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Muscles of the Gluteal Region/Hip Muscles Muscle Gluteus Maximus Origin Outer surface: ilium,sacrum,coccyx Sacrotuberous ligament Ilium

(outer surface) Insertion Ilitibial tract; Femur: gluteal tuberosity Lateral surface: greater trochanter Action ExLR (hip joint) Extend (knee joint) Abducts thigh; tilts pelvis when walking (permitting opposite leg to clear ground) Abducts thigh; tilts pelvis when walking Extend knee jt. (assist Gmax) LR thigh (hip jt.) LR thigh (hip jt.) Innervation Inferior gluteal nerve

Gluteus medius

Superior gluteal nerve

Gluteus minimus

Outer surface: ilium

Anterior surf.: greater trochanter Ilitibial tract Upper border: greater trochanter Upper border: greater trochanter Upper border: greater trochanter Upper border: greater trochanter Femur: quadrate tubercle

Superior gluteal nerve Superior gluteal nerve st nd 1 -2 sacral nerve Sacral plexus

Tensor fasciae latae Piriformis Obturator internus Gemellus superior Gemellus inferior Quadratus femoris

Iliac crest Ant.surface: sacrum Inner surface: obturator membrane Spine: ischium Ischial tuberosity Lat.border: ischial tuberosity

LR thigh (hip jt.) LR thigh (hip jt.) LR thigh (hip jt.)

Sacral plexus Sacral plexus Sacral plexus

Muscle Piriformis Obturator internus

Levator ani

Coccygeus

Muscles of the Pelvic Walls and Floor Origin Insertion Action Front of sacrum Femur:greater LR femur (hip jt.) trochanter Obturator Femur: greater LR femur (hip jt.) membrane trochanter Adjoining part of hip bone Body of pubis, Perineal body; Support pelvic fascia of obturator anococcygeal viscera; sphincter internus, spine of body; walls of to anorectal ischium prostate; vagina; junction and rectum; anal canal vagina Spine of ischium Lower end of Assist levator ani sacrum; coccyx to support pelvic viscera; flexes

Innervations Sacral plexus Nerve to obturator internus from sacral plexus 4th sacral nerve, pudendal nerve

4th-5th sacral nerve

coccyx

Muscles of Anterior Fascial Compartment of Thigh Muscle Sartorius Origin ASIS Insertion Upper medial surface of shaft of tibia With psoas into lesser trochanter of femur Action FlexAbdER (thigh) FlexIR (leg at kee jt.) Flexion (thigh on trunk) Fixed thigh: flex thigh in sitting up frm.lying down *same as iliacus Innervations Femoral nerve

Iliacus

Hip bone: iliac fossa

Femoral nerve

Psoas

T1-T12 and L1-L5: transverse process,bodies & IV discs Pubis: superior ramus

Femur: lesser trochanter w/ iliacus

Lumbar plexus

Pectineus

Upper end: linea aspera of shaft of femur *Quadriceps tendon into patella *Ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia *Same as rectus femoris * same as rectus femoris & vastus lat. *same

FlexAdd (thigh)

Femoral nerve

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus femoris Straight head: AIIS Reflected head: ilium above acetabulum

Extension(leg) Flexion(thigh) *ExFlex

Femoral nerve

Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis

Femur: upper end and shaft Femur: upper end and shaft Ant.& lat.suarface of shaft of femur

Vastus intermedius

Extends leg at knee joint *Extends leg at knee jt. *Stabilizes patella * extends leg at knee jt. *articularis genus retracts synovial membrane

Femoral nerve Femoral nerve

Femoral nerve

Medial Fascial Compartment of the Thigh Muscle Gracilis Origin Pubis:inferior ramus Insertion Upper part of shaft of tibia on medial Action Adducts thigh,flex leg Innervations Obturator nerve

Adductor longus

Ramus of ischium Body of pubis, medial to pubic tubercle Pubis:inferior ramus

surface Post.surface of shaft of femur (linea aspera) Posterior surface of shaft of femur (linea aspera) Femur:post.surface (shaft), adductor tubercle

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus

Pubis:inferior ramus, ramus of ischium, ischial tuberosity

*AdFlex Adducts thigh at hip jt., assist in lateral rotation *AdER Adducts thigh at hip jt.,assist in lateral rotation *AdER AdER (thigh), extension of thigh (hamstring portion)

Obturator nerve

Obturator nerve

Obturator externus

Obturator membrane:outer surface Pubic and ischial rami

Greater trochanter: medial surface

LR(thigh)

Adductor portion:obturator nerve Hamstring portion:sciatic nerve Obturator nerve

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of Thigh Muscle Biceps femoris Origin Long head: ischial tuberosity Insertion Head of fibula Action Flex and lat.rot.leg (knee jt.) Extends thigh (hip jt.) Innervations Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Semitendinosus

Short head: linea aspera, lat.supracondylar ridge of shaft of femur Ischial tuberosity

Common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve

Upper part of medial surface of shaft of tibia

Semimembranosus

Ischial tuberosity

Medial condyle of tibia

Adductor magnus (hamstring portion)

Ischial tuberosity

Adductor tubercle of femur

Flex and med.rot.leg (knee jt.) Extend thigh (hip jt.) Flex and med.rot.leg (knee jt.) Extend thigh (hip jt.) Extend thigh (hip jt.)

Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg Muscle Tibialis anterior Origin -lateral surface of shaft of tibia -interosseous membrane Fibula: anterior surface of shaft Fibula(shaft): anterior surface Fibula(shaft): anterior surface Insertion Medial cuneiform; base of 1st metatarsal bone Action Extend foot, invert foot, hold up medial longitudinal arch of foot extend toe and foot extend foot, everts foot Extend big toe; extend foot; inverts foot *ExIn extend toes Innervations Deep peroneal nerve

Extensor digitorum longus Peroneus tertius extensor hallucis longus

extensor expansion of lateral 4 toes base of 5th metatarsal bone Base of distal phalanx of great toe 4 tendons into the proximal phalanx of big toe and long extensor tendons to 2nd,3rd,and 4th toes

Deep peroneal nerve Deep peroneal nerve Deep peroneal nerve

Extensor digitorum brevis

Calcaneum

Deep peroneal nerve

Muscles of the Lateral Fascial Compartment of the Leg Muscle Peroneus longus Origin Fibula(shaft): lateral surface Insertion Base of 1st metatarsal and the medial cuneiform Action Plantar flex foot; everts foot; support lateral longitudinal and transverse arches of foot Plantar flex foot; everts foot; support lateral longutinal arch of foot Innervations Superficial peroneal nerve

Peroneus brevis

Fibula(shaft): lateral surface

Base of 5th metatarsal bone

Superficial peroneal nerve

Muscle of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg Muscle Origin SUPERFICIAL GROUP Gastrocnemius -lateral head from lateral condyle of femur -medial head from above medial condyle Plantaris Femur: lateral supracondylar ridge Soleus Shaft of tibia and fibula Insertion Via tendo calcaneus into posterior surface of calcaneum Action Plantar flex foot; flexes knee jt. innervation Tibial nerve

Calcaneum: posterior surface Via tendo calcaneus into posterior surface of calcaneum

Plantar flex foot; flex knee jt. Plantar flexor (with gastrocs); provide main propulsice force in walking and running

Tibial nerve Tibial nerve

DEEP GROUP Popliteus

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Tibialis posterior

Flexes leg; unlocks knee jt. By lat.rot.of femur on tibia, slackens ligaments of joints Tibia(shaft):posterior Base of distal Flex distal surface phalanges of lat.4 phalanges of toes lateral 4 toes; plantar flex foot; support medial and lateral longitudinal arches of foot Fibula(shaft): Base of distal Flex distal phalanx post.surface phalanx of big toe of big toe; plantar flex foot; support medial longitudinal arch of foot Posterior surface of Navicular bone: Plantar flex foot; shaft of tibia and tuberosity inverts foot; fibula; interosseous Other neighboring support medial membrane bones longitudinal arch of foot

Femur: lat.surface of lat.condyle

Post.surface of shaft of tibia (above soleal line)

Tibial nerve

Tibial nerve

Tibial nerve

Tibial nerve

Muscles of the Sole of the Foot Muscel First Layer Abductor hallucis Origin Calcaneum:medial tuberosity Flexor retinaculum Calcaneum: medial tubercle Insertion Base of proximal phalanx of big toe 4 tendons to 4 lat.toes inserted into borders of middle phalanx; tendons perforated by those of flexor digitorum longus Base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe Action FlexAbd big toe; brace medial longitudinal arch Flex lat.4 toes; brace medial and lateral longitudinal arches innervation Medial plantar nerve Medial plantar nerve

Flexor digitorum brevis

Abductor digiti minimi Second Layer Quadrates plantae

Calcaneum: medial and lateral tubercle Calcaneum: medial and lateral sides FDL tendons

FlexAbd 5th toe; brace lateral longitudinal arch Assist FDL in flexing lateral 4 toes Extend toe at IP jt.

Lateral plantar nerve

Flexor digitorum longus tendon Dorsal extensor expansion; base of proximal phalanges of lateral 4 toes Base of distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes

Lateral plantar nerve 1st lumbrical: medial plantar nerve Remainder: lateral plantar nerve Tibial nerve

Lumbricals (4)

FDL tendon

Tibia(shaft): post.surface

FHL tendon

Fibula(shaft): post.surface

Base of distal phalanx of big toe

Flex distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes; plantar flex foot; support medial and lateral longitudinal arches of foot Flex distal phalanx of big toe; plantar flex foot; support medial longitudinal arch of foot Flex MTP jt.of big toe, support medial longitudinal arch

Tibial nerve

Flexor hallucis brevis

Cuboid, lateral cuneiform, tibialis posterior insertion

Third Layer Medial tendon into medial side of proximal phalanx of big toe; lateral tendon into lateral

Medial plantar nerve

Adductor hallucis

Flexor digiti minimii brevis

Oblique head bases of 2nd,3rd,and 4th metatarsal bones; transverse head from plantar ligaments Base of 5th metatarsal bone

side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe

Flex MTP jt.of big toe; holds together metatarsal bones

Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve

Dorsal (4)

Adjacent sides of metatarsal bones

Plantar (3)

Inferior surface of 3rd,4th, and 5th metatarsal bone Fibula(shaft): lateral surface

Peroneus longus tendon

Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of little toe Fourth Layer Interossei Base of proximal phalanges; first: medial side of 2nd toe; remainder: lat.sides of 2nd,3rd,and 4th toes; dorsal extensor expansion Medial side of bases of proximal phalanges of lateral 3 toes Base of 1st metatarsal, medial cuneiform

Flex MTP jt.of little toe

Lateral plantar nerve

Abducts toes; flex MTP jt s. ; extends IP jt. *FlexAbdEx

Lateral plantar nerve

Tibialis posterior tendon

Post.surface of shafts of tibia and fibula Interosseous membrabe

Tuberosity of navicular bone and other neighboring bones

Adducts toes; flex MTP jt.; extend IP jt. *FlexAdEx Plantar flex foot; everts foot; support lateral longitudinal and transverse arches of foot Plantar flex foot; inverts foot; supports medial longitudinal arch of foot

Lateral plantar nerve

Superficial peroneal nerve

Tibial nerve

Muscle of the Dorsum of the Foot Muscle Extensor digitorum brevis Origin Anterior part of the upper surface of calcaneum and Insertion By 4 tendons into the proximal phalanx of big toe Action Extends toes Innervations Deep peroneal nerve

from inferior extensor retinaculum

and long extensor tendons to 2nd,3rd,and 4th toes