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Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

Moinuddin Sarker*, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid & Mohammad Molla Department of Research and Development Natural State Research Inc. 37 Brown House Rd. Stamford CT 06902 msarker@naturalstateresearch.com
ABSTRACT The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization. Keywords: Hydrocarbon, Thermal, Plastic, Condensation, Fraction, Catalyst, Fuel, DSC, FTIR, GC/MS, ITRODUCTION The use of petroleum is worldwide, based on statistics the worldwide consumption of petroleum is nearly 82.4 million barrels per day [1], thats close to 30 billion barrels each year. Whereas, the production of petroleum is only 26 billion barrels per year in the producing nations [2]. Not all the countries in the world can produce petroleum because of their economic situation or limited sources but they still have the need for consumption. Out of the 195 countries in the world, there are only 40 countries that produce petroleum. Rest of the countries has to import their fuel, which can cause major economic complication for the country. Furthermore, emission released from burning petroleum causes a wide range of environmental and health problems. Emission include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHGs), these compounds are major contributors to global warming and other hazardous environmental problems. Hydrocarbon fuel derived from waste plastic has shown potential to overcome these issues the world faces today although, waste plastic can cause variety of environmental and health related problems, when solely landfilled. The presence of waste plastics in landfill can cause poor air quality because it is not biodegradable, it can remain in the landfill for hundred of years. Nearly 30 million tons of waste plastics are produced in the U.S alone [3]. According to an environmental research organization large sum of waste plastics end up in the ocean, killing up to one million sea creatures every year, when they mistake the plastic for food. Each year across the world 500 billion plastic bags are used and after while they are discarded in the landfill, since the waste plastic bags are very light weight, it can move about freely to block sewers and drain system. Plastic bags were banned in Bangladesh 2002 after they were considered to be major factors in blocking sewers and drains, which contributed to severe flooding that, devastated the country in 1988 and 1998 [4]. Waste plastics conversion into hydrocarbon fuel materials is a well known process. Many other process including Pyrolysis and catalytic degradation have been developed to De-polymerize waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Ozmotech (Australia) and Polymer Energy (Minnesota, USA) have developed several processes to convert waste plastics into fuels [5]. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has developed an innovative technology (patent pending process) that will remove these waste plastics from landfill and ocean. This technology can convert most types of waste plastic and convert them into liquid hydrocarbon fuel materials. This high quality fuel has the potential to overcome many economic and environmental problems. Many researches involving thermal degradation of waste plastics into liquid fuel have been conducted. Thermal degradations are not only used for polymer but it is also used for aromatics and gas [6-9]. Furthermore, some researches have been also conducted using catalytic degradation and pyrolysis resulting in successful outcomes [10-11].

PROCESS DESCRIPTION NSR process uses thermal degradation to heat the waste plastic to form liquid slurry in the presence of oxygen at a temperature ranging from 370 420 0 C without catalyst. Then the liquid slurry turns into gaseous vapor, that gaseous vapor is then condensed to produce the liquid hydrocarbon fuel titled NSR fuel. During the thermal cracking process the long chain hydrocarbon

polymers breakdown into shorter hydrocarbon chain polymers producing Alkane and Alkene compounds. These shorter chain polymers can be broken down even further through the method of fractional distillation. To further NSR fuel distillation, different specific temperatures are used to produce different category fuels. It should be noted that no foreign chemicals are used to carry out this process and the final product is filtered using a commercial fuel purifier that operate using coalescence and centrifugal force.

Process Diagram
13 7 12 6 11 5 10 2 3 4 9 14 15 16 17 18

Experiments conducted in a lab scale have been performed with majority of the waste plastic types: high density polyethylene (HDPE, code 2), low density polyethylene (LDPE, code 4), polypropylene (PP, code 5), and polystyrene (PS, code 6). The physical properties of the plastics are listed in figure 1. These plastic types were investigated singly and in combination with each other. In a laboratory scale, the weight of a single batch of input plastic for the fuel produc7tion process ranges from 250 grams to 4 kilograms. The waste plastics are collected, optionally sorted, cleaned of contamination or without cleaning and grinded into small pieces prior to the thermal liquefaction process. The end products consist of 95% of liquid hydrocarbon fuel 5% (C1-C4) (Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane) gases and 5% solid residue (figure 3). NSR will not discharge any waste or gasses into the environment. So, the light gasses will be captured and used for heating the plastics into fuel. The solid residue derives from the foreign additives used to make plastics. This residue can be used for road and roof carpeting. In the distillation process 5 different types of fuel are collected at 5 types of different temperature range. As explained in figure 2 the fractionated fuels are classified as NSR1, NSR-2, NSR-3, NSR-4 and NSR-5. NSR-1 will be collected at 40 50 0 C; NSR-2 will be from 110 - 120 0 C; NSR-3s range will be 180 190 0 C; NSR-4 ranges from 260 270 0 C and NSR-5 will be around 340 350 0 C. NSR will continue to conduct experiments with various temperature profiles until the perfect result is obtained. Plastic Name HDPE-2 LDPE-4 PP-5 PS-6 Density (g/cm3) 0.95 0.97 0.92 0.94 0.90 0.91 1.05 1.07 Melting Point ( C) 130 120 160 240
0

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Waste plastic Heating the Waste plastic Condensed Fuel 5th fraction column 4th fraction column 3rd fraction column 2nd fraction column 1st fraction column 5th fraction fuel collection 4th fraction fuel collection 3rd fraction fuel collection 2nd fraction fuel collection 1st fraction fuel collection purified 5th fractional fuel purified 4th fractional fuel purified 3rd fractional fuel purified 2nd fractional fuel purified 1st fractional fuel

Figure 2: NSR Fuel Production Process

Solid Residue 5% Light Gas (C1-C4) 5% NSR Fuel Light Gas (C1-C4) Solid Residue

NSR Fuel 90%

Figure 1: Physical properties of virgin plastics . Figure 3: Yield percentage of fuel from waste plastics with NSR technology.

FUEL CHARACTARIZATION

From FTIR analysis NSR can verify that NSR fuels functional groups are similar to the functional groups of NSR 1-5, also they have similarities in their spectrum arrangement, frequency number and spectrum appearance. NSR fuel (figure 5a) contains H Bonded NH, CH2, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, CH3, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol, CH=CH-(trans), -CH=CH2, C=CH2 and CH=CH-(cis) groups.
80.0

75

70

1st Fractional Fuel

65

60

1939.02 1853.61

55

50
1168.94

45

1821.24

40 %T 35

817.34 2669.78 1138.09

774.95

30

1295.14 1080.93

Figure 4: Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves of several fuels representing the onsets of the boiling points of the fraction fuels. Various tests have been performed to investigate the compositions of produced NSR fraction fuel. Differential scanning calorimeter tests have been performed for the fractionated fuels to verify their boiling point as shown in figure 4. According to the test NSR-1 has a boiling point of 82.00 0C which indicated similarities with gasoline; NSR-2 has a boiling point of 150.89 0C is related to the boiling point of Naphtha; NSR-3 boiling point indicates 236.09 0C resembling kerosene/aviation fuel and NSR-4 has a boiling point of 304.73 0C which is parallel to boiling point of diesel. As seen in the DSC graph, the boiling point of NSR-2 is higher than it is on the previous one. The same concept applies for NSR-3 and NSR-4 because the carbon chains are longer in the higher fraction fuels. Due to further fractionation, the longer carbon chains break down into shorter ones.
80.0 75

25
2732.37

1605.33 628.70

20

1030.44

15

10
965.30 1216.73 675.76

5
1495.99 728.40 993.17 1642.16 2921.04 1456.00 1378.54 909.69 888.42 694.80

3078.07

1720.48

-5.0 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0

Figure 5(b): FTIR spectra of 1st Fractional Fuel


80.0

75

70

2nd Fractional Fuel

65

60
2367.08 3649.20 2339.83 2312.79

55

50
1178.38

45
2669.39 1871.71 1717.20 1685.59

40 %T 35
2730.96 1743.30 1940.47 1816.96 1799.27 1155.82 1202.29 1106.86 839.44 631.96

30
1301.37 1333.80

25

20
1576.16

15
965.73

70
2027.24

NSR Fuel
2344.45

1081.94

10
1029.53

65

1641.16 1631.00 1604.49

1020.91

728.99

60
1719.65

0
3063.12 2933.39 1495.49 1460.04 1377.48 990.38 907.57 775.49 700.77

55
1821.52 674.30

-5.0 4000.0

3600

3200

2800

2400

2000

50
1138.13

1800 cm-1

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600.0

45
815.09 1076.34

40 %T 35
2671.42

Figure 5(c): FTIR spectra of 2nd Fractional Fuel


697.26 632.12

768.02

30

25
2730.84 1302.39

20

15

965.03

10
3077.54 1641.80

991.98

909.38

887.98 722.00

0
2925.08 1456.07 1377.79

-5.0 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0

Figure 5(a): FTIR spectra of NSR Fuel 3

80.0

75

70
2027.01 1868.05

3rd Fractional Fuel


2334.95 3619.52 1938.55

65

60
1820.48 1797.01

55

50

1713.72

45
1746.03

40 %T 35
2671.93 1604.11

1156.92 810.62 1076.06 632.37

30
2730.27

1029.94

25
1302.25

20

15
965.06 775.20

10
1495.75 991.72 3076.98 1641.59

888.50

721.81 698.09

0
1467.90 2929.07 1377.65 909.12

-5.0 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0

Figure 5(d): FTIR spectra of 3rd Fractional Fuel


80.0 75

H Bonded NH, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, CH2, CH3, Acetates, -CH=CH2, C= CH2 and -CH=CH-(cis), the 2nd Fractional Fuel (figure 5c) functional groups are =-C-H, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, Conjugated, CH2, CH3, Acetates, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol,-CH=CH2 and CH=CH-(cis), the 3rd Fractional Fuel (figure 5d) functional groups are Free OH, H Bonded NH, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, Conjugated, CH3, Acetates, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol, -CH=CH-(trans), -CH=CH2, C=CH2 and CH=CH-(cis), the 4th Fractional Fuel (figure 5e) functional groups are =C-H, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, Conjugated, CH2, CH3, Acetates, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol, -CH=CH-(Trans), -CH=CH2, C=CH2 and CH=CH-(cis) and the 5th Fractional Fuel (figure 5f) functional groups are C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, Conjugated, CH2. CH3, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol CH=CH-(Trans), C =CH2 and -CH=CH-(cis). NSR -1 has many repeated functional groups including H Bonded NH, CH2, C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, CH3, Secondary Cyclic Alcohol, CH=CH-(trans), -CH=CH2, C=CH2 and -CH=CH-(cis) groups; NSR-2s reiterates functional group includes C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, Conjugated, Acetates and -CH=CH-(cis) groups; NSR-3 repeated functional groups are C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, CH3 and -CH=CH-(cis) groups; NSR-4 repetition includes C-CH3, Non-Conjugated, CH3 and -CH=CH-(cis) groups and NSR-5 repeats C-CH3, and -CH=CH-(cis) groups. The reasons for these repetitions are that the same wave numbers keep appearing in the spectras.

70
2026.45

4th Fractional Fuel


1866.94 2334.80

65

60

1938.19 1797.37

55

50

45
1721.33

40
1201.40

815.71

%T 35
1641.33 1168.69 1081.67

30

2674.43 1604.09 1030.26

25

2730.18 1745.73 990.17

20
1303.09 965.09 889.16

15
775.18

10
3063.15

1495.76

908.18 742.29
1) Cyclopropane (C3H6) 2) 2-Butene, (E)- (C4H8) 3) Pentane (C5H12) 4) Pentane, 2-methyl-(C6H14) 5) 1-Pentene, 2-methyl- (C6H12) 6) Hexane (C6H14) 7) 1-Pentene, 2,4-dimethyl-(C7H14) 8) 1-Heptene (C7H14) 9) Heptane (C7H16) 10) Heptane, 4-methyl- (C8H18) 11) Toluene (C7H8) 12) 1-Octene (C8H16) 13) Octane (C8H18) 14) Heptane, 2,4-dimethyl- (C9H20) 15) 2,4-Dimethyl-1-heptene (C9H18) 16) Ethylbenzene (C8H10) 17) Styrene (C8H8) 18) Benzene, (1-methylethyl)- (C9H12) 19) -Methylstyrene (C9H10) 20) Decane (C10H22) 21) Nonane, 2,6-dimethyl- (C11H24) 22) Benzene, 1-propenyl- (C9H10) 23) Cyclooctane, 1,4-dimethyl-, trans- (C10H20) 24) Cyclopropane, 1-heptyl-2-methyl- (C11H22) 25) Undecane (C11H24) 26) 1-Dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl- (C15H32O) 27) 1-Dodecene (C12H24) 28) Dodecane (C12H26) 29) Decane, 2,3,5,8-tetramethyl- (C14H30) 30) 1-Tridecene (C13H26) 31) Tridecane (C13H28) 32) Isotridecanol- (C13H28O) 33) Benzene, heptyl- (C13H20) 34) 5-Tetradecene, (E)- (C14H28) 35) Tetradecane (C14H30) 36) Benzene, (3-octylundecyl)- (C25H44) 37) 1-Pentadecene (C15H30) 38) Pentadecane(C15H32) 39) Benzene, 1,1'-(3-methylbutylidene)bis- (C17H20) 40) 1-Hexadecene (C16H32) 41) Hexadecane (C16H34) 42) Benzene, 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis- (C15H16) 43) Heptadecane (C17H36) 44) Benzene, 1,1'-(2-butene-1,4-diyl)bis- (C16H16) 45) 3-Eicosene, (E)- (C20H40) 46) Nonadecane (C19H40) 47) 9-Nonadecene (C19H38) 48) Nonadecane (C19H40) 49) Eicosane (C20H42) 50) 2-Phenylnaphthalene (C16H12) 51) Heneicosane (C21H44) 52) Nonadecane (C19H40) 53 Benzene, hexadecyl- (C22H38) 54) Heptacosane (c27H56)

3027.13 1377.50 2917.31 1452.15 721.52 697.70

-5.0 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0

NSR Fuel

Figure 5(e): FTIR spectra of 4th Fractional Fuel

60.0

55

5th Fractional Fuel

50
991.95 1746.10 1641.30 1602.35 964.93 888.68

45
1302.50 908.97

40

35
1377.43 720.09

698.20

30 %T 25

Intensity (a.u.)
0

10

15

20

25

30

20
1464.70

Retention Time ( Minute)


Figure 6(a): Gas Chromatogram of NSR Fuel

15

10

2853.06

2923.45

-5.0 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0

Figure 5(f): FTIR spectra of 5th Fractional Fuel FTIR tests have been also performed to identify the characteristics of the NSR fraction fuels. NSR 1st Fractional Fuel (figure 5b) functional groups consist of 4

Figure 6(d): Gas Chromatogram of NSR 3rd fractional fuel


NSR-1 (1st Fractional Fuel)
1. 1-propene,2-methyl- (C4H8) 2. Butane (C4H10) 3. Cyclopropane,ethyl- (C5H10) 4. pentane (C5H12) 5. 2-pentene (C5H10) 6. 2-pentene,(E) (C5H10) 7. 1,3-pentadiene (C5H8) 8. Pentane,2-methyl (C6H14) 9. pentane,3-methyl (C6H14) 10. 3-hexene,(z)- (C6H12) 11. hexane (C6H14) 12. 1-pentene,3-methyl (C6H12) 13. cyclopentane,methyl- (C6H12) 14. 1-pentene,2,4-dimethyl (C7H14) 15. Cyclopentene,1-methyl (C6H10) 16. benzene (C6H6) 17. cyclohexane (C6H12) 18. hexane,3-methyl (C7H16) 19. cyclohexene (C6H10) 20. 1-hexene,2-methyl-(C7H14) 21. 1-heptane (C7H14) 22. heptahe (C7H16) 23. 1,4-hexadiene,4-methyl- (C7H12) 24. 2-heptene (C7H14) 25. cyclopropane,trimethylmethylene- (C7H12) 26. 1,4-heptadiene (C7H12) 27. cyclohexane,methyl- (C7H14) 28. cyclopentane,ethyl- (C7H14) 29. cyclobutane,(1-methylethylidene)- (C7H12) 30. 1-ethylcyclopentene (C7H12) 31. toluene (C7H8) 32. cyclohexene,1-methyl- (C7H12) 33. 1-octene (C8H16) 34. octane (C8H18) 35. 3-octene,(z)- (C8H16) 36. 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptene (C9H18) 37. ethylbenzene (C8H10) 38. 1-nonane (C9H18) 39. styrene (C8H8) 40. nonane (C9H20) 41. benzene,(1-methylethyl)- (C9H12)

NSR- 4 (4th Fractional Fuel)


1) Pentane (C5H12) 2) 1-Pentene, 2-methyl- (C6H12) 3) Heptane, 4-methyl- (C8H18) 4) Toluene (C7H8) 5) 2,4-Dimethyl-1-heptene (C9H18) 6) Ethylbenzene (C8H10) 7) Styrene (C8H8) 8) -Methylstyrene (C9H10) 9) Cyclooctane, 1,4-dimethyl-, trans- (C10H20) 10) 3-Dodecene, (E)- (C12H24) 11) 1-Tridecene (C13H26) 12) Tridecane (C13H28) 13) E-14-Hexadecenal(C16H30 O) 14) 4-Tetradecene, (E)- (C14H28) 15) Tetradecane (C14H30) 16) 7-Hexadecenal, (Z)- (C16H30 O) 17) 1-Pentadecene (C15H30) 18) Pentadecane (C15H32) 19) 1-Nonadecanol(C19H40 O) 20) 1-Hexadecene (C16H32) 21) Hexadecane (C16H34) 22) Cyclohexadecane (C16H32) 23) Benzene, 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis- (C15H16) 24) Heptadecane (C17H36) 25) 1-Nonadecanol(C19H40 O) 26) Octadecane (C18H38) 27) Nonadecane (C19H40) 28) 1-Docosanol(C22H46O) 29) Eicosane (C20H42) 30) Heneicosane (C21H44) 31) Octacosane (C28H58)

Intensity (a.u.)

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Retention Time (Minute)

Figure 6(b): Gas Chromatogram of NSR 1st fractional fuel

Intensity (a.u.)
0

10

20

30

40

Retention Time (Minute)


Figure 6(e): Gas Chromatogram of NSR 4th fractional fuel

NSR-2 (2nd fractional fuel)


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Retention Time (M inute)

Figure 6(c): Gas Chromatogram of NSR 2nd fractional fuel


NSR-3 (3rd Fractional Fuel)
1) Ethylbenzene (C8H10) 2) Styrene (C8H8) 3) Benzene, (1-methylethyl)- (C9H12) 4) Nonane, 4-methyl- (C10H22) 5) -Methylstyrene (C9H10) 6) 1-Decene (C10H20) 7) Decane (C10H22) 8) Nonane, 2,6-dimethyl- (C11H24) 9) 1,3-Methanopentalene, 1,2,3,5-tetrahydro- (C9H10) 10) 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)- (C10H16 O) 11) Cyclooctane, 1,4-dimethyl-, trans- (C10H20) 12) Cyclooctane, 1,4-dimethyl-, trans- (C10H20) 13) 1-Tridecene (C13H26) 14) Undecane (C11H24) 15) 2,4-Pentadien-1-ol, 3-pentyl-, (2Z)- (C10H18 O) 16) 1-Dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl- (C15H32 O) 17) 2,4,6-Trimethylcyclohexyl) methanol(C10H20 O) 18) 1-Isopropyl-1,4,5-trimethylcyclohexane (C12H24) 19) 1-Dodecene (C12H24) 20) Dodecane (C12H26) 21) 1-Nonadecanol (C19H40 O) 22) 1-Tridecene (C13H26) 23) Tridecane (C13H28) 24) E-14-Hexadecenal (C16H30 O) 25) 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1-heptanol (C11H24 O) 26) 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1-heptanol (C11H24 O) 27) 1,19-Eicosadiene (C20H38) 28) 1-Tetradecene (C14H28) 29) Tetradecane (C14H30) 30) 1-Pentadecene (C15H30) 31) Pentadecane (C15H32) 32) Hexadecane (C16H34) 33) Heptadecane(C17H36) 34) 1-Nonadecene (C19H38) 35) Octadecane (C18H38) 36) 1-Nonadecene (C19H38) 37) Nonadecane (C19H40)

Intensity (a.u.)

1. 1-hexene (C6H12) 2. hexane (C6H14) 3. 1-heptene (C7H14) 4. heptane (c7H16) 5. toluene (C7H8) 6. 3,4-heptadiene (C7H12) 7. 1-octene (C8H16) 8. octane (C8H18) 9. 2,4-dim ethyl-1-heptene (C9H18) 10. ethylbenzene (C8H10) 11. 1-nonene (C9H18) 12.styrene (C 8H 8) 13. 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (C8H8) 14. nonane (C9H20) 15. benzene,(1-m ethylethyl)- (C9H12) 16. cyclopentane-butyl- (C9H8) 17. benzene,propyl (C9H12) 18. a-m ethylsyrene (C9H10) 19. 1-decene (C10H20) 20. decane (C10H22) 21. octane,3,5-dim ethyl- (C10H22) 22. lim onene (C10H16) 23. 2-pentadecynl-1-ol (C 15H28O) 24. cyclopropane,1-heptyl-2-m ethyl- (C11H22) 25. undecane (C11H 24) 26. 1-dodecene (C12H24) 27. dodecane (C12H26) 28. tridecane (C13H28) 29. Tetradecdane (C14H30)

Intensity (a.u.)

NSR-5 (5th Fractional Fuel)


1) 1-Propene, 2-methyl- (C4H8) 2) Pentane (C5H12) 3)1-Pentene, 2-methyl- (C6H12) 4) Hexane (C6H14) 5) Heptane (C7H16) 6) Toluene (C7H8) 7) Octane (C8H18) 8) 2,4-Dimethyl-1-heptene (C9H18) 9) Ethylbenzene (C8H10) 10) Styrene (C8H8) 11) Nonane (C9H20) 12) -Methylstyrene (C9H10) 13) Decane (C10H22) 14) Undecane (C11H24) 15) Dodecane (C12H26) 16) Tridecane (C13H28) 17) Tetradecane (C14H30) 18) Pentadecane (C15H32) 19) Hexadecane (C16H34) 20) Benzene, 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis- (C15H16) 21) Heptadecane (C17H36) 22) 1-Nonadecanol (C19H40 O) 23) Octadecane (C18H38) 24) 1-Hexadecanol, 2-methyl- (C17H36 O) 25) Nonadecane (C19H40) 26) Eicosane (C20H42) 27) Heneicosane (C21H44) 28) Tetracosane(C24H50) 29) Heptacosane (C27H56)

10

20

30

40

Retention Time (Minute)

Intensity (a.u.)

Figure 6(f): Gas Chromatogram of NSR 5th fractional fuel The Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectra GC / MS were used to identify the fractionated fuels properties. Figure 6(a) to 6(e) show gas chromatograms of the fuels in carbon chain length and the compounds verified by peak intensity. A hydrocarbon chain length of (C3-C27) is present in the NSR fuel with a retention time ranging from 2 min to 27 minute. After fractionating the NSR fuel, hydrocarbon chain are broken down into shorter ones because different temperature is used for each of the 5

10

20

30

40

50

Retention Time (Minute)

fuels. NSR-1 hydrocarbon chain ranges from (C4-C9); NSR-2 has (C6-C14); NSR-3 contains (C8-C19); NSR-4 has (C4-C28) and NSR-5 ranges from (C4-C27). These data indicates that the NSR fuels have a wide range of hydrocarbon groups resulting in a higher thermal content. The thermal content allows the fuel to burn for a longer period, resulting in efficiency when used in compatible engines. Results obtained from Elemental Analyzer (EA) 2400 indicates NSR fuel contains 86.44% carbon and 13.96% hydrogen. The average of the fractionated fuels contains 86.00% carbon and 13.00% hydrogen. Empirical formula indicates that all NSR fuels carbon and hydrogen ratio is 1:2. There will be more tests that are going to be rigorously performed according to the ASTM methods in the near future. Also at NSR further modifications of to the current process is being conducted to fine tune the produced fuel to match the quality of commercial grade fuels. FUEL TEST Octane ratings of the produces fuels:

Produced Fuel yield % comparison between NSR and other process: Company NSR Polyflow Corp. Envion Process Thermal degradation Recycling Low temp. thermal cracking Pyrolysis Yield % 90 70 62

Envis Cynar PLC

75

Fuel Flame Test: Experiments conducted in NSR lab showed that 2 ml of NSR fuel can burn for about 5 minutes; also emission released from burning of the NSR fuel contains very low concentration of benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene, and naphthalene and contains no traces of sulfur.

1.6

Kilowatt consumption (output)

A recent third party test Conducted by INTERTEK New Jersey, shows that NSR-1 fuel has a research Octane number (ASTM D-2699) of 79.2, motor Octane number (ASTM D-2700) of 72.6 and average Octane number (ASTM D-4814) of 75.9 compared to Commercial Gasoline Octane number of 87, 89 and 93.The NSR-1 fuel has lower Octane ratings because it contains no fuel additives (Octane booster). Density Measurements: The densities of the fuels were measured using the Portable Density Meter, Densito 30PX. Produced NSR fuel density is as follows: NSR fuel density 0.78 g/ml The fractionated fuel densities are as follows: NSR 1: NSR-1 has a density of 0.72 g/ml similar to Gasoline. NSR 2: NSR-2 has a density of 0.79 g/ml similar to Naphtha. NSR 3: NSR-3 has a density of 0.80 g/ml, which very close to Kerosene/Aviation fuel. NSR 4: NSR-4 has a density of 0.82 g/ml this is identified as Diesel. NSR 5: NSR-5 has a density of 0.84 g/ml which is related to Fuel oil.

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0

NSR 1st Fractional Fuel Gasoline

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Time (seconds)

Figure 7: Comparison graph of NSR-1 and Gasoline kilowatt output consumption using gasoline generator. Since the claim is, NSR-1 has similar properties as Gasoline; the NSR-1 fuel was used in a gasoline based generator to test its capabilities. Both NSR-1 and Gasoline were injected into the gasoline generator one after the other to compare the kilowatt output of the two. The results showed a significantly higher kilowatt output from NSR-1 than Gasoline.

Waste Plastic

NSR Technology

Fuel

Generator Combustion Engine

Electricity

The author acknowledges the support of Dr.Karin Kaufman, the founder and sole owner of Natural State Research, Inc (NSR). The author also acknowledges the valuable contributions NSR laboratory team members ASM Din Mohammad, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Ashiquz Zaman, Aminul Kabir, Sadikur Rahman, Mohammad Molla and Md. Kamrul Islam. Technical suggestions made by Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Dr. Richard Parnas & Dr. Sabir Majumder during the preparation of this manuscript. REFERENCES 1. Fossil Fuel Use Surges, Vital Signs 2005, pp. 30 -31, Figures 1,2 and 3; Air Pollution Still a Problem, Vital Signs 2005, pp. 94 95, Table 1; Climate Change indicators on the rise, Vital Signs 2005, pp. 40 41, Figure 1 and 3) http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1811 2. U.S. Energy Information Administration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/petroleum 3. Waste plastic facts http://www.bostonpost.com 4. The Great Plastic Bag Plague - Environment AlterNet http://www.alternet.org/enviroment/61607/ 5. http://www.ozmotech.com.au http://www.polymerenergy.com 6. N. Miskolczia*, L. Barthaa, G. Deka, B. Jverb Thermal degradation of municipal plastic waste for production of fuel-like hydrocarbons. a Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, University of Veszprm, Egyetem St. 10, Veszprm, H-8200, Hungary b MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc, R&D, POB. I, Szazhalombatta, H-2442, Hungary, 14 April 2004 ;357366. 7. Takehiko Moriya a,*, Heiji Enomoto b Characteristics of polyethylene cracking in supercritical water compared to thermal cracking. a Tohoku Electric Power Co., Research and Development Center, 7-2-1 Nakayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-0952, Japan b Tohoku University, Department of Geoscience and Technology, Sendai 980-8759, Japan, 2 March 1999; 373-386. 8. Katsuhide Murata a, Y. Hiranoa, Y.Sakatab and Md. Azhar Uddinb. Basic study on a continuous flow reactor for thermal degradation of polymers. a Chiba Laboratory, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Ichihara-City, Chiba 290-8601, Japan b Department of Applied Chemistry, Okayama University, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530, Japan, 17 September 2002; Volume 65, Issue 1, October 2002 pages 71-90. 9. W. Kaminsky, B. Schlesselmann & C.M. Simon. Thermal degradation of mixed plastic waste to aromatics and gas. University of Hamburg, Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, BudesstraBe 45, D20146 Hamburg, Germany, 2 January; 189-197. 10. Naresh Shah, Jeff Rockwell, and Gerald P. Huffman*. Conversion of Waste Plastic to Oil: Direct Liquefaction versus Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing. CFFLS, 533 S. Limestone St., University of Kentucky, 7

National Grid

Figure 8: Waste plastic conversion to fuel using NSR technology to meet everyday energy demand all over the World. Figure 8 shows, through the use of NSR technology most types of waste plastics are converted into NSR fuel. This fuel can be used to run any generators gasoline/diesel and all types internal combustion engines such as cars, trucks etc. Electricity generated from the fuel can also be used to produce the NSR fuel, which will greatly reduce the cost of fuel production, and the leftover electricity can be provided to the National/City Grid to increase revenue.

Fuel Name NSR Fuel NSR-1 NSR-2 NSR-3 NSR-4 NSR-5

Color Light yellow Light yellow Light yellow Yellow Dark yellow Saddle brown

Appearance Slightly transparent, wax content Fully transparent, no wax Transparent, no wax Somewhat transparent and wax Barely transparent, wax present Not transparent, contains wax

Figure 9: Physical property of the NSR and the fractionated fuels. CONCLUSION As mentioned above, the fraction fuels are obtained at certain temperature, NSR still has the option produce the fuels under different temperature and see if better results are obtainable from the previous temperature profile. Through the use of GC/MS FTIR and DSC we can assure the identification, accuracy of the fuel to meet the standard requirements for commercialization of the NSR fuel. The NSR fuel has a vey high potential to overcome the current demands but many further testings required for the fuel to be available to the public. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0043, November 4, 1998; 832-838. 11. M. Mehdi Taghiei, Zhen Feng, Frank E. Huggins, and Gerald P. Huffman*. Coliquefaction of Waste Plastics with Coal. Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science, 341 Bowman hall, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0059, March 28, 1994; 1228-1232.

CONTACT Moinuddin Sarker, Ph.D., MCIC Vice President (R&D) Natural State Research, Inc. 37 Brown House Road, 2nd floor Stamford, CT 06902 Phone: (203) 406- 0675 Fax: (203) 406-9852 msarker@naturalstateresearch.com www.naturalstateresearch.com