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Fuel Processing Technology 92 (2011) 18621867

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Fuel Processing Technology


j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / f u p r o c

Effects of volumetric efciency on the performance and emissions characteristics of a dual fueled (gasoline and LPG) spark ignition engine
M. Gumus
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722, Istanbul, Turkey

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
In this study, effects of variation in volumetric efciency on the engine emissions characteristics with different LPG usage levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), on an engine operated with new generation closed loop, multipoint, and sequential gas injection system were investigated. For this purpose, experiments were carried out under constant engine speed (3800 rpm) and different load (5%, 30%, 60%, 90%) conditions. The variations in volumetric efciency, airfuel ratio, brake thermal efciency, brake specic fuel consumption, brake specic energy consumption, and exhaust gasses were examined. The volumetric efciency decreased considerably at the use of 25% LPG level. As for the 50%, 75% and 100% LPG usage, volumetric efciency decreased in proportion to LPG usage level. Airfuel ratio decreases with the increase in LPG usage level and the minimum airfuel ratio value was obtained at 100% LPG usage. At the use of mixture containing 25% LPG, brake specic fuel and energy consumption decreased while the brake thermal efciency was maintained. Positive results were obtained at all LPG usage levels in terms of exhaust emissions. Best results were achieved at using 100% LPG for exhaust emissions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 27 March 2011 Received in revised form 1 May 2011 Accepted 3 May 2011 Available online 25 May 2011 Keywords: Volumetric efciency LPG Gasoline Dual fuel Exhaust emissions Engine performance

1. Introduction The motor vehicles are considered as major contributors to the deterioration of environment. It has been proven that the pollutants in the motor emissions have considerable impacts on the ecological systems and the health of human. Therefore there is an increasing demand on tightening the emission standards of motor vehicles, as well as demand on developing means for reducing emissions from motor vehicles [1]. In recent years, in order to reduce the environmental damage of motor vehicles and meet the stringent emission regulations, clean alternative fuels such as liqueed petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas (NG), and Hydrogen (H) have been applied in motor vehicles [26]. LPG is well known as a clean alternative fuel for vehicles because it contains less carbon molecules than gasoline or diesel. Its higher ratio of carbon (C) to H reduces the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other non-regulated emissions, such as formaldehyde and acetaldehydes. LPG also has other many advantages such as high octane number, high combustion value, little carbon accumulation, easy storage, and low cost. Searches for alternative energy sources in automotive industry have brought forward the use of LGP in vehicles as fuel. Nowadays, LPG is widely used as fuel in cars in developed countries (Italy, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Japan, and U.S.A). LPG fuel is preferred as a clean alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to easy availability and storage, low cost, high octane

Tel.: + 90 216 3365770 321; fax: + 90 216 3378987. E-mail address: mgumus@marmara.edu.tr. 0378-3820/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.05.001

number, high combustion efciency, and low exhaust emissions with respect to other fuels [7]. In an attempt to decrease air pollution and obtain fuel economy, several LPG fuel supply system, which range from gas vaporization with an open-loop control system to liquid injection with a closed-loop control system have been developed and applied in various internal combustion engines. Most commercially available LPG engines adopt a mixer type system, which supplies gas fuel into the intake air upstream of the throttle body with a vaporizer [2]. However, conventional mixer systems have problems for meeting stringent low emission regulations because of the difculty in airfuel ratio (A/F) control precisely [8]. The gaseous sequential injection (GSI) system which is a LPG gas phase port injection system that was considered as one of the next generation fuel supply systems for internal combustion engines has reduced the problems of A/F control in light and middle duty vehicles [9]. Conversion systems which ensure the use of LPG fuel in spark ignited engines, enables LPG fuel to be used in engines more efciently in parallel to the development in its technology. Although LPG fuel is used with new generation conversion systems in spark ignition engines, a little reduction in power output of engine occurs. The reason for this reduction is the decrease in the volumetric efciency (VE) of the engine as the result of using LPG which expands 230267 times while passing to the gas phase from liquid phase. When using LPG in gas state in spark ignition engines, VE is more explicitly less than those when using gasoline and the VE of LPG in gas phase is 47% lower than usage of gasoline [10]. There is a reduction in engine performance and a rise in fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions due to the reduction in VE.

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Negative effects resulting from the use of LGP in gas state in spark ignited engines such as VE and lower heating value can be eliminated by increasing the compression ratio and advancing the ignition timing of engine. Since the octane number of LPG is higher, anti-knock resistance of engines operated on this fuel increases. So, brake thermal efciency (BTE) of engine can be enhanced through increasing its compression ratio. Furthermore BTE of engine can be enhance with advancing ignition timing due to the increase in average in-cylinder pressures [11]. There are lots of studies in literature relating to the use of LPG in internal combustion engines. The studies are generally about the effects of LPG usage on combustion characteristics, engine performance, fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and fuel costs. In a study carried out by Sim et al., it was seen that loss of torque occurs because LPG in gas state covers much more space than gasoline droplets [12]. They developed LPG injection system to control engine power, fuel consumption, and A/F. They determined that injection quantity of injectors is affected by fuel temperature, injection pressure, and injector operating voltage in a liquid injection system. Therefore they identied a correction factor depending upon fuel temperature, injection pressure, and injector operating voltage. A compensation method which controls the fuel injection quantity was obtained from experimental studies for liquid injection system. It was found that LPG injection system can be performed well at all engine speeds and loads and A/F control could be made precisely by using recommended compensation algorithm [13]. In a study by Lee et al., variations in VE when LPG is used in gas state were compared to in liquid state. In this study, it was seen that injecting LPG in liquid state into manifold is comparable to the injection in gas state [14]. In another study by Lee et al., length of intake manifold and location of injection in manifold were optimized for using LPG in internal combustion engines. In this study, results from the liquid injection of LPG showed little differences from that of LPG injection in gas state [15]. In a study by Celik and Balki, compression ratio were increased from 5:1 to 9:1 in a single cylinder engine and possibilities of performance improvement for using of LPG were investigated experimentally[16]. It was determined that engine torque decreases by 13% in LPG operation without changing compression ratio and the increasing of compression ratio decreased engine torque losses. It was also stated that the reason of this result is decreasing of VE due to the fuel entering into the cylinder in gas state. In a comprehensive study by Ristovski et al., the particle and CO2 emissions from LPG powered and ve unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds[17]. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical signicance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a cleaner fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically signicant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. At all speeds, the values of CO2 emission were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG. Saleh investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance characteristics in a dual fuel engine run on diesel fuel and ve gaseous fuel of LPG with different composition [18]. To quantify the best LPG composition for dual fuel operation especially in order to improve the exhaust emissions quality while maintaining high thermal efciency comparable to a conventional diesel engine. From the results, it is observed that the exhaust emissions and fuel conversion efciency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when different LPG composition is used as higher butane content lead to lower NOx levels while higher propane content reduces CO levels. LPG fuel (70% propane, 30% butane) with mass fraction 40% substitution of the diesel fuel was the best LPG composition in the dual fuel operation except that at part loads. Also, tests were made for LPGdiesel blend in the dual fuel operation at part loads to improve the engine performances and exhaust emissions by using the Exhaust Gas

Recirculation (EGR) method. In a study by Choi et al. a conventional diesel engine was converted to an engine using LPG fuel [19]. Effects of butanepropane ratio in LPG on engine performance, emissions, and combustion characteristic were investigated by using the converted diesel engine. Engine torque and power were greatly affected by the variation of butane and propane content in LPG. Exhaust temperature changed 15 C at the most. From the literature review, it was seen that usage of LPG fuel has a major effect on the engine performance, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption. However, it has not been clearly studied the effects of the use of LPG together with gasoline fuel at certain ratios on the VE and the effects of the variation in VE on the engine performance, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Therefore, these topics need to be investigated to make up for the deciency in the literature. For this reason, In this study, effects of variation in VE on the engine performance and emissions with different LPG usage levels (in terms of heating value; pure diesel, 25%, 50%, 75% LPG and pure LPG), on an engine operated with new generation closed loop, multi-point and sequential gas injection system were investigated. For this purpose, experiments were carried out under constant engine speed (3800 rpm) and different brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) conditions. The engine torque and power output depending on the engine speed were also examined. The variations in VE, A/F, BTE, BSFC, brake specic energy consumption (BSEC), and exhaust gasses were examined. 2. Experimental apparatus and procedures 2.1. Experimental set up The experiments were conducted on a Renault Clio 1.4i RTA vehicle. Table 1 shows the specications of test vehicle and the engine. In this study, multiple point sequential LPG injection system, manufactured by yldz Automotive Industry Ltd. was used. System adjusts the pressure of LPG by converting it into gas state by means of an evaporator and regulator and injects it into intake manifold through injectors. Pressure of LPG at the evaporator and regulator outlet is close to atmospheric pressure. Amount of LPG required based on the engine speed and load, is adjusted automatically. LPG injected with the required quantity and at the desired time according to the injection signal given by electronic control unit (ECU) to the inlet port by the injectors which are mounted on the intake manifold of the vehicle. LPG injection order and timing in system is controlled by ECU of LPG according to the gasoline injection timing of the original ECU. HHF42 Hot wire anemometer was used for metering the amount of the air ow into engine. Measuring ranges and percentage errors of HHF42 Hot wire anemometer measuring device used in tests are given

Table 1 Specications of test vehicle and engine. Make and model Net weight Dimensions Drive type Transmission Tank storage Engine type Firing order Bore Stroke Total displacement Compression ratio Cooling system Max. engine speed Max. power output Max. engine torque Fuel system Average fuel consumption Renault Clio, 1.4i, 2000 960 kg 3773/1639/1428 mm FWD 5 speed forward manual 50 dm3 OHC, 8 valves 1-3-4-2 75.8 mm 77 mm 1390 cm3 9.5:1 Water cooled 5950 rpm 55 kW (5500 rpm) 114 N m (4250 rpm) Fuel-injected 7.1 dm3/100 km

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M. Gumus / Fuel Processing Technology 92 (2011) 18621867 Table 4 Characteristics of the test fuels. Precision 1% 0.8 0.01% 0.01% 1 ppm Characteristics Specic gravity (kg/m) Lower heating value (MJ/kg) Boiling point (C) Ignition point (C) Combustion rate (mps) Airfuel ratio Flammability limits (Vol.%) Research octane number Motor octane number Gasoline 765 44.04 30225 257 0.35 14.7 1.37.6 95 85 Propane 509 46.34 42 510 0.4 15.8 2.19.5 111 97 Butane 585 45.56 0.5 490 0.4 15.6 1.58.5 103 89

Table 2 Specications of hot wire anemometer and exhaust emission device. Measured characteristic Speed (km/h) Temperature (C) CO2 CO HC Measuring range 0.772 km/h 050 C 020% 010% 010.000 ppm Stability 0.1 km/h 0.1 C

in Table 2. CO, CO2 and HC emissions were measured with an infrared gas analyzer. Measuring ranges and error rates of emission measuring device used in tests are given in Table 2. Vehicle test were carried out using CARTEC brand chassis dynamometer coded as 2020. Specications of the chassis dynamometer are given in Table 3. Calibration of the dynamometer was made by the qualied staff of the authorized company. In this study LPG fuel produced by Mogaz company were used. In Turkey, LPG fuel is composed of 50% propane (C3H8) and 50% butane (C4H10) mixture in winter conditions. Major characteristics of LPG (propane and butane) and gasoline used in tests are given in Table 4. 2.2. Experimental procedures Required changes in hardware and software of the conversion system were made to ensure transition of vehicle engine from gasoline usage to LPG fuel usage and to enable to the use of dual fuel. These changes were made with yldz Automotive Ind. Co. Ltd.'s contribution. Conversion system measures the consumed fuel quantity depending on the operating conditions and decreases the amount of gasoline gradually until the full transition to LPG usage. Decrease in the amount of gasoline is ensured through shortening the electrical signals outputted to fuel injector by gasoline ECU by means of emulators controlled by LPG control unit. Delivery of LPG to cylinders is provided through sending electrical signal providing the amount of LPG equal to the heating value of diminished gasoline to LPG injectors. Realization of those mentioned above is ensured by LPG ECU coming one cycle behind the gasoline ECU. In this study, detection of injection times for gasoline and LPG injectors were used for determining fuel consumption. In case injection times for gasoline and LPG injectors can be determined, detection of fuel ow rates of injectors may be possible. Therefore, fuel consumption of engine can be determined by the sum of fuel ow rates of all injectors. Tests on vehicle dynamometer, were carried out at an engine speed at which maximum power and maximum torque were obtained and which corresponds to 90 km/h (4. gear, 3800 rpm) in various load conditions. Vehicle engine were loaded 90% of maximum torque. Torque is proportional to BMEP. At maximum torque, BMEP is 1030.6 kPa. LPG usage levels were set in ve different values as 0% (pure gasoline), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (pure LPG) in terms of heating value. Measurements were taken in all usage levels of LPG for engine loads of 5% (51.5 kPa BMEP), 30% (309 kPa BMEP), 60% (618 kPa BMEP) and 90% (927 kPa

BMEP). At all engine loads, opening times of injectors to determine fuel consumption and air ow velocities to measure the air consumption and exhaust emissions (CO2, CO and HC) were measured. VE, A/F, BTE, BSFC, and BSEC were calculated using measured parameters. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Volumetric efciency (VE) Fig. 1(a) shows the variation of VE with BMEP. VE shown a decrease depending on the LPG usage. VE decreased considerably in the use of 25% LPG. As for the 50%, 75% and 100% LPG usage, VE decreased in proportion to LPG usage level. In the use of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of LPG, VE decreased by 17.8%, 21%, 23.4%, and 26.5%, respectively. VE

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Table 3 Specications of vehicle dynamometer. Technical specications Maximum test speed Usage temperature Maximum brake power Power supply Frequency Air supply Drum diameter Drum width Max. lifting capacity Max. axle load Unit km/h C kW AC/V Hz MPa mm mm t t Value 260 050 260 400 50 0.7 320 490 2 3.5

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Fig. 1. Variation of VE (a) and A/F (b).

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BSFC (g/(kW h))

increases with the increase in BMEP. That throttle is partially open leads to a considerable amount of decrease in VE in partial loads. In the case of full load conditions, due to the fact that throttle fully opens and the resistance which limits the air ow is eliminated as a result, VE rises rapidly. Fig. 1(b) shows the variation of actual A/F depending on BMEP for gasoline, LPG and LPG usage in different levels. A/F decreases with the increase in BMEP. This variation is due to the enrichment of mixture on load demands. A/F decreases with the increase in LPG usage level and it is minimum at 100% LPG usage. This is because, in the use of LPG VE decreases and mixture gets richer with the decrease in the air ow into cylinder. 3.2. Engine performance 3.2.1. Brake thermal efciency (BTE) Variation of BTE according to BMEP is shown in Fig. 2. BTE increases with the increase in BMEP and decreases with the increase in LPG usage level. Major reason for this decrease in BTE with the LPG usage may be ascribed to the decrease in the VE during LPG usage [9]. Maximum BTE was obtained as 34.59 with the pure gasoline usage. As for the minimum engine thermal efciency, it was obtained as 27.09 with pure gasoline usage at the 90% engine load (927 kPa BMEP). With the use of fuel blends containing 25%, 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG, BTE decreased by about 2%, 14.1%, 12.2%, and 18.2% respectively. BTE decreased slightly with the use of fuel blend containing 25% of LPG. At the low LPG usage levels, the more homogenous mixture with the use of LPG increases the combustion efciency and the effect of the decrease in VE due to the use of LPG can be compensated. 3.2.2. Brake specic fuel consumption (BSFC) Variation of BSFC according to BMEP is shown in Fig. 3(a). In general, BSFC decreased with the increase in BMEP. BSFC of the use of blend containing 25% LPG was minimum. The higher mass heating value of LPG and its positive effect on combustion efciency are the most evident factors for this result. BSFC was typically increased with the increase in the next LPG usage level. Maximum fuel consumption was obtained with 50% gasoline and 50% LPG mixture at low engine loads, as for high engine loads, it was obtained with the 100% LPG fuel. With the use of mixture containing 25% LPG, BSFC decreased by %7.1 on the average. With the use of mixtures containing 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG, BSFC increased by 7.3%, 0.4%, and 1.8%, respectively, on the average. 3.2.3. Brake specic energy consumption (BSEC) Fig. 3(b) shows the variation of BSEC with BMEP. BSEC represents the amount of energy needed to get one kilowatt of power and it

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Fig. 3. Variation of BSFC (a) and BSEC (b).

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is calculated as multiplication of BSFC and LHV. It is an important parameter to be compared to BTE since it considers the ow rate and heating value of fuel together [20]. In this study, it is more meaningful to make the comparison by BSEC instead of BSFC, since both fuel rates and heating values of mixtures are different. BSEC showed similar tendency to BSFC but distances between curves become evident as shown in Fig. 3(b). With the use of mixture containing 25% LPG, BSEC decreased by 6.2% on the average. With the use of mixtures containing 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG, BSEC increased by 9.7%, 3.7%, and 6.3% respectively on the average. BSEC at the use of blend containing 25% LPG was minimum. Since the heating value of LPG is high, the difference between gasoline decreased with respect to BSFC. Similar to BSFC, maximum energy consumption was obtained with 50% gasoline and 50% LPG mixture at low engine loads, as for high engine loads, it was obtained with the 100% LPG fuel. 3.3. Exhaust emissions

BTE (%)

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Fig. 2. Variation of BTE.

3.3.1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Because CO2 emissions lead to global warming through greenhouse effect, it is desired that carbon atoms leading to constitution of CO2 emissions do not exist in fuel or exist in low levels. That carbon hydrogen ratio in LPG fuel is lower than carbonhydrogen ratio in gasoline leads to a decrease in CO2 emissions. Variation of CO2 emissions according to BMEP is shown in Fig. 4(a). With the increase in BMEP, CO2 emissions increase due to the rise in ow rate of airfuel mixture and enrichment of mixture. In case of increase in LPG usage level, CO2 emissions decrease. With the use of fuel blends containing 25%, 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG,

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Fig. 5. Variation of HC emissions.

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4. Conclusions In this study, volumetric losses arising from the use of LPG has been tried to control by using dual fuel (gasoline and LPG). For this aim, effects of variation in VE on the engine performance and emissions with different LPG usage levels on an engine operated with new generation closed loop, multi-point and sequential gas injection system were investigated. Experiments were carried out under constant engine speed and different BMEP conditions. The variations in VE, A/F, BTE, BSFC, BSEC, and exhaust gasses were examined. Results obtained in this study were outlined below.

1,2 1

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CO (%)

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BMEP (%)
Fig. 4. Variation of CO2 (a) and CO (b) emissions.

CO2 emissions decreased by 11.9%, 22.6%, 23.9% and 33.9%, respectively, on the average. 3.3.2. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions Variation of CO emissions according to BMEP is shown in Fig. 4(b). As shown in the gure, CO emissions decrease with the increase in LPG usage level. This is because, the carbonhydrogen ratio of LPG fuel is low and LPG in gas state burns effectively with more homogenous mixture. With the use of fuel blends containing 25%, 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG, CO emissions decreased by 26.8%, 26.2%, 40.7% and 53.3%, respectively, on the average. 3.3.3. Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions Existence of HC in exhaust gasses points out that fuel didn't burn completely. Main reasons for failure to complete combustion and formation of HC are lower temperature, lack of oxygen and nonhomogeneity of mixture [21]. Fig. 5 shows the variation of HC emissions with BMEP. As shown in the gure, HC emissions decrease with the increase in LPG usage level. Because the mixture becomes more homogeneous with the increase in LPG usage level, combustion is improved and HC emissions decrease. With the increase in engine BMEP, HC emissions increase due to the enrichment of mixture. With the use of fuel blends containing 25%, 50%, 75% of LPG and 100% LPG, HC emissions decreased by 27.7%, 41.4%, 53.1% and 72.6%, respectively, on the average. HC and CO emissions are strongly related to cylinder gas temperature at post-ame. LPG has higher cylinder gas temperature than that of gasoline, and this will enhance HC and CO oxidation in the post ame. This factor also leads to the low value of HC and CO emissions.

The VE was shown a decrease depending on the LPG usage. The VE decreased considerably with the use of 25% LPG. As for the 50%, 75% and 100% LPG usage, VE decreased in proportion to LPG usage level. A/F decreases with the increase in LPG usage level and the minimum A/F value was obtained at 100% LPG usage. Positive results in terms of engine performance were only achieved when using 25% LPG mixture ratio. With the use of mixture containing 25% LPG, BSFC and BSEC decreased while the BTE was maintained. During tests carried out on vehicle dynamometer using various engine loads, positive results were obtained in terms of exhaust emissions at all LPG usage levels. Best results in terms of exhaust emissions were achieved at using 100% LPG. References
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