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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA No 2, JALLAHALLI (EAST), BANGALORE-560014

BIOLOGY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

MADE BY: P KARTHIKA XII B

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to my Biology Teacher Mrs. RENUKA in providing a helping hand in this project. Their valuable guidance, support and supervision all through this project titled Purification of water : Processes and quality parameters is responsible for attaining its present form.

P.KARTHIKA XII B

CERTIFICATE
It is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine investigation work has been carried out to investigate about the subject matter and the related data collection and investigation has been completed solely, sincerely and satisfactorily by P.KARTHIKA, XIIB, KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA No. 2 regarding his project titled Purification of water : Processes and quality parameters

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Teachers

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INDEX

INTRODUCTION .. TECHNOLOGY THE PROCESS . QUALITY CONTROL TESTS. REFERENCES

CLAIRE PACKAGED DRINKING WATER KALATHUR FOODS AND BEVERAGES


INTRODUCTION The company was started in the year 1998, to meet the growing demand of pure drinking water of international standards. The most common substance found visible on earth, without which, life cannot exist is water. Even though we live in a world of water, only 3% of the water available on earth is fresh and suitable for human race. At the plant this precious liquid is purified and packaged as per international standards. The company takes pride in bottling purified natural water, employing German membrane filtration technology and their technical expertise.

The plant is located far away from the city, where bottling is done form protected sources, in serene and healthy surroundings. The company constantly explores the frontiers of new technology to give its consumers new exclusively products, offering them the very best in the industry. The latest introduction being Reverse Osmosis purification system used in its new brand CLARO. The products are certified by HACCP and BIS-ISI to be ISI 4543 and thus are of supreme quality.

TECHNOLOGY
The manufacturing process allows raw natural water to go through a controlled processing system, consisting of several stages, starting from 1. The use of protected water sources. 2. Then passing it through different chambers of Activated carbon beds Ion exchanging chambers 1. A series of pre filters. 2. Finally passing it through 0.2 microns membrane filters. 3. Ozonizing for additional safety.

This process is an advanced method to ensure that contaminants including high quantity of metals, minerals and dangerous microbes etc are removed to make water safe.

THE SOURCE
CLAIRE brings people natural processed water from amidst lush, salubrious and virgin environs, where bottling is done from protected source in healthy surroundings.

The raw water collected from one source is referred to as one batch. The raw water is stored in raw water storage tank.

THE PROCESS

OZONISATION
The raw water in the raw water storage tank is ozonized using supercharged oxygen (O3). This gives nascent oxygen (O) which is a good disinfectant to kill microorganisms. The supercharged oxygen (O3) is produced using ozone generator. This latest disinfection methodology removes chlorine completely.
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ACTIVATED CARBON BED


The ozonized water from raw water storage tank is sent to activated carbon bed. The activated carbon acting as excellent adsorbent adsorbs the contaminant and undesired matters, thus removing off odour and ill colour too. Carbon bed acts as a good substrate for micro-organisms too. Thus the carbon bed needs to be disinfected regularly. The beds are backwashed with highly charged oxygen (ozone).

Ozone activated carbon has advantage over normal activated carbon as it has a longer life span and need not be changed often.

REVERSE OSMOSIS UNIT


A complete chlorine free disinfection system using eco friendly ozone and world renowned Membrane filtration technology and expertise from Sartorius Separation

Engineering GmbH - Germany, ensuring guaranteed 0.2 micron filtered water, which is the most reliable processing system for the production of packaged drinking worldwide. The water pass through Reverse Osmosis unit is made to pass from hypotonic concentration that is in the reverse direction and thus is rendered free from microbial and chemicals. In the water obtained contaminant load is reduced from 320 ppm to 5 ppm

REVERSE OSMOSIS UNIT

DEMINERALIZATION

A controlled demineralization process ensures removal of harmful salts without striping the water of essential nutritional minerals. The water is now free from chemicals and all the harmful salts.

REMINERALIZATION IN ION EXCHANGING CHAMBERS


The de- mineralized is then re-mineralized in semi processed water storage tanks. Re- mineralization is done to re-establish the essential nutrients, mineral and ion in water to enhance the quality. This water is again ozonized for removal of any microbial or chemical load.

PRE MEMBRANE FILTER UNITS


The pre membrane filter units filter the water for any contaminant. There are several filters arranged in series, whose pore size ranges from 2 microns to 1.65 micron and then to 0.65 micron . The final pre membrane filter has pores of size 0.2 micron. At this stage even the micro organisms are filtered. This filtered water is then rendered to UV treatment for further purification.

OZONE MIXING BAFFLE


The filtered from pre membrane filter units are sent to ozone mixing baffles. Here the water is mixed with water to bring about most efficient purification of water.

These ozone mixing baffles are made up of stainless steel of 316 grade. The supreme grade certified stainless steel is used to build the tanks because regular steaming is required to sterilize to equipments. This filtered, purified and ozonised is then packaged into clean and sterilized containers. The time consumption to process 2000 liters of water through the complete cycle is around 2 .5 hours.

VISUAL EXAMINATION
The processed water is then visually examined for any observable contamination. The water is visualized in presence of strong intensity lights against black and white coloured curtains. Any black contaminant is viewed against white curtain and any white contaminant is viewed against black curtain. This water is then bottled.

STERILIZATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS


The bottles and cans are disinfected and sterilized before packaging of the purified natural water. In the sterilization chambers precautionary measures are taken to prevent contamination from any source. The working people are instructed to follow precautionary norms like wearing gloves, mask, head scarf, uniforms etc. which are sterilized.

THE PACKAGING MATERIAL IS STERILIZED AS REPRESENTED BELOW

QUALITY CONTROL TESTS


The packaged pure natural water is tested in pathological labs for any microbial contamination. This is to upgrade the quality of water to BIS-ISI standard. The cans from production unit are sent to Quality control labs and the packaged water is tested both microbiologically and chemically in these labs to ensure supreme quality of water. Here are six microbiological tests conducted to test water for different parameters.

AEROBIC MICROBIAL COUNT


Pour plate technique is followed to test the water sample of a batch for aerobic micro- organisms. In this technique in a sample of 1 ml TOTAL PLATE COUNT AGAR is added. For fast growing micro organisms plates are incubated at 37 0 C for DIGITAL COLONY 24 hrs and for slow COUNTER growing microorganisms incubation temperature maintained is 20-220 C

for 72 hrs. this incubator is called BOD incubator which maintains a temperature lesser than surrounding atmosphere . Incubation is done and the plates are detected for the presence of micro organisms in colonies using colony counter. Different micro organisms are incubated at different temperature and for different duration which is optimum growth temperature and duration for incubation. The bacterial count in the test sample should range from 0-20 CFU/ml after 24 hours of incubation at 370 C and 0100 CFU/ml after incubation under 20-22 0 C. Yeasts and moulds rarely withstand the processing conditions and thus do not survive. They are not tested preferably because of time consumption. If detected at later stage the dispatched is immediately rendered unfit for dispatch.

Complete removal of micro- organisms i.e., O microbial count is not possible to be attained but the technique ensures supreme quality of pure drinking water which meets the standards set by government body under BISISI and HACCP. The sample is sent to BIS certified labs every month to be tested for any pathogenic strains like Salmonella typhi, Shigella, Cholera. The tests are not conducted in inbuilt labs of industries of food industries as it can lead to further contamination treating the workers as carriers of micro- organisms.

FOR THE DETECTION OF E. COLI (Escherichia coli), AND COLIFORM THE FOLLOWING METHOD IS USED

MEMBRANE FILTRATION METHOD


250 ml of water sample is Membrane filtered and transferred to LACTOSE TTC AGAR plate. This is incubated at 370 C up to 48 hrs. The media is looked for yellow colouration. Presence of yellow colour conforms the presence of E.coli and Coliform.

THIS METHOD IS ALSO USED TO DETECT THE PRESENCE OF Yeast AND Mould AS STATED BELOW. First 250 ml of sample is membrane filtered. Filter is plated on Yeast glucose cloranophenicol agar media and incubated for 5 days at 250C. It is observed for growth at the end of third or fifth day. The limit is that it should be

absent in 250 ml of sample.

INCUBATOR: An apparatus or device to maintain appropriate growth temperature for bacterial growth.

Hot air oven: for sterilization and drying


FOR THE DETECTION OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa THE FOLLOWING METHOD IS USED. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause urinary tract infection etc. METHOD: 250ml of sample water is membrane filtered and transferred to Asparagine proline broth. Incubation is done for 48 hours at 370C. Now it is looked for fluorescence under UV lamp. If bluish green fluorescence is observed, Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be present .If broth is colourless it is absent. CONFORMATION: A steak is taken over Milk cetrimide agar. In the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa casein (which otherwise is an opaque media) changes to transparent.

AGAR USED IN MEMBRANE FILTRATION.

WATER SAMPLES TO BE TESTED

MICROBIAL TESTING AREA: also called laminar air flow bench used to provide aseptic conditions to work with bacterial samples.

Autoclave, pressurized vessel that uses superheated steam to sterilize materials and equipments.

UV TREATMENT UNIT

FILTER

UNIT CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON: The activated carbon acting as excellent adsorbent adsorbs the contaminant and undesired matters, thus removing off odour and ill colour too.

CHEMICAL TESTS
The water sample is tested for physical parameters, odour, colour turbidity etc. Undesirable elements in excess like nitrites, calcium, magnesium etc. are also removed. Alkalinity (HCO3 should be less than 200 mg/ ltr) . salinity etc. are also set according to International standards .

Thus every batch of water passes through stringent quality control tests both at the house quality control laboratory and external labs to ensure compliance with Indian and International standards.

FUTURE APPLICATIONS
The methods described above are very helpful in making water drinkable. Though these methods are capable of purifying the water to a large extent, the methods can be developed further for utmost purification. The methods are such that when needed can be applied to water with any amount of impurities in future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

Minerals in Drinking Water. Aquatechnology.net. (PDF) Water for Life: Making it Happen. World Health Organization and UNICEF. 2005.

2.

3.

Quick Notes provided to s by Claro drinking water laboratory

Improvements Suggested
Based on research from various sources the following improvements are suggested:
Hydrogen peroxide disinfection Works in a similar way to ozone. Activators such as formic acid are often added to increase the efficacy of disinfection. It has the disadvantages that it is slow-working, phytotoxic in high dosage, and decreases the pH of the water it purifies. Solar water disinfection One low-cost method of disinfecting water that can often be implemented with locally available materials is solar disinfection (SODIS). Unlike methods that rely on firewood, it has low impact on the environment. One recent study has found that the wild Salmonella which would reproduce quickly during subsequent dark storage of solardisinfected water could be controlled by the addition of just 10 parts per million of hydrogen peroxide. Iron Water Filter Iron filters are especially effective in removing hydrogen sulfide and manganese from the water supply and odor in the water supply. As such, iron filters improve water clarity, odor and taste Ionizers Alkaline Water Ionizers are the latest technology in water purification.

Through a two step process water gets filtered and ionized. The first step is filtration. water is sent through a filter which has silver activated charcoal. There are twelve different impurities that are filtered out. They are Asbestos, bacteria, detergents, inorganic chemicals, lead, organic chemicals, particulate, pesticides, pollens, trihalomethanes, and volatile organic chemicals. The second step occurs when the water is sent to the ionized chamber. An electric current with a low voltage passes through the water. This process separates the water into acid and alkaline. The alkaline water is for our drinking. The acid water does not go to waste. It is used for disinfecting and healing for skin and is also used for plants. Distillation It is an additional process suggested for making the awter more safe. During the distillation process, water is turned into a vapor, a process which causes heavy minerals to be left behind. The mineral-free vapors are then re-condensed to become purified water. This process ensures that cryptosporidium, a dangerous parasite commonly found in lakes and rivers that can cause diarrhea, fever and nausea, is also left behind.