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9/19/00

ATPG and Fault Coverages, Lecture 6
■ Podem - Path oriented
decision making
a x
0
b x
■ In D-algorithm
a = 0, or
b = 0, or
a=b=0
a
at J-fronters
b
■ In Podem
0
0
1
c
1
at PIs
f
d
f=0
c=1
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

9/19/00

■ Multi-Backtrackings
1
1
◆ In Podem, only one path
is traced back at a time
1
◆ In FAN, mu
ltiple paths
1
are traced back
1
simultaneously
■ Decisions ma
de at
◆ In Podem, a decision is
k
◆ In FAN, a decision can
tree circuit
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
■ Convert ATPG problem into a SAT instance
■ Use an existing SAT tool
a
f
b
c
=1?
(c+a’)(c+b’)(c’+a+b)
g
(a+b)(a’+b’)
a
a
c
b
c
b
(c’+a)(c’+b)(c+a’+b’)
(c+a)(c+b)(c’+a’+b’)
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

9/19/00

In general, to solve an NP-complete problem
with backtracking
◆ branching - a set of potential solutions,
represent
ed by a node, can be partitioned into
mutually exclusive sets (children nodes).
◆ Bounding
the lower
- an algorithm is available to determine
bound on the cost of solution
✦ In ATPG, this can mean “no solution” (= infinite cost)
✦ You will
see in many algorithms, they try to prove as
early as
possible that a branch is a “dead end” so avoid
unnecessary backtrackings.
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
■ Implication
◆ determine necessary assignment as early as
possible
◆ determine a conflict as early as possible
■ Recursive learning
◆ recursively try all the combinations
◆ find out necessary assignments
◆ prove that there is no solution space underneath
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

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■ k = 1
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
■ n = 0
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

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Search for
a solution
prove no solution
■ In traditional ATPGs, redundant faults cause problems
◆ since ATPG is trying to look for a solution while there
is not any
■ By alternating strategies, faults can be proved
redundant quickly
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

100%

FC

# of patterns

Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns

many easy faults

no need to waste time on them

Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

ATPG spends most of the time on the hard faults

9/19/00

■ Step 1 - Random
◆ throw in a lots of patterns (eg. 16 at a time)
◆ fault simulate the circuit
◆ until no
fault can be detected in i trials
■ Step 2 - Deterministic
◆ for each undetected fault
✦ perfo
rm deterministic ATPG
✦ fault simulate remaining undetected faults
✦ removed fortuitously detected faults
◆ reverse fault simulation of all patterns
✦ pattern compression
✦ in general, another NP-complete problem
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
■ Fault Coverage FC = # detected faults/ # faults
■ Defect Coverage DC = # of detected defects/#
defects
■ William-Brown model
Y (1-DC)
DL = 1 -
■ In practice, no one knows what DC is
◆ DL est = 1
- Y (1-FC)
◆ ex. FC=0.99, Y=0.85, DL = 1623 PPM
■ Since FC π DC
DL est π DL
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

9/19/00

ππ
■ To detect an and-
bridging
a
and
◆ detect a s-a-0
b
and b = 0
◆ detect b s-a-0
good
1
and a = 0
c