of-fusion defects, 7, 52-53 lithium compounds, 28 lubrication, 37-38, 73-74 68-71 l, 2, 3, 6, 21, 66-67

61

oxygen,

55 66

23, 25 porosity, 7, 17,55-59 53 power sources, 8, 15, 48-50 welding over, 5, 21, 23, 43 production methods, 31-35 productivity, 3-5, 41-51 pulsed arc welding, 48-50 robotic rolling as a rutile, 16, 27-28 wires, 16-18, 29,41

stainless steels, 29-3 standoff, II , 17, strain ageing, 7 43

61

77

11, 30 14, 15, 59-60, 66 30 17 41, 42 35 titanium dioxide, 16 torches, 8 toughness, 14,17,47 training of welders, 77-84 travel speeds, 21 underbead profile, 21, 22 undercut, 77

77-78

seamless wire, 34-35, 57 segregation of alloying elements, self-shielded 25-29 semi-automatic welding, 2, 8, 76 sheath materials, 31 shielding gases, ll, 20, 62, 66-67 shipyards, 21, 49 shroud, 8, 53, 77 slag, 12, 24 solid wires, 21, 53 solidification cracking, 59-60 spray transfer, 8, 16

66

61-,
voltage, setting up, 77-78 monitors, 75 welding speed, 47-50 wire feed speed, 5, 53 wire feeding difficulties, 73:_ 74 wire sections, 35-37