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January 19 Aesthetics - The study of everything within the art piece. Its a branch of philosophy.

What makes a good work of art a good piece? How we judge a work of art. There are objective aesthetics in which there is a comparison between the piece and an ideal. Style Everyone has a different personality, and every artist has a different style. A characteristic of handling technique, form, and design. (i.e. contrast, color, shapes, lines, figures, brushstrokes). A consistent handling of design. Some groups have a style as a whole (i.e. analytical cubism). Form/content Form is what you see. Content is the meaning of what you see. Form is made up of light, shadow, composition, brushstrokes, etc. Abstract Anything that is distorted in someway apart from reality. Sometimes non-objective art is abstract because there is nothing in our world that looks somewhat the same. Mass/volume Height, width, depth. The three-dimensional piece takes up space. Positive and negative space. Positive is the solid object within an art piece. Negative space is the nothingness around the piece. They can all work together. Picture plane A two dimensional surface (height & width). Imaginary depth is when we divide the picture up into different planes to give a look of depth without true depth. Perspective Smaller in the background, bigger in the foreground. Foreground - Linear perspective contains overlapping. Sharp images. Middle ground Usually the main focus, between the foreground and background Background - Atmospheric perspective is when farther things look hazy and less detailed. Foreshortening Showing an angle receding into space (modern art rejects this). January 26 Background to Modern Art Louis the XIV (the sun king) ruled France in the Brouque Period (1600s) Style, fashion, wealth, sophistication, elegance, control He built the Royal French Academy of Art in 1648 (classicism) The aesthetics of Louis XIV were shown through Greek statues Nicholas Poussin is a painter in the French Brougue Period Its all there, and yet it isnt Crisp, clearn, defined, bold, intellectual standpoint Ruben Garden of Love 1650 Sexy women and men, cupids, flirting and falling in love Dreamlike, fuzzy, emotional standpoint Rococo Period (1700s) Party period after Louis XIVs death Dangerous Lerazons (Movie about the 1700s) Anton Watteau (1800s) Any stringed instrument being played means love and flirtation Dreamlike landscape and atmosphere, John Fragonaid began as a court painter and painted a lot for mistresses He was extremely wealthy, but dies alone, povershed, and poor Swing is symbolic of women because women swing and change their mind Love, flirtation, sex Elizabeth Vigee-Levrun was a woman artist, which was rare She was born into an aristocrat family Her self portrait is modest, but shows herself in the workplace as a painter Official court painter for Marie Antoinette (last queen of France) Two vicious rumors: Let them eat cake and molested 7 year old son She gambled, she bought beautiful things, didnt understand government Louis the XVI wanted a constitutional monarchy, but Marie said no The Romantic Period (1760-1850) Neoclassicism and Romanticism feeling something truthful, real, and moral Neoclassicism (new classicism) no brush strokes, paintings look like photographs Fuseli Nightmare 1799 Wincleman was a German anthropologist, archeologist, and scholar Benjamin West was an American painter Death of General Wolf (1771) Lived most of his adult life in Europe. Angelica Kuffman (1741-1807) a woman artist, born into an art family Myself with the Muse of Music Equally talented in music and in art Cornelia Showing Her Children as Her Treasures (1785) very warm color tones, Cornelia is wearing white purity, family morality, balanced, stable, organized, rational, idealized figures Jacques Louis David Death of Socrates (1787) 2 years before the French Revolution

Socrates is a Greek philosopher who called into question the methods of government He was arrested because of his criticism of the government Herashia (1784) swearing on swords, light, idealized, women are weeping Death of Murah (1793) Robespierre was a psychopath who was handling the revolution February 2 Romanticism more emotional (and darker) than neoclassicism Goya 3rd of May 1808 or 3rd of May (1814) French troops are executing Madrid peasants Believed that Goya actually witnessed this execution The white shirt on the man being executed brings your eye straight to him Light around the figures, long broad brush strokes, very far from classicism Distorted figures give viewers the feeling of how the subjects must have felt What would you fight and die for? Goya The Black Paintings (1819-1823) Goya suffered from PTSD, lived alone, surrounded by his nightmares. Tried to paint out his worst fantasies. Saturn Devouring His Children (1820) Saturn (Chronos) was told he would be overthrown by one of his children. So, he ate them. But, Zeus was the one that escaped. Used a dry brush for rough edges, increased the harshness of the image. We are all children of time, and time devours us all. Frans Hals Male Babbe (1630) Theodore Gericault Mad Women (1822-23) The Industrial Revolution (Age of Science) 1800s Mentally ill were horribly mistreated in Pedlams (the institutions where they lived) Gericault The Raft of Medusa (1820) Story of bedrail, man against the elements, survived by cannibalism. Did oil paintings and sketches of the dead bodies in the morgue. Gericault Portrait of Eugene Delacroix Sense of awe, sinister, evil, dark, mysterious Delacroix Death of Sardanapalus (1826) Delacroix naked woman lying No sharp edges. When edges are not finished, motion is implied John Ingres head of the World French Academy of Art Self-portrait: wants us to know hes a confident artist with good looks and sophistication He was archenemies with Delacroix (sophisticated artist vs. avant-garde artist) Constable Haywain (1820) Emphasis on the beauty of nature William Turner The Slave Ship (1840) Master of atmosphere, sometimes he becomes very abstract February 9 The Realist Movement (And Responses to it) The Avant-guarde and the Traditional in the Mind-19th Century The grim and harsh reality, protest to Romanticism Millet was apart of a group of painters called the Barbason School (small town outside of Paris) The Washer Woman (1861) is real, truthful, dark colors, mundane, cant see eyes Sower (1850) is a dark painting, cant see eyes, takes up the whole canvas (that person is important) Gleaners (1857) is a form of social welfare: after fields are harvested, the poor can pick up the remainings Daumier was a cartoonist, printmaker, painter, and sculptor. Represented urban poor. You have the Floor, Explain Yourself (1857) criticizing the judicial system Battle it out in the streets of Paris paintbrush vs. pencil (Romantic vs. Realist) Rou Transnonain (1834) was a print depicting a man shot dead in his bed by policemen/soldiers Third-Class Carriage (1863-1865) shows the crowded mess of people traveling Courvet was outspoken and painted real people within the context of their real existence His aim was to create a living art and must contain only things that are real and existent Show me an angel, and Ill paint one What is the reality of painting? A surface upon which color is applied. Its a two dimensional art. Portrait of Charles Baudelaire (1848)

The burial at Ornans (1849) is a painting of Courvets grandfathers funeral salon an art show in which the winners painting would be displayed The Encounter (Bonjour Monsieur Courbet) (1854) The Stone Cutters (1849) The dignity of laborers The Artists Studio: A Real Allegory of Seven Years of My Life as a Painter (1854) February 16 Manet was conservative and wanted to win the French Medal of the Legion of Honor The Spanish Guitar Player (1860) Le djeuner sur l'herbe (The Lunchin on the Grass) (1863) Most insulting and difficult paintings because it is a very sexual painting Olympia (1865) The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Arts and Craft movement was a response to the Industrial Revolution (producing hand-made, one-of-a-kind things) Believed the Industrial revolution was dehumanizing Produced beautiful things, but not practical things because the cost was higher Ophelia by Millais King Cophetua & the Begger Maid by Burne-Jones Academic Painting Bouguereau is conservative, but academic