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MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF

A CURRENT
A rr:!.agnetic field exists not __ only around a piece of magnet but is also produced by .1! current in
a_cQ!ldl!fJOL there is the field of the earth. In this chapter we will examine how
m_agnetic fields can be produced by __ ___ shapes.
_ produc_ed frqm c_uqent_s. _ _revers_e is also possible, Le.
electric currents can be produced using magnetism. This is called electromagnetism.
16.1 Magnetic Field Patterns
If a bar __ (s_ s j t __ tq_
__ __ This as the j n
short the north (N) pole. The __ gf _ __ ):cnQwn as __ the .. soutl:L.(S.)._pole_(see
. -- - . ---------- --- ------
N
T
Fig. 16.1 The poles of a magnet Fig. 16.2 The magnetic field around a bar magnet
The magnetic field pattern around a magnet is reviewed by placing the magnet below
_Qf_Q_<!
2
er -sprinkling iron filings antop -(;t-tile-pape;. -Fig.--1 pattern
arounct a iri the magnetic .. fieid represents the patti along whiCh a free:_
north pole would move in the magnetic field. The free north pole is repelled by the north pole of
___ .. !?Y. __ .. .. _
(see Fig. 16.3).


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16.2 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
field. .. aroun9 ___ _
a long straight wire carrying a current is shown in Fig. 16.5. The direction of the field may be
determifiecfuSiilga- sffiair {Jiotting -coinpassplacecr neii---iile .. -- ........ ---------- -- -----
direction
of field
I, current
t
direction
of current
right hand
cardboard
plotting
compass
Fig. 16.5 The magnetic field due to a current in a straight wire and the right hand rule
The .. . __Qf...:g.n_reo tri c eire with .. _be tween . .th.eJin .. e..s
of force increasing as the distance from the wire increases. This denotes that the field gets weaker
.. .. -.... - -- __ .. ______ .__ ----- "" .... . . ..... - ---. -. .
at a distance further away
In a vacuum, the __ of the flux density B at a point r from the wire
is
(2
I.._,
where I is
__ !fn<!_ __ )!P .... __ .1!. ..
The _ B be )'__ han_d
rule:
,If the wire is grasped in
; .. . ..


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16.3 Circular Coils
Fig. 16.6 The magnetic field due to a current in a circular coil
Fig: ... ! 6. ___ l?Y .. in coiL }he direction of the
may be detennined using the right hand rule. Grasp the left si(je of the coil with _thumb
po"lnttiig-upwru=as-'"li1' .. the-cfirectiori of" the 'current, the will curl in the of the_
riercr:--slm1Iarly, grasp the iightsTcfeof the -co1f wi_th ___ the cl9;;D; ard_ and the
- -- ------ . --. ------ . .. ... . .. - .. .. . .. .
direction _? f the cl!!. of ..
If r = radius of the coil,
--=:]Y ___ and
I = cuiTent, /
.... flux density __ of the coil is


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16.4 Long Solenoids
When a current flows in a solenoid, the magnetic field pattern produced is identical to that of a
bar magnet (see Fii 7) Hence. the solenoid has poiesjustl1ke To remember the
_ole .. Qitrrint
flow, we can th:_PC?._le. JJ
lf_jhe current flows in the end of the solenoid is a N-pole ( _t.1_2:
if the current flow is clockwise, then the end of the solenoid is a S-pole ( S ) (see Fig. 16.7).
__ ,._______________ , _____ .._________ -------------..-------- ---
I I
Fig. 16.7 The magnetic field due to a current in a solenoid
Notice that the lines of force inside the solenoid are parallel. Hence the magnetic field inside
the js uniforin. of the magnetic fleld inside ..
fr_Qm po)_t_rity at ... of th.e the right hand rule::.
- Just grasp any one of the t_!_le the_Iight hand
in the direction of the current in the coil and the fingers curl into the solenoid .. Then the direction
follows the -- --
/
right hand
I
solenoid
direction of field
curl of fingers
Fig. I6.8


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.. flux density B within the solenoid depends on the current I? and n, the number
of tums is-gi\,eii -ilie ---- ---- - ----- .. - --
:/'" I B = ,U0nl I /
--------- --
' The magnetic_lLDes of ..:..J .. __ ends of the solenoid spread out This shows
that the magnetic flux density at the ends is weaker. At the ends of the solenoid, the magnetic
riux __ _ _i:e..:: auiieei1JS of the
solenoid
A
(a)
1-------+- X
(b)
0
Fig. 16.9
I
I
I
_-- - 1
I
\ B' =flux density at the ends
I'
I
__ __ __ at the ends because a long solenoid can be
considered as being made up of two sections joined at A. The resultant flux density at A in
16.9(a) is the vector the flux de nsities B' at the end of each of the two coils. The
directions of the flux densities are the -sarrie: Hetice the resulta-nt-fluxdensity point within
- --a---- - - --------- --- - - --
the solenoid, is
B = B' + B' = 2B'.
Fig .. 16.9(b) shows the variation of the flux density along the length of a long solenoid.
If- a -so_ft_ piece is inset1eCi in-to the solenoid, the flux density"" within the solenoid is given
by ffie expression -
I B = J.lrJlonl I
where J.1 r is a constant known as the relative permeability of soft iron. The value of J.1 r for soft
lrOI1IS 37'0- bi.ii some alloys containing 1i:-on-;TiickeT-and cobaltlnayhave the value of Pr as -high
as 1 Hence phicing- an .. rron-bar-in-Side a solelioidTnci-eases._ihe inagneilcflux-d-ensity to a
i?ili __ a n:aterjal


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.,... Fig 15.4 Magnetic force
acting on current-carrying
conductor
current-carrying conductor in a
Magnetic Field
Wl1.en a conductor carrying a current I is placed in a magnetic
field B, a magnetic force F that is perpendicular to both the
current and the field will be exerted on the conductor (Fig 15.4).
r-
F ----'
"
2 r. te /.'C
/ ;; .J.r o.
/ ..
wA/ tvfJ I
The magnitude of the magnetic force on the conductor in
Fig 15.4 is
F = BH'sin e
where B is the magnetic flux density,
I is conventional current,
l is the length of conductor
e is the angle between the direction of the and
flux density.
(a) When e = 0 or e = 180,
F = BIZ sin oo = BIZ sin 180 = 0.
No force acts on the conductor whenever the current
flowing through it is oriented parallel to the magnetic field
(Fig 15.5) .
.,.. Fig 15.5 No force is exerted
on conductor
(b) Wl!en e = 90, F = BIZ sin 90 = BIZ (Fig 15.6a).
The magnitude of the magnetic force is
F= BIZ
Wl!en e = F =BIZ sin 270 = (Fig 15.7a).
Maximum magnetic force is exerted on the conductor
whenever the current flowing is oriented perpendicularly to
the magnetic field.


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...,. Fig 15.6 Maximum force is
exerted at () = 90
..,.. Fig 15.7 Maximum force is
exerted at () = 270

Maximum force F
(a)
Maximum force F
(a)
Thumb
( Force or Motion )
(b)
First finger
(Magnetic
field B)
Second finger
( Conventional
current I)
Second finger
(Conventional current 1)
Thumb
( Force or Motion )
(b)
Fleming's Left Hand Rule is a convenient way to predict the
direction of the magnetic force exerted on a current-carrying
conductor placed in a magnetic field. Hold the first three fingers
of the left hand perpendicularly to each other (Fig 15.6b and
Fig 15.7b).
(a) The first finger points in the direction of the magnetic
f ield B.
(b) The second finger points in the direction of the conventional
current I.
(c) The thumb points in the direction of the magnetic f orce F
exer ted on the current-carrying wire if the first and second
fi nger is oriented in the same direction as the magnetic field
and conventional current in Fig 15.6b and Fig 15.7b.
Magnetic Flux Density and Tesla
The magnetic fl ux density B is used to measure the strength and
direction of a magnetic field. It is a vector quantity.
p
From F = Bll, B - -
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We define magnetic flux density B as the n1agnetic force actin.g
on unit length of a conductor carryjng unit current if it is placed
perpendicular to the n1agnetic field.
The S.I. unit of B is N A -
1
1n -
1
or tesla (T).
1. e.

1.
1.\nswer
Qluestion
. . 2 .
1.\nswer
lT = lN
(1 A)(l 'm)
A straight wire of length 80.0 em is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 10 T. The
wire is oriented at an angle of 30 to the field direction. Find the magnetic force
acting on the wire that carries a current of 0.5 A.
I = 80.0 em= 0.800 m, B = 10 T, I = 0.5 A, 8 = 30
The magnitude of magnetic force F acting on the wire is
F = BIZ sin 8
= (1 0)(0.5)(0.809) sin 30
= 2N
A conductor of length 90.0 em i? held perpendiularly to a uniform magnetic field of
20.T A current of 1 .5 A flows through it. Find the magnetic force exerted on the
conductor if only 20.0 em of it lies in the magnetic field.
Fi!:J 15.8 shows the orientation of the
co'nductor w.ith the magnetic field. Using
Fleming's left Hand Rule, the magnetic force
is directed to the right when the current flows
down the conductor.
The magnitude of the magnetic force F is
F = BIZ sin e
B = 20 T, I=: 1.5 A, l =:= 20.0 em= 0.200 m,
8 ::;:. 90
F = (20)(1.5)(0.200) sin 90
= 6.0 N
Current I
90 0
__ __ Magnetic
.em !l x'
I x x x x x l force
20.0 em 1 - -r-------....
l x x )( x x I
& Fig 15.8
lxxxxx F
L-- r
Magnetic
field B


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..,. Fig 15.12 Current balance
Weight
mg
Pivot
Magnetic force F
.t. Fig 15.13 Side view of the
current balance
Measurement of Magnetic Flux Density
Using a current Balance
The magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor can
be used to measure the flux density of the magnetic field by
using a current balance (Fig 15.12).




/1/1/1/1/1
1 111111 /I I
ConductoP 1 1 ..,
1
1
/ I /
I
- ; ~ . ; . . . . ; . . ~ ~ ~ ......... B
The side view of the current balance is shown in Fig 15.13 /-:
where d
1
is the perpendicular distance from the pivot to the
weight and d
2
is the perpendicular distance from the pivot to
the magnetic force.
The wire frame XABY is a conductor while the frame XDCY is
made of an insulating material. Both sections are merged
together and pivoted at XY to form a rectangular frame ABCD.
Before a current is sent in to the wireframe, rigers are placed on
CD and AB to balance the frame horizontally.
The current-carrying solenoid provides a horizontal magnetic
field that cuts AB perpendicularly. When a current is sent into
the wire-frame along XABY, a downward magnetic force F acts
onAB.
To balance the rectangular frame horizontally, weight mg is
attached to CD. At the equilibrium position,
clockwise mome11t about pivot
= anticlockwise moment about pivot
f_d
4
~ mgd
1
.
Bild
2
= mgd
1
where B is the mapetic flux density of the solenoid,
I is the current flowing along AB and
I is the length of AB.
.. B = mgdi
Ild2
or B = mg if d
1
= d
2
Il


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f!it1 . . .. ' , .. ' .. ' .
. . . ,' ' ' . . ' . . . ' . . . . . . ,, . " . . . . .
Fig 15.15 Applying Fleming's
Left Hand Rule on the motion of
positive charge
The direction of the magnetic force on a charge moving . in a
magnetic field can be determined with Fleming's Left Hand
Rule. By convention, the direction of cOnventional current is
given by the direction of flow of positive charges.
(a) When the charge is positive, the middle finger points in the
direction of movement of the positive charge. The magnetic
force acting on the charge is in the upward direction and is
represented by the thumb. The first finger points in the
direction of the magnetic field. All the three fingers must be
perpendicular to each other (Fig 15.15).
(Thumb)
Force F
(Second finger)
Direction of movement or
velocity of positive charge v
F
B
v


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.,.. Fig 15.16 Applying Fleming's
Left Hand Rule on the motion of
negative charge
F
.A Fig 15.17 Positi ve charge
moves at an angle e to the
magnetic field
(b) When the charge is negative, the directioh of conventional
current is in the opposite direction to that of the movement
of the negative charge; The middle . finger points in the
direction of conventional current. Hence the direction of
force is downwards as shown in Fig 15.16.
F

' current
'
F
B
Electron
flow
v
Expression for Force on a Moving Charge
Consider a positive charge Q moving with a constant speed v at
right angle to a magnetic field B. If it travels a distance l in

time t, the current I is r -.f'
->) Q=J .
I= Q
t
and the constant speed v by
v =-
Fleming's Left Hand Rule can be applied to the conventional
current due to the motion of a single positive charge. The
magnetic force on this current is
f.= BIZ .

=BQill
i.e. F= BQp
In general, the magnitude of the magnetic force acting on a
charge Q, moving with velocity v .at an angle e to a magnetic
field B is


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In the case where the charge is an electron, the 1nagnitude of the
magnetic . force is
. .
It should be noted. that if a charge is stationary (i.e. v . 0) and
the magnetic field is switched on, the charge will experience no
magnetic force. It will remain stationary. A magnetic force will
act on a charge only when it moves.


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X X
X X
X X
Deflection of Charges in a Magnetic Field ..
When a positive charge (proton) enters a uniform magnetic
field perpendicularly, the magnetic force acting on ~ h e proton is
always at 90 to the direction of motion (Fig 15.19).
The subsequent trajectory of the proton is along a path that is
an arc of a circle. The magnetic force provides the centripetal
force for circular motion.
F=
mv
2
r
BQv =
mv
2
r
The magnetic force does no work on the proton as it is
perpendicular to v. Hence the speed and kinetic energy of the
proton remains the same as it moves along the circular path.
If T is the time taken to complete one revolution in the circular
motion and v is the constant speed of the proton,
v = f(!J
The period T is depen0-ent on the mass, magnetic flux density
and charge of the particle. It is independent of the speed.
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'1) 'The elec field can exert an electric force
on a stationary or n1oving charged particle.
2) The electric force acts in the direction of the
electric field. Deduced from the la1v of
electrostatics (i.e. Like charges repel; unlike
charges a.thact).
v ' .
3) Electric force is not dependent on the speed
and direction of the charged particle.
4) Parabolic motion is obtained when a charged
particle enters an electric field
perpendicularly.
_ ' , ,' .. /,, :_, gv._ _ _ , .
' ... for.se :o:nly on a _ n1oving charged particle.
Statipn.aiy charged particles experience no
force." __ : ' __ ::: ... --: _ -
2) The magnetic force is perpendicular to the
1nagnetic' field and the direction of n1otion
of the cl1arged particle. Deduced from
Flem.ing's Left Hcmd Rule.
3) l\1agnetic force is dependent on the speed
and direcbon of n:1otion of the charged
particle.
4) Ci rcular motion is obtained 1-vhen a charged
particle enters a ma311etic field
perpendicularly.


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