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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.1, 2012

Experimental Study of the Variation of Inorganic Compound Concentration in Different Stages of the Wastewater Treatment Plant

*Falah Bani Hani and M.Abdallah/Qasaimeh

Al-Huson University College/AlBalqa' Applied University

Chem

Eng. Dept. P.O.Box 50 AlHuson 21510, Jordan *dr.falahf@yahoo.com

Abstract

The main work of this research was investigating the changes in the concentrations of inorganic compounds during the stages of wastewater treatment plants using activated sludge at different sites in Jordan. In this work, we could examine the performance of the plants in treating the pollutants and the organic solids, and verify their quantitative and qualitative changes. Monthly samplings were taken and tested in the lab for a period of one year, tracking concentration changes of inorganic solids in waste water passing through treatment stages; raw materials, and aeration tank. As a result, treatment of waste water passing operational stages of the plant at different conditions could decrease concentrations of inorganic compounds. Furthermore, based on results we recommend adding a third advanced treatment to inorganic compounds to make water acceptable and reused at different purposes.

Key words: wastewater treatment, nitrates, , inorganic compounds concentrations.

Introduction:

Jordan population has increased rapidly from 0.58 millions in 1950 to more than 5.6 millions ,in 2006[1]. The high population growth rate together with the country's rapid economic development has been accompanied by an increase in water demand, while the available water resources are limited and decreasing. Jordan's water resources are, on per capita basis, among the lowest in the world. In Jordan there are twenty three municipal treatment plants, which cover most of the major , cities and towns. These plants serve about 56 % of the population .The total inflow to these '{ plants is about 234,914 m3/d, of which 224,175 m3/d inflows to Asmara wastewater treatment plant (ASTP) [2]. Jordanian standards for reclaimed wastewater [3] try to regulate both water reuse and environmental discharges. Wastewater contains different amounts of various compounds which can be divided according to their sizes into soluble substances and suspended ones. Soluble substances are very ting and suspended ones are relatively bigger. Both types are divided [4], according to their nature, into organic substances and inorganic ones. These classifications are very important in the field of designing and operating wastewater treatment units and through wastewater treatment plants[5]. When wastewater enters the plant, it goes through different stages of successive and various conditions that can be summarized as follows:

Anoxic conditions: this happens in the detention well where wastes are collected to be drained in a consistent way into the following wells. In this stage, a simple breakup happens to organic substances, dissolution suspended ones, decrease in oxygen and change in some salts from one form

another[5].

Re-Oxygenation conditions: they happen to the dumped materials when they enter the aeration tank and organic substances are oxidized . Other important changes happen, the most important of which is the nitrification of nitrogen organic compounds and ammonia into nitrates[6]. Re-Non-Oxygenation Conditions: this happens in the secondary precipitation tank when aeration is stopped and dissolved oxygen in water decreases and group of changes happen to various compounds in wastewater during these conditions. In all those changes, the researcher interest is mainly concentrated on organic substances (solids) as being the main pollutant along with other quantitative pollutants that might be organic or inorganic. Sometimes, the change of organic substances and their content in wastewater in different treatment stages is associated with the change of other in organic substances under the influence of

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surrounding conditions. These inorganic substances (solids) are very dangerous and harmful to the environment when they are thrown a way on water sources and dams. Organic substances (solids) are a reason for the appearance of problems related to the re-cycling of treated water for different purposes[4,5] such as agriculture because salts constitute a main obstacle in the way of this use. The existence of salts also causes problems and that is why there is an urgent need for checking these inorganic substances (solids) to observe the function of treatment plants and identify the content of treated water and its suitability for different uses. Changing the concentrations of the main inorganic compounds; nitrates, phosphates, sulfurs, and chlorides at the different stages in treatment plants, the following are the interest of this work:

finding out linking relations between different impurities at different treatment stages; getting a full picture of the ability of treatment plants to remove inorganic compounds; identifying the function of concentration changes of inorganic compounds in wastewater before and after treatment; finding methods to enhance treatment units; improving organic material treatment and their relations with inorganic substances[5,6]. In literature [ 7], presented an important study on the content of inorganic suspended solids in the active sludge. They gave a mathematical model to figure the concentration of suspended solids in the materials under treatment and their relationships with phosphate content in sludge. They found a big impact of sludge age on the ratio of total suspended solids to inorganic suspended solids (TSS/ISS) in aeration tank as well as the ratio of phosphate in sludge. They presented instructions and indications useful in of TSS/ISS ratio in activated sludge. This model is based on data taken through a period of fifteen years and thirty nitrification and denitrification treatment in wells. In addition, [8,9] presented a study on recycling strategy of solids (sludge) at general treatment plants with a continuous aeration system. Furthermore, there are a lot of studies on plant treatments characterized by repetition of content, the fact that makes them not necessary to be mentioned.

Experimental Work

Sample of two locally acceptable wastewater treatment plants in the north of Jordan were chosen which all worked with the system of continuous activated aeration sludge and with an organic load between (0,02-0,3kgBOD/kgMLVSS were BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, MLVSS: Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids). Samples were taken from successive sites at each stage as follows:

-Influent water entering the plant: from the entrance passage of the station, before entering

. aeration tank. - Aeration tank: where to follow up characterizations. -Effluent: comprise treated water out of the plant and to verify plant ability and follow up the

. characteristics of water thrown away into the environment. By these samplings, all qualitative characteristics related to treatment were determined. To emphasis results and avoid confusion, analysis was concentrated on many indicators in this research work. These indicators were NO3, PO4-3 ,Cl- , alkalinity, PH, and EC, organic solids as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids. Laboratory tests with consistent specifications[3,10] and monthly samplings were taken and continued for one year with short break only for technical reason

precipitation Tank
precipitation
Tank

Influent

Aeration Tank
Aeration
Tank

Effluent

reason precipitation Tank Influent Aeration Tank Effluent Figure(1) Plant Treatment units from which the samples were

Figure(1) Plant Treatment units from which the samples were taken from each site of the study.

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Discussion

Nitrates are one of the important and main compounds in the field of wastewater treatment. They have positive and negative importance. Nitrogen and its compounds have their importance in the biological treatment of organic materials in processes of activated sludge. They further have importance in other biological treatment, since they are part of the biological tissue structure of micro organisms working in organic treatment (the most important treatment) with tissue ratios of 1, 5, and 100 for C, N, and P elements. It is well known that C represents the concentration of organic substances (solids) or carbon, N represents nitrogen, and P represents phosphoric compounds. Therefore, the condition to success biological treatment and form biological tissue is existence of nitrogen storage that becomes a part of the biological structure. Such existence in treated water is indicated by negative nitrates which play an important role in nutrition enrichment, and for this should be studied in out flowing water[2,5]. It is noticed from figure (2) that nitrates in most months enter site (I) with a very low concentration that does not mean a non-existence of nitrogen compounds. The reason of such low concentration is the existence of other nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, urea and more[8,9]. The increase in nitrate concentration in aeration tank is noticed in most months as shown in figure (2) for sites I, and II, and attributed to existence of oxygen and occurrence of nitrification processes that change ammonia and organic nitrogen into nitrates[11,12]. Existence of nitrates in aeration tank shows a successful biological efficiency, which is not obtained in the case of nitrates nonexistence. In other hand, in thrown away materials, a simple fall in nitrates is noticed in most months as a result of the occurrence of simple anoxic conditions in the precipitation tank, which lead to the change of nitrates into N2 by de-nitrification bacteria [8,9].

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I 25 20 15
Effluent II
Aeration II
Influent II
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Influent I
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Figure 2: Change the Concentration of Nitrate in the Site I &II

Phosphates compounds are important in the field of wastewater treatment. Phosphorus is part of the structure of the biological tissue of micro organisms as a main element. Its absence causes weakness and malfunction of biological treatment. For this, it is important in treatment as nitrates. However, in all sites and in most months, we find as shown in figure (3) that phosphate concentration decreases in water in treatment stages. Such result agrees with as stated in other work [5,7] and is attributed to its consumption in building up the biological tissue. It has been noticed in some station of activated sludge treatment that phosphate removal is much bigger than the amount used in building cellular tissue (1-5-100). Two theories appeared to explain such removal as stated by while mendor and Jenkins [4]. One is due to chemical perception of phosphates, the second is due to excessive consumption of phosphates by micro-organisms called luxury uptake.

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Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I 7 6 5
Effluent II
Aeration II
Influent II
Effluent I
Aeration I
Influent I
7
6
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1
0
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Figure3: Change the Concentration of Phosphate in the Site I & II

Sulfurs compounds usually exist in the flow water and increase in the thrown away materials as a result of domestic uses15-20 mg/L [5]. In figure( 4) notice that sulfurs begin with a certain concentration of materials under treatment (Influent). Simple decrease in concentration happens is attributed to the change of part of sulfurs into sulfide in non-aeration or anoxic conditions in detention well and equalization tank. Simple part of sulfurs is consumed in building up cellular tissue as sulfur is one of the main elements take part in cellular tissue structure along with carbon, nitrogen and

phosphor[4,7].

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I 250 200 150
Effluent II
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Figure 4: Change the Concentration of Sulphate in the Site I & II

Chlorides compounds are very important in wastewater treatment field through their impact on treatment uses and quality of water mainly in agricultural and industrial purposes. The increase in concentration of chloride happens as a result of domestic use [7]. Sometimes, the big increase occurs as a result of throwing away washing water containing ion exchanges used in purifying boilers' water as noticed in some months indicated in figures( 5). It is noticed that there is no clear change in chloride concentration in treated water during treatment stages except for the change resulting from the variety

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of the doses arriving and entering. This is governed by the hydraulic characteristics of treatment tanks during day where no consumption and removal of chlorides during biological treatment.

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I 160 140 120
Effluent II
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Figure5: Change the Concentration of Chloride in the Site I & II

Alkalinity In this study, the significant decrease in alkalinity level during treatment is noticed. The cause of this decrease is due to consumption (take up) of alkalinity occurred in aeration tank during nitrification process, which needed 6.7 gm of alkalinity per 1 gm of ammonia change into nitrates[4,7]. Such effect is clearly shown in figure (6). Low increase in some months is noticed mostly for hydraulic reasons. refers to the existence of inorganic compounds as mostly caused by inorganic compounds existed in thrown away materials mostly as calcium bicarbonates, magnesium, and ammonia[13]. The most common are calcium bicarbonates and magnesium as was measured in this research. The importance of alkalinity becomes evident when there is a chemical treatment. The alkalinity of wastewater comes from several sources mainly are flow water, intermixing and exchange of underground water, and domestic use.

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 September October November Desember January Fabrruary March April
120
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Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I

Effluent II

Aeration IIEffluent II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I

Influent II

Effluent I

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I

Aeration I

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I

Influent I

Figure 6: Change the Concentration of Alkalinity in the Site I & II

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Electrical Conductivity. We notice in figure( 7) the changes in electrical conductivity values in first and second sites. There was a low level conductivity of treated water in the aeration tank that could be due to the change of ions in to insoluble precipitates

Effluent II Aeration II Influent II Effluent I Aeration I Influent I 1400 1200 1000
Effluent II
Aeration II
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Effluent I
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Figure 7: The Change of EC in the Site I & II

Other Indicators, PH Measure is one of the important indictors used to follow up the performance of different tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Its increase means the success of biological areolation unit (activated sludge tank) performance. This performance increase is noticed in stations under this study. also total insolvency represented as calcium and magnesium is one of these indicators. There was no constant state of insolvency change. It is known that biological unit does not affect insolvency concentration in treated water[14].

Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, we have the following conclusions:

- The clear treatment of inorganic compound happens indirectly in variable environmental condition at the different stage of the wastewater treatment plant.

- The change in the concentration of Nitrates in treated water is an indicator of the excellence of the biological unit at the plant. Their increase is an indicator of the safety of the work of the unit .

- Non-metallic inorganic compounds: Biological treatment of relationship with organic compounds.

Nitrates and phosphates are of these compounds while sulfurs are the least.

- The purpose of these plants is only to remove organic compounds and put an end to chemical units at the examined treatment plants.

- Examined treatment plants need additional or advanced treatment units for the purpose of purifying water to the acceptable level in order to rease for different agriculture purposes.

Reference:

[1] Statistical department, Population of Jordan, Annual report, Jordan, 2006. [2] Malkawi, S., Current reclaimed water use in Jordan: Strategies, policies and standards’, The Second Water Reuse Conference, June 6 9,2005,Amman, Jordan. [3] J.S.1995, Jordanian standards for water reuse JS893/1995, Amman [4] Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Re-use, Revised by Tchobanoglous,G and Burton, F.L., McGraw-Hill Inc. New York. USA. [5] Alabaide R,"Monitoring of Wastewater Inorganic compound in deferent stage, j. of pure & applied Science, vol. 2,No.2,p 53-61, 2010. [6] Ammary, B.Y,Radaideh, J.A., "Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in an Oxidation Ditch Plant, chem. biochem. Eng., 9(2), p.207-212, 2005.

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[7] Ekama G.A., Wentzel, M.C., "Modeling Inorganic Material In Activated Sludge Systems. Water SA, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 153-174, 2004. [8] Von Sperling, M., "Solids management for the control of extended aeration systems, Water SA, Vol. 20, No.1, 1994. [9] Kerri, K.D., Operation of wastewater treatment plants. Vol. II, 5th ed., 2001, Office of Water Programs, California State University, Sacramento, USA. [10] APHA, AWWA, ASCE 2000, Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater Examination and Tests. New York. [11] Eckenfelder, W.W.Jr.1998, Biological Treatment of wastewater, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, USA. [12] Gujer, W., Jenkins, D., 1975, "A Nitrification Model of the Contact Stabilization Process. Water Research, Vol. 9, p.561. [13] Eckenfelder ,W.W. Jr., 1989, Industrial Water Pollution Control, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, USA . [14] Jamal, R.,Kamel Z.,Omar Q., Modern Wastewater Treatment Technologies for Better Treatment and Water Reuse, International conference On Water Conservation in Arid Regions,12 october,2009

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