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抄紙機概要

各種紙機之介紹及操作

Paper technology program for Taiwan TAPPI

CG Kiang

2010 04 27 Taichung, Taiwan

Paper mill

Paper mill 2010 04/CGK 2

Paper machine in the stone age

Paper machine in the stone age 2010 04/CGK 3

造紙技術

造紙技術即是:

‧如何控制脫水、壓榨及乾燥

‧了解和應用纖維的腱結合能力及其他的物理性

造紙技術

造紙的製程技術:

混合 : 漿料是由紙機本身的白水稀釋到0.2-1.5%的濃度, 充份的與濕端化學藥品混合 成型 : 漿料分佈到可分離水的網面上,水和纖維分離,紙

幅即成型;紙幅的濃度達到2%左右

脫水 : 在網的下面升高真空度來抽吸水份,增加紙幅脫

水,達到約20%的程度

壓榨 : 離開網部後,紙幅的水份由壓榨方式降到60%-50% 乾燥 : 使固型物從40%-50%提升到90%-95%在乾燥的製程 中,存在於纖維間及纖維中心的水份,是由蒸發的

方式所完成

Paper machine in 1884

Paper machine in 1884 2010 04/CGK 6

Paper machine in 2000’s

Paper machine in 2000’s 2010 04/CGK 7

Paper machine in 2000’s

Dry End

Paper machine in 2000’s Dry End 2010 04/CGK 8

紙機的組成

基本上所有的紙機都由下列部門組成

‧濕端:水由單一或多組網組成的成形網區脫離,

使固形物達到約20%

‧ 壓部:由連續式的壓榨方式將紙幅的固形物提高到

40-50%

‧ 乾燥:利用與週邊大氣平衡的蒸發方式,使固形物提

升到90%-95%

Paper machine

Sections

Formation section Press section Dryer section Head box
Formation section
Press section
Dryer section
Head box

Paper machine

Dewatering – wet end

Headbox cons. Couching 0.30-0.50% cons. 8-10% 0 0 Headbox cons. 0.50-0.70% Couching cons. 8-10% Couching
Headbox cons.
Couching
0.30-0.50%
cons. 8-10%
0
0
Headbox
cons. 0.50-0.70%
Couching
cons. 8-10%
Couching
cons. 8-10%
0
0
Dryness
24-26%
Forming board
Foilbox
Low vacuum foilbox
High vacuum foilbox
Flat suction box
High vacuum foilbox
Low vacuum foilbox
Flat suction
box
Flat suction
Sheet transfer
box
box
Sheet transfer
Foilbox
Forming board
box
Flat suction box
Flat suction box

Paper machine

Dewatering - press

up to 50 % consistency ~ 34-36% consistency ~ 38-40% consistency ~ 30% consistency
up to 50 % consistency
~ 34-36% consistency
~ 38-40% consistency
~ 30% consistency

~ 20-25% consistency

to 50 % consistency ~ 34-36% consistency ~ 38-40% consistency ~ 30% consistency ~ 20-25% consistency

Paper machine

Drying

8 12% moisture content

~ 50 % consistency

Paper machine Drying 8 – 1 2 % moisture content ~ 50 % consistency 2010 04/CGK
Paper machine Drying 8 – 1 2 % moisture content ~ 50 % consistency 2010 04/CGK
Paper machine Drying 8 – 1 2 % moisture content ~ 50 % consistency 2010 04/CGK

Paper machine

Main types

The following main types of paper machines are significant today :

- Fourdrinier machines

- Combination machines

- In vat machines ( cylinder machine )

- Tissue paper machines

- Board machines

- Twinwire machines

長網機 ( Fourdriner Machine )

長網機 ( Fourdriner Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 15

Paper machine

Fourdrinier machine development

Paper machine Fourdrinier machine development 2010 04/CGK 16
Paper machine Fourdrinier machine development 2010 04/CGK 16
Paper machine Fourdrinier machine development 2010 04/CGK 16

Paper machine

Combination machine – folding boxboard machine

Paper machine Combination machine – folding boxboard machine 2010 04/CGK 17

綜合機 ( Combination Machine )

綜合機 ( Combination Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 18

Paper machine

MG dryer – Yankee dryer

Paper machine MG dryer – Yankee dryer 2010 04/CGK 19

Paper machine

MG dryer – Yankee dryer

Paper machine MG dryer – Yankee dryer 2010 04/CGK 20

Paper machine

MG dryer – Yankee dryer

Purposes of use

Wrapping paper machines

• MG-gloss as a target for the sake of appearance

• Usually combined machines owing to capacity

Multi-layer board machines

• The Yankee dryer is used not only to gain gloss, but also to gain smoothness without losing bulk (stiffness).

• It is difficult to perform a sufficient amount of drying using the Yankee dryer

Crêpe paper machines

• MG-gloss is not set as a target.

• The Yankee cylinder drying efficiency may become a bottleneck for the production

Paper machine

MG dryer – Yankee dryer

Effect of the MG cylinder drying on board surface

dryer Effect of the MG cylinder drying on board surface Surface prior to MG cylinder Surface

Surface prior to MG cylinder

Surface after MG cylinder

圓網機 In vat cylinder machine – direct flow

VACUUM

BOXES

COUCH ROLL SHOWER TO DRIERS COUCH ROLL PRESS ROLLS
COUCH ROLL
SHOWER
TO
DRIERS
COUCH ROLL
PRESS ROLLS

WHITE WATER DISCHARGED THROUGH CENTER

圓網機 In vat cylinder machine – contra flow

VACUUM BOXES COUCH ROLL TO DRIERS SHOWER COUCH ROLL PRESS ROLLS
VACUUM
BOXES
COUCH ROLL
TO
DRIERS
SHOWER
COUCH ROLL
PRESS ROLLS

WHITE WATER DISCHARGED THROUGH CENTER

圓網機 In vat cylinder machine

Multi-layer board machine

Couch roll

Suction box
Suction box
In vat cylinder machine Multi-layer board machine Couch roll Suction box Forming cylinder Shower water 2010
Forming cylinder
Forming cylinder

Shower

water

家庭用紙機 ( Tissue Paper Machine )

家庭用紙機 ( Tissue Paper Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 26

紙板機 ( Board Machine )

紙板機 ( Board Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 27
紙板機 ( Board Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 27
紙板機 ( Board Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 27

雙網機 ( Twinwire Machine )

雙網機 ( Twinwire Machine ) 2010 04/CGK 28

Paper machine

Twinwire machine

Paper machine Twinwire machine 2010 04/CGK 29

Paper machine

Board machine

Paper machine Board machine Fourdrinier and secondary gap forming unit 2010 04/CGK 30

Fourdrinier and secondary gap forming unit

Paper machine

Board machine

Paper machine Board machine Primary gap forming unit and on-top fourdrinier 2010 04/CGK 31

Primary gap forming unit and on-top fourdrinier

Paper machine

Board machine

Paper machine Board machine 2-Ply gap forming section 2010 04/CGK 32

2-Ply gap forming section

Raw materials and their effect on final product

• Recycled fiber

– Less bulky

– Lower brightness

– Lower tensile

– High fines content => slow drainage

• Virgin fiber

– bulky and high brightness

– good tensile

– fast drainage

=> slow drainage • Virgin fiber – bulky and high brightness – good tensile – fast
=> slow drainage • Virgin fiber – bulky and high brightness – good tensile – fast
=> slow drainage • Virgin fiber – bulky and high brightness – good tensile – fast

Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section

Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming
Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming
Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming
Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming
Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming
Three-, Four- or Five ply forming section 3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board 4-layer forming

3-layer forming Scandinavian type Folding box board

4-layer forming high quality WLC

5-layer forming high quality and versatile concept

Linerboard structure

Linerboard structure • Top ply: • Undertop ply: • Back ply: UKP, OCC OCC, Mixed waste,

• Top ply:

• Undertop ply:

• Back ply:

UKP, OCC OCC, Mixed waste, Broke OCC

Linerboard structure • Top ply: • Undertop ply: • Back ply: UKP, OCC OCC, Mixed waste,

Two layer headbox producing containerboard

European OCC and mixed waste

2-layer forming
2-layer
forming
Two layer headbox producing containerboard European OCC and mixed waste 2-layer forming 2010 04/CGK 36
Two layer headbox producing containerboard European OCC and mixed waste 2-layer forming 2010 04/CGK 36
Two layer headbox producing containerboard European OCC and mixed waste 2-layer forming 2010 04/CGK 36

Paper machine

Headbox

The headbox has four main functions :

1. To spread the stock flow across the entire width of the wire

2. To maintain a turbulence in the stock to prevent formation of fiber flock

3. To remove temporal and spatial flow disturbances that may cause basis weight variations

4. To produce a stock flow of desired consistency, speed and direction to the wire

Paper machine

Headbox

The traditional headbox is formed of the following components :

- Inlet header

- Headbox with rectifier rolls and air cushion

- Slice with top slice and apron

Paper machine

Headbox

Paper machine Headbox 2010 04/CGK 39

Headbox

Inlet header – conic pipes

The shape of the inlet header is to optimized to distribute the stock evenly across the width of the machine, especially uniform distribution for all flow rates not only for headbox design flow rate

Electropolished for all flow surfaces is must

for all flow rates not only for headbox design flow rate Electropolished for all flow surfaces

Headbox

Inlet header – tapered right angle ducts

Headbox Inlet header – tapered right angle ducts 2010 04/CGK 41

Headbox

Box – rectifier rolls

Headbox Box – rectifier rolls Tampella rectifier roll headbox 2010 04/CGK 42

Tampella rectifier roll headbox

Headbox

Box – rectifier rolls

Stock flows in headbox with rotating and stationary rolls

Headbox Box – rectifier rolls Stock flows in headbox with ro tating and stationary rolls 2010
Headbox Box – rectifier rolls Stock flows in headbox with ro tating and stationary rolls 2010
Headbox Box – rectifier rolls Stock flows in headbox with ro tating and stationary rolls 2010

Headbox

Box – rectifier rolls

Headbox Box – rectifier rolls Accumulation of fibers in a rectifier roll 2010 04/CGK 44

Accumulation of fibers in a rectifier roll

Headbox

Box – rectifier rolls The rectifier rolls has many disadvantages :

1. A great part of the flow passes in between the rectifier rolls and is therefore not mixed

2. Influence of the inlet header on the flow on such a way that vortexes are formed inside and between the rolls. Since these vortexes are not identical across the entire width of the headbox, they cause severe disturbances in the flow

3. The rectifier rolls is the occasional piling of fibers on the surfaces between the holes or on the edges, when flushed away, they end up as hard fiber lumps in the paper

4. Paper quality can be decisively influenced by such factors as the openness of roll, hole size and location of the rectifier roll which located closest by the headbox outlet. As the machine speed increased, it is the roll that usually cause a problem

Headbox

Box – rectifier rolls

The rectifier rolls are necessary in every headbox for the following reasons :

1. The rectifier rolls even out the flow speed in the cross direction of headbox and stabilize the flow

2. The rectifier rolls evoke turbulence in the entire headbox. It helps disperses fiber lumps so that in the outflowing mixture, the fibers are evenly distributed in the water

Headbox

Box – air cushion

On open headbox, the ratio between surface level “ h “ ( cm ) and outflowing speed “ V “ ( m/min )

:

h = V 2 / 700

V
V

h

V = 300 m/min ; h = 125 cm

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion Valmet air cushion headbox 2010 04/CGK 48

Valmet air cushion headbox

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion Air cushion headbox 2010 04/CGK 49

Air cushion headbox

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion 2010 04/CGK 50

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion 2010 04/CGK 51

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion • Pulsation dampening located close • to slice without a compromise
•

Pulsation dampening located close

•

to slice without a compromise Dampens both dilution and main

•

flows Continuous flow from stilling

•

chamber to overflow No back flow or build-ups to main flow

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion 2010 04/CGK 53

Headbox

Box – air cushion

Headbox Box – air cushion 2010 04/CGK 54

Headbox

Box – attenuator

Attenuator which incorporates headbox for dampening of pressure pulsations

2010 04/CGK

55

Headbox Box – attenuator Attenuator which incorporates headbox for dampening of pressure pulsations 2010 04/CGK 55

Headbox

Box – attenuator dampen pressure pulsation

Headbox Box – attenuator dampen pressure pulsation Prior to headbox After headbox 2010 04/CGK 56

Prior to headbox

After headbox

Headbox

Slice

Headbox Slice 2010 04/CGK 57

Headbox

Slice

Headbox Slice 2010 04/CGK 58
Headbox Slice 2010 04/CGK 58
Headbox Slice 2010 04/CGK 58

Headbox

Slice

0.79 in 20 mm max -2 in max -50 mm min 0 in min 0
0.79 in
20 mm
max -2 in
max -50 mm
min
0 in
min
0 mm
O of breast roll
ni2.±ni4.
mm5±mm01
]ni6[mm051xam

Headbox

High turbulence headbox

Headbox High turbulence headbox 2010 04/CGK 60

Headbox

High turbulence headbox

•

Pressure loss to :

– Create micro turbulence

– Uniform CD flow distribution (profiles and fiber orientation)

– Improve pulsation dampening for MD variation control

distribution (profiles and fiber orientation) – Improve pulsation dampening for MD variation control 2010 04/CGK 61

Headbox

High turbulence headbox

Low large scale turbulenceHeadbox High turbulence headbox low random basis weight variation good stability Turbulence level fine tuning with

low random basis weight variation

good stability

Turbulence level fine tuning with turbulence sheets turbulence sheets

smooth flow geometry from round to rectangular Fluidization in circular enlargement
smooth flow geometry
from round to rectangular
Fluidization in
circular enlargement

Headbox

High turbulence headbox

m/s f/s
m/s
f/s

Headbox

High turbulence headbox - multilayer

Headbox High turbulence headbox - multilayer 2010 04/CGK 64

Headbox

High turbulence headbox - multilayer

MultilayerMultilayer separationseparation byby vanesvanes
MultilayerMultilayer separationseparation byby vanesvanes

Formation of sheet

Flow monitoring in short circulation

Variations in the flow speed, consistency or in the properties of the

stock – temporal or across the headbox - lead to grammage variations,

poor sheet formation and many other difficulties.

The problems can often be localized in the short circulation or drive unit

and may often lead to change of headbox

If the fiber form large flocks in the slice section, it is difficult to correct later in the process.

If the flow is too turbulent on the other side, it tears the earlier formed sheet off and makes the paper cloudy although the fibers are relatively well distributed

Formation of sheet

Flow monitoring in short circulation

One-sidedness means a difference in the formation, filler content or fiber orientation between the top and bottom sides of paper sheet

One-sidedness is determined e.g. by the impingement angle of the stock jet and the wire. The angle is set by shifting the top slice in the

horizontal direction.

Formation of sheet

Paper formation measurement by small scale beta absorption

Formation of sheet Paper formation measurement by small scale beta absorption 2010 04/CGK 68

Formation of sheet

Formation analyzer measuring principle

Formation of sheet Formation analyzer measuring principle 2010 04/CGK 69

machine direction

machine direction

machine direction

Formation of sheet

Formation - what are variations

CD

profile
profile
profile
profile

MD

Residual variations

are variations CD profile profile MD Residual variations “ Paper sheet is a measure and an

“ Paper sheet is a measure and an image of pressure and flow conditions “

Machine direction
Machine direction
“ Paper sheet is a measure and an image of pressure and flow conditions “ Machine

machine direction

machine direction

machine direction

Formation of sheet

Formation - typical variations in paper

Formation of sheet Formation - t ypical variations in paper CD MD RES CD profile depends

CD

MD

of sheet Formation - t ypical variations in paper CD MD RES CD profile depends on

RES

of sheet Formation - t ypical variations in paper CD MD RES CD profile depends on

CD profile depends on performance of profiling

actuators of headbox and other sections in PM.

(usually 0,3 - 0,6 % from average)

MD variations come from variations in raw material and

chemical aid supplies, consistency and pressure controls.

Fast (20

example piping, fan pump, machine screen. Note: pulsation can appear also at frequency-multipliers (0,1 - 1,5 % from average)

30

Hz) MD-variations come from pulsation for

Unsystematical variations come from incomplete mixing in approach system and from unstable drainage process. (0,6 - 2,5 % from average)

Paper structure engineering

Paper structure engineering 2010 04/CGK 72

紙張的成形 ( Forming )

紙層的形成方法,基本上分 :

‧長網成形機(Fourdriner machine) ‧圓網成形機(Cylinder machine)

長網成形機 ( Fourdriner machine )

長網成形機 ( Fourdriner machine ) 2010 04/CGK 74

短網成形機

Beloit公司的Bel-Bond

優點: 紙品 操作性能:
優點:
紙品
操作性能:

I.水及微細微維移動良好,可得到更好

的交織(formation)

II.高脫水能力,可得到高產能

III.較好的層接著強度,可製成優良的

抄速610m/min

基重150g/m 2 脫水能力45 ton/min/cm

短網成形機

Beloit公司的Bel-Bond

短網成形機 Beloit 公司的 Bel-Bond 2010 04/CGK 76

短網成形機

CEDECO公司Pond旋轉成形機

短網成形機 CEDECO 公司 : Pond 旋轉成形機 優點 : I. 構造簡單,成本低 II.

優點

I.構造簡單,成本低

II.不用真空泵,能耗低

III.可調整纖維走向,提高交

織効果

IV.上網亦有脫水,相對纖維

保留率較高

運轉性能車速700 m/min 基重20-90 g/m 2

短網成形機

Escher Wyss公司上網成形機(Top Former)

Escher Wyss 公司 : 上網成形機 (Top Former) 優點 : I. 可調整 MD/CD 比值在 2 : 1

優點

I.可調整MD/CD比值在2151

II.很好的層間結合

III.橫向基重變化小

運轉性能: 抄速 : 單網400 m/min 基重 :單網 25-60 g/m 2

短網成形機

Escher Wyss公司短雙網成形機(Short Top Former)

Escher Wyss 公司 : 短雙網成形機 (Short Top Former) 運轉性能 : 雙網設計可利用高濃度抄造,

運轉性能

雙網設計可利用高濃度抄造,

得到較好的嵩度及更高的基重

抄速 : 40-750 m/min 基重 25-350 g/m 2

短網成形機

Kobayashi公司Ultra成形機

短網成形機 Kobayashi 公司 : Ultra 成形機 優點 : I. 可得到好的交織 II.

優點

I.可得到好的交織

II.好的層間結合及印刷適性

運轉性能抄速500 m/min 基重40-100g/m 2

短網成形機

Kobayashi公司Success成形機

短網成形機 Kobayashi 公司 : Success 成形機 運轉性能 : 抄速 : 700 m/min 基重 : 40-100g/m 2

運轉性能

抄速700 m/min 基重40-100g/m 2

短網成形機

Voith公司:簡潔網成形機(Compact Wire Former)

Voith 公司 : 簡潔網成形機 (Compact Wire Former) 較短長網附有獨立, 可調節的吸引箱,

較短長網附有獨立,

可調節的吸引箱,

增加脫水能力

運轉性能 :

抄速可達到 : 700 m/min 基重30-220 g/m 2

短網成形機

Voith公司:簡潔網成形機(Compact Wire Former)

Voith 公司 : 簡潔網成形機 (Compact Wire Former) 階梯式的成形機組 為利用數組簡潔網組成,

階梯式的成形機組

為利用數組簡潔網組成,

可由長網於獲取得圓網機的優點

運轉性能抄速80-600 m/min 基重80-400 g/m 2

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine )

順流式圓網成形機

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine ) 順流式圓網成形機 2010 04/CGK 84

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine )

逆流式圓網成形機

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine ) 逆流式圓網成形機 2010 04/CGK 85

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine )

抄造結果:

順流式圓網機可以得到較好的交織,但因為上網量(基重)

較低,嵩度也低

逆流式圓網機則可得到較高的上網量,但是交織與強度都

較差,而嵩度反而更高

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine )

圓網成形機 ( Cylinder machine ) 2010 04/CGK 87

圓網成形機

Escher Wyss公司:鞋式成形機(Pad Former)

Escher Wyss 公司:鞋式成形機 (Pad Former) 優點 : I. 提升圓網機的抄造車速 II.

優點

I.提升圓網機的抄造車速

II.抗張強度可在21/51調整

III.良好層間結合

IV.横向基重差異小(2%)

運轉性能抄速150 m/min(有真空成形) 基重25-110 g/m 2

圓網成形機

Tampella公司;真空成形機

圓網成形機 Tampella 公司;真空成形機 優點 : 可提升圓網機的車速範圍 50-350 m/min 基重 :

優點

可提升圓網機的車速範圍 50-350 m/min 基重20-130 g/m 2

圓網成形機

Tampella公司;真空成形機 Arch Former

Tampella 公司;真空成形機 Arch Former 這是真空成形機再加上二次成

這是真空成形機再加上二次成 形網協助紙的另一面脫水, 得到幾乎二倍的生產能力。 因為有兩面脫水的効果, 在相似的抄造基重, 可達到更高的抄速範圍70-600 m/min

圓網成形機

Voith公司:真空成形機

圓網成形機 Voith 公司:真空成形機 優點 : I. 可調整紙匹的 MD/CD 比值 II. 保留率較高

優點

I.可調整紙匹的MD/CD比值

II.保留率較高

運轉性能

抄速250-510 m/min 基重20-110 g/m 2

混合成形機 ( Hybrid former )

混合成形機 ( Hybrid former ) 2010 04/CGK 92

夾網成形機 ( Gap former )

夾網成形機的設計 :

‧更高的產能,更大的脫水能力

‧更好的印刷適性,避免兩面性的發生

‧更好的交織,更好的物理強度

‧單面脫水的長網,圓網成形機都已不能滿足紙品的生產

要求

‧長網上方再添置短網協助脫水,減少兩面性,也達到臨

界要求

夾網成形機 ( Gap former )

夾網成形機 ( Gap former ) 2010 04/CGK 94

夾網成形機 ( Gap former )

夾網成形機 ( Gap former ) 2010 04/CGK 95

夾網成形機 ( Gap former )

夾網成形機 ( Gap former ) 2010 04/CGK 96

夾網成形機 ( Gap former )

夾網成形機 ( Gap former ) 2010 04/CGK 97

多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former )

多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former ) 2010 04/CGK 98
多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former ) 2010 04/CGK 98
多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former ) 2010 04/CGK 98

多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former )

多層網成形 ( Multi-ply former ) 2010 04/CGK 99

Paper machine

Wire section – drainage

Headbox cons. 0.30-0.50% Couching cons. 8-10% 0 0 1 0 2-3 0 0 0 Headbox
Headbox cons.
0.30-0.50%
Couching
cons. 8-10%
0
0 1
0 2-3
0 0
0
Headbox
cons. 0.50-0.70%
Couching
Couching
cons. 8-10%
cons. 8-10%
0
0 2-3
0 1
0 0
0
Dryness
24-26%
KSD/BRD 499338_1
2010 04/CGK
100
9/93
Forming board
Foilbox
Low vacuum foilbox
High vacuum foilbox
Flat suction box
High vacuum foilbox
Low vacuum foilbox
Flat suction
box
Flat suction
Sheet transfer
box
box
Sheet transfer
Foilbox
Forming board
box
Flat suction box
Flat suction box

Paper machine

Wire section - drainage 1 % 7 - 8 % 2,5 % 4 - 5
Wire section - drainage
1 %
7
- 8 %
2,5 %
4
- 5 %
4 %
15-18 %
11
%
0,5 %
12 %
32
%
35
1,5
%
- 2 %
2 %
100 %

Paper machine

Tissue machine – suction former

Paper machine Tissue machine – suction former 2010 04/CGK 102

Paper machine

Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former

Paper machine Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former 2010 04/CGK 103

Paper machine

Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former

Paper machine Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former 2010 04/CGK 104

Paper machine

Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former

Paper machine Tissue machine – drycrepe, Crescent former 2010 04/CGK 105

Paper machine

Tissue machine

Paper machine Tissue machine 2010 04/CGK 106

Paper machine

Tissue paper

Paper machine Tissue paper 2010 04/CGK 107

Paper machine

Tissue paper

Paper machine Tissue paper 2010 04/CGK 108

Paper machine

Tissue paper

Paper machine Tissue paper 2010 04/CGK 109

Paper machine

TAD tissue machine

Paper machine TAD tissue machine 2010 04/CGK 110

Paper machine

TAD tissue machine - elements

Paper machine TAD tissue machine - elements 2010 04/CGK 111
Paper machine TAD tissue machine - elements 2010 04/CGK 111

Paper machine

Tissue machine

Paper machine Tissue machine 2010 04/CGK 112

Paper machine

TAD tissue machine – moulding process

Paper machine TAD tissue machine – moulding process 2010 04/CGK 113

Paper machine

TAD tissue machine – roll with through head exhaust

Paper machine TAD tissue machine – roll with through head exhaust Air flow Air flow 2010

Air flow

Air flow

Paper machine

TAD tissue machine – through dryer process

Paper machine TAD tissue machine – through dryer process Combustion fan 2010 04/CGK 115

Combustion fan

2010 04/CGK 116