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DEFINITIONS

Derived from ethno (human culture) and graphy (description of)

Ethnography is the study of people in naturally occurring settings or 'fields' which aims to understand another way of life from the native point of view Ethnography is a qualitative research procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a culture-sharing groups shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language that develop over time
Sometimes called as interpretive qualitative studies, ethnographies are investigations of particular communities, such as a hospital or a classroom, conducted to obtain an emic perspective and a holistic view of the community being studied.
Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

An ethnography is conducted when the researcher


has a culture-sharing group to study wants a day-to-day picture has long-term access to culture-sharing group thinks a study of a group helps the researcher understand a larger issue

Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Traditional ethnography was carried out by anthropologists among non modern people in small scale and relatively isolated societies.

Ethnographic approaches were later developed and applied to modern societies and focussed on city areas, towns or villages.
They have also been developed to look at aspects of identity such as ethnicity or social position, in the workplace, educational and social settings, such as societies, clubs and classrooms. In a classroom ethnography is conducted by assuming that cultures are being constructed by the students and teachers interactions on a daily basis. Some of these cultures are invisible because they become ordinary and routine. Ethnography can be used to make them visible and allow a look at what students and teachers are doing and learning in classrooms.
ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Five Features of Ethnographies


Hammersley (1990)

Peoples behavior is studied in everyday contexts, rather than under experimental conditions created by the researcher. Data are gathered from a range of sources, but observations and informal conversations are usually the main ones. The approach to data collection is unstructured (it does not involve following through a detailed plan set up at the beginning. The focus is usually a single setting or group of relatively small scale. The analysis of the data involves interpretation of the meanings and functions of human actions and mainly takes the form of verbal descriptions and explanations.
Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Some Contemporary Topics of Ethnography in ELT


Teacher perspectives on lesson plan adjustment Student perspectives on lecture comprehension Cross-cultural expectations on parent involvement in school Experiences of learners in English as a Second Language (ESL) The relationship of gender and language learning The effects of computer on Foreign Language classroom Classroom interactions Oral presentations in graduate seminars The role of race and gender in study-abroad program experiences

Data Collection & Analysis


Observations

Field Notes
Data Collection

Data Analysis: Descriptive

Interviews
Recordings / Other Artifacts
ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Data Analysis Approaches


1. ChronologyResearchers can organize their notes over time to basically tell a story of what they observed. 2. Key eventsResearchers can organize the data by key events they observe and perhaps organize these events by their significance. 3. Various settingsData can be organized according to where they occur. 4. PeopleIf individuals or groups are the primary unit of analysis, then the data could be organized by cases. 5. IssuesData can also be organized by key issues that the researcher has identified. Patton in McKay (2006)

Ethnography and Case Study Compared


Case study research Time commitment : less time required in the field (weeks/few months at most) Orientation of researcher: studies people Type of data collected: mostly interviews and documents Ethnographic research
Time commitment: significant length of time required in the field (months/years) Orientation of researcher: learns from people Type of data collected: interviews, documents, notes from fieldwork and participant observation

Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Basic Procedure for an Ethnographic Project


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose a target group (e.g. English Education program students) Find informant(s) able to represent this group Limit the shared patterns (of behavior/beliefs/habits) youd like to study Do library/web research on the shared patterns and, if possible, the group. Collect the data through observations, field notes, interviews, and recordings/artifacts and organize them into the categories of setting, systems, people, and behavior. Analyze the data and form a cultural hypothesis (e.g. about what strategies they use to enrich English vocabulary, what types and how many pages of texts they used to read, what they think about English pronunciation, why they decided taking English their major, etc) Reflect upon your own cultural frames of reference; and seek to understand the limitations of the evidence used to make the hypothesis formed in (5) Report you findings.
Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

7.
8.

Proposal Outline
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. Background to the Study B. Reason for Choosing the Topic C. Statement of the Problem D. The site and/or unit of analysis General profiles E. Objectives of the Study F. Research Questions G. Significance of the Study H. Scope of the Study I. Definition of Terms
Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

Proposal Outline (cont.)


CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Studies B. Theoretical Background

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research Method (i.e. ethnography) B. Data and Data Collection Procedure C. Research Population and Sample D. Research Setting E. Data Analysis Techniques F. Data Triangulation Techniques G. Research Procedure

Ethnography for elt: parlin pardede (2012)

REFERENCES
Burns. A. (2010). Doing action research in english language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge Crang, M. & Cook, I. (2007). Doing ethnographies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Creswell, J. W. 2008. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New Jersey: Pearson Fetterman, D. (2010). Ethnography: Step-by-step (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Genzuk, M. (2003). A synthesis of ethnographic research. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research Digital Papers Series. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research, University of Southern California. Retrieved June 21, 2007, from http://wwwrcf.usc.edu/~genzuk/Ethnographic_Research.html Hammersley, M. (1990). Reading ethnographic research: A critical guide. London: Longman. Hammersley, M & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers