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Social Penetration Theory (Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor) The process of developing intimacy with another person

through mutual self-disclosure and other items of vulnerability It is used to explain how relational closeness develops Process of increasing disclosure and intimacy within a relationship and represents a formative theory in the intellectual history of relationship theory (Littlejohns book) A cyclical processit proceeds in back-and-forth cycles A dialectical processit involves management of the never-ending tension between the public and the private

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Affective exchange - Centers on evaluative and critical feelings at a deeper level Stable exchange - Highly intimate ; allows the partners to predict each others actions and responses very well

Personality Structure: Multi-layered Onion Personalities and people are compared to an onion. You peel the outer skin and you find another layer of beliefs Outer Layer - The public self Middle Layer - Semi-private attitudes & beliefs Inner Layer - Values, self-concept, etc. Self-disclosure The voluntary sharing of personal history preferences, attitudes, feelings, values, secrets, etc. with another person; transparency The vehicle towards intimacy The main route to deep social penetration Depth and Breadth of Self-disclosure A. Peripheral items are exchanged more frequently and sooner that private information. B. Self-disclosure is reciprocal, especially in the early stages of relationship development. C. Penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached. D. Depenetration is a gradual process of layer-by-layer withdrawal. Depth of Penetration Degree of intimacy Degree of disclosure in a specific area of an individuals life Breadth of Penetration The range of areas In an individuals life over which disclosure takes place (Littlejohns Book) Stages of Relational Development 1. Orientation - Consists of impersonal communication, in which one discloses only very public information. 2. Exploratory affective exchange Movement to a deeper level of disclosure takes place

Social Exchange Theory (John Thibaut) Based on the exchange of rewards and costs to quantify the values of outcomes from different situations for an individual. People strive to minimize costs and maximize rewards and then base the likeliness of developing a relationship with someone on the perceived possible outcomes. When these outcomes are perceived to be greater, we disclose more and develop a closer relationship with that person (Thibault and Kelley, 1952). Social Exchange. Relationship behavior and status regulated by both parties evaluations of perceived rewards and costs of interaction with each other. Outcome. The perceived rewards minus the costs of interpersonal interaction. Minimax principle of human behavior. People seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs. Comparison level (CL). The threshold above which an interpersonal outcome seems attractive; a standard for relational satisfaction. Comparison level of alternatives (CLalt). The best outcome available in other relationships; a standard for relationship stability. Ethical egoism. The believe that individuals should live their lives so as to maximize their own pleasure and minimize their own pain. *Psychological egoism. The minimax principle that undergrids social exchange theory-and therefore social penetration theory as well.

CONCLUSION Relational partners not only assess the rewards and costs of the relationship at a given moment but also use the information they have gathered to predict the rewards and costs in the future. As long as rewards continue to outweigh costs, a couple will become increasingly intimate by sharing more and more personal information.

Group 2
Bongato. Dugenia. Hizon. Samiano. Sampang. Templo.