Sei sulla pagina 1di 86

KUNGL TEKNISKA HGSKOLAN

Institutionen fr
Signaler, Sensorer & System
10044 STOCKHOLM
ROYAL INSTITUTE
OF TECHNOLOGY
Instrumentation Laboratory Elektrisk mtteknik
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field Sensors
Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
by
Hans Sohlstrm
TRITA-ILA 93.01
S-10044 STOCKHOLM
Department of
Signals, Sensors & Systems
Fi bre Opti c Magneti c Fi eld Sensors
Uti li zi ng Iron Garnet Materi als
Thesis by
Hans Sohlst r m
Submit t ed t o t he School of Elect r ical Engineer ing,
Royal Inst it ut e of Technology
in par t ial fulfilment of t he r equir ement s for t he degr ee of
Doct or of Philosophy
TRITA-ILA 93.01
Second cor r ect ed pr int ing, Apr il 1993
Depar t ment of Signals, Sensor s & Syst ems
Inst r ument at ion Labor at or y
Royal Inst it ut e of Technology
S-10044 St ockholm
Sweden
V
Descriptors
YIG, ir on gar net s, r ar e ear t h gar net s, magnet o-opt ics, opt ical waveguide,
fibr e opt ic sensor s, magnet ic field measur ement , cur r ent measur ement .
Abst r act
This t hesis deals wit h t he subject of fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor s
ut ilizing ir on gar net mat er ials. Such mat er ials exhibit a lar ge Far aday
r ot at ion which make t hem advant ageous for applicat ion in compact mag-
net ic field sensor s.
Aft er an int r oduct ion, in which fibr e opt ic sensor s and opt ical met hods t o
mea sur e elect r ic cur r ent a r e r eviewed, t he or igina l r esea r ch wor k is
summar ized.
A syst em for t he measur ement of t he magnet o-opt ic pr oper t ies of t r ans-
par ent mat er ials is descr ibed. Measur ement r esult s, showing t he influence
of t emper at ur e, magnet ic field dir ect ion and sample t r eat ment on t he
magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies of YIG-cr yst als, ar e pr esent ed. The pr oper t ies of
t hin ma gnet o-opt ica l wa veguiding films ha ve a lso been st udied using
differ ent light coupling met hods. Measur ement r esult s obt ained for holo-
gr a phic gr a t ing, pr ism a nd edge (end-fir e) light coupling t o differ ent
subst it ut ed YIG films ar e pr esent ed. It is shown t hat t he launching met hod
may affect t he pr oper t ies t o be measur ed.
The design and per for mance of sever al ver sions of ext r insic guided wave
fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor s ar e t hen r epor t ed. The sensor s employ
subst it ut ed YIG (Yt t r ium Ir on Gar net , Y
3
Fe
5
O
12
) t hin film waveguides as
sensing element s. Polar izat ion maint aining fibr es wer e used as feed and
r et ur n t o pr ovide t wo signal channels. The signals wer e combined in a
balanced measur ement syst em, pr oviding insensit ivit y t o bot h fluct uat ions
in opt ical power and loss. Sensor s have been made bot h wit h separ at e fibr es
t o guide t he light t o and fr om t he sensing element and wit h a single fibr e for
bot h funct ions. The t wo fibr e ver sion, alt hough less elegant , is found t o
have a bet t er per for mance. This ver sion also makes it possible t o det er mine
bot h t he magnit ude and sign of t he magnet ic field. Measur ement r esult s
indicat e a usable measur ement r ange of at least sever al mT wit h a noise
equivalent magnet ic field level of less t han 8nT/

Hz.
The design and per for mance of mult imode fibr e opt ic magnet ic field
sensor s ut ilizing t he Fa r a da y effect in a n epit a xia lly gr own t hick
(YbTbBi)IG film is also descr ibed. This t ype of sensor is found t o be linear
over a r ange fr om 27mT t o less t han 270nT. Sensor pr ot ot ypes suit able for
cur r ent monit or ing in high volt a ge t r a nsmission lines ha ve a lso been
developed.
VI
VII
List of publicat ions
This t hesis is based on t he wor k cont ained in t he following paper s:
A: U. Holm, H. Sohlst r m and T. Br ogr dh, Measur ement syst em for
magnet o-opt ic sensor mat er ials, J . Phys. E: S ci. Inst rum., vol. 17,
p. 885889, 1984.
B: U. Holm, H. Sohlst r m and T. Br ogr dh, YIG-sensor design for fibr e
opt ical magnet ic field measur ement , OFS 84, R. Th. Ker st en and
R. Kist , p. 333336, VDE-Ver lag, Ber lin, 1984.
C: U. Holm and H. Sohlst r m, Measurement of YIG crystal characteristics
for the design of optical magnetic field sensors, TR84.01, Inst r ument a -
t ion Labor at or y; Royal Inst it ut e of Technology, St ockholm, 1984.
D: H. Sohlst r m, U. Holm and K. Svant esson, A Polar izat ion Based Fibr e
Opt ical Sensor Syst em Using a YIG Opt ical Waveguide for Magnet ic
Field Sensing, S pringer proceedings in Physics 44: Opt ical Fiber
S ensors, H. J . Ar dit t y, J . P. Dakin, and R. Th. Ker st en, p. 273278,
Spr inger -Ver lag, Ber lin, 1989.
E: H. Sohlst r m, U. Holm and K. G. Svant esson, Char act er izat ion of
Magnet oopt ical Thin Films for Sensor Use, S PIE Proc Elect ro-Opt ic
and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J . P. Cast er a, vol. 1126,
p. 7784, 1989.
F: K. Svant esson, H. Sohlst r m and U. Holm, Magnet o-opt ical gar net
mat er ials in fibr e opt ic sensor syst ems for magnet ic field sensing, S PIE
Proc Elect ro-Opt ic and Magnet o-Opt ic Mat erials and Applicat ions II,
H. Dammann, vol. 1274, p.260269, 1990.
G: H. Sohlst r m a nd K. Sva nt esson, A wa veguide ba sed fibr e opt ic
magnet ic field sensor wit h dir ect ional sensit ivit y, S PIE Proc Fiber
Opt ic S ensors: Engineering and Applicat ions, A. J . Br uinsma and
B. Culshaw, vol. 1511, p. 142148, 1991.
H: H. Sohlst r m and K. Svant esson, The per for mance of a fibr e opt ic
magnet ic field sensor ut ilizing a magnet o-opt ical gar net , Fiber and
Integrated Optics, vol. 11, p.137141, 1992, also pr esent ed at t he OFS8
confer ence in Mont er ey, J an. 92.
VIII
IX
Cont ent s
Abst r act ............................................................................................................. V
List of publicat ions ......................................................................................... VII
Cont ent s ........................................................................................................... IX
1. The aim and or ganizat ion of t he t hesis ........................................................ 1
2. Int r oduct ion ................................................................................................... 3
Fibr e opt ic sensor s .................................................................................. 3
Magnet ic field measur ement .................................................................. 7
Measur ement of elect r ic cur r ent ............................................................ 9
Opt ical met hods for magnet ic field and ................................................. 9
YIG ........................................................................................................ 18
3. St ar t ing point s for t he sensor development wor k ..................................... 22
4. Mat er ial char act er izat ion measur ement s .................................................. 24
Bulk mat er ials ...................................................................................... 24
Waveguides ........................................................................................... 30
5. Sensor s. ........................................................................................................ 35
Single-mode syst ems ............................................................................. 35
Mult imode syst ems ............................................................................... 41
6. Conclusions .................................................................................................. 45
7. Acknowledgement s ...................................................................................... 46
Refer ences ........................................................................................................ 47
Comment s on t he aut hor ship of t he paper s ................................................... 55
Paper abst r act s ................................................................................................ 56
Paper r epr int s .................................................................................................. 59
Paper A
Paper B
Paper C
Paper D
Paper E
Paper F
Paper G
Paper H
X
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
1
1. The aim and or ganizat ion of t he t hesis
The indust r ial development has cr eat ed a gr owing demand for new t ypes of
measur ement and t her efor e new t ypes of sensor s, t o enhance t he qualit y of
differ ent pr ocesses. The physical envir onment for t he sensor s has, at t he
same t ime, become t ougher and mor e elect r omagnet ically pollut ed.
To over come t he elect r omagnet ic pollut ion and also t o achieve ot her
a dva nt a ges, t her e ha s, st a r t ing in t he mid sevent ies, been a st ea dily
gr owing int er est in fibr e opt ic sensor s. Opt ical met hods have long been used
for measur ement pur poses, but t he t echnological base developed for fibr e
opt ic communicat ion applicat ions has widened t he scope consider ably. Fibr e
opt ic r emot e sensing syst ems, pr oviding immunit y t o elect r omagnet ic int er -
fer ence, elect r ical isolat ion and a number of ot her advant ages, could now be
developed.
The measur ement of magnet ic field or cur r ent in elect r ical power syst ems
ar e applicat ions in which t hese advant ages ar e ver y significant .
This t hesis is t o a lar ge ext ent based on wor k made as par t of t he Single
Mode Sensor Pr oject t hat was st ar t ed in 1981 as a co-oper at ive effor t by t he
I nst rument at ion Laborat ory of t he Royal I nst it ut e of Technology, t he
Institute of Microelectronics (IM) and t he Institute of Optical Research (IOF).
The pr oject was financed by t he Nat ional S wedish Board for Technical
Development (S TU).
The aim of t he pr oject was t o st udy t he applicabilit y of single mode
opt ical fibr e t echnology for sensor use. AS EA AB (now ABB), one of t he
pr oponent s of t he pr oject , ha d a t t ha t t ime developed a number of
mult imode fibr e opt ic sensor s. Par t ly because of t heir int er est t he develop-
ment of a magnet ic field or elect r ic cur r ent sensor was chosen as t he
wor king goal.
Most of t he elect r ic cur r ent sensor s developed at t hat t ime ut ilized t he
Far aday effect in long lengt hs of fibr e, coiled ar ound t he conduct or . The
difficult ies encount er ed wit h such sensor s led us t o st udy sensor s based on
localized sensing element s made fr om mat er ials having a lar ge Far aday
r ot at ion, e.g. YIG (Y
3
Fe
5
O
12
).
Dur ing t he ear ly st ages of t he pr oject wor k, polar izat ion maint aining
fibr es became available. We t hen r ecognized t he possibilit y of a syst em in
which polar isat ion maint aining fibr es wer e used t o car r y t he light t o and
fr om a sensing element in t he for m of a YIG waveguide.
St udies of mult imode sensor s using bulk YIG or t hick films of subst it ut ed
YIG , wer e also car r ied out . A number of such sensor s wer e developed for
differ ent applicat ions.
The aim of t his t hesis is t o st udy t he feasibilit y of magnet ic field sensor s
based on ir on gar net mat er ials. As bot h single-mode and mult imode sensor s
Hans S ohlstrm
2
Fig.1. A magnetic field sensor in the form of a waveguiding chip the idea
as envisioned during the initial stages of the project.
ar e t r eat ed, t he t hesis can also be said t o for m a compar ison of t he t wo
t ypes.
Measur ement t echnology is an applicat ion or ient ed r esear ch ar ea, and
t he st r ess in t his t hesis is on t he sensor development and t he mat er ial
char act er izat ion. The paper s on which t he t hesis is based descr ibe differ ent
aspect s of t he sensor development wor k, fr om t he init ial ideas t o wor king
sensor pr ot ot ypes. In t his summar y I will pr imar ily mot ivat e and discuss
t he wor k in or der t o give a cont ext t o t he differ ent paper s. For t his pur pose
t he summar y includes an int r oduct ion in which t he t heor y is out lined and
also some illust r at ive r esult s, t hat wer e omit t ed in t he paper s due t o t he
limit at ions of t he confer ence cont r ibut ion for mat . The int r oduct ion also
cont ains an over view of fibr e opt ic sensor s and cur r ent measur ement in
gener al. In sect ion 3, I t hen out line t he sensor development and t he r ole of
t he mat er ial char act er izat ion. The summar y of my wor k is given in sect ions
4 and 5. At t he end of each of t hese t wo sect ions r efer ences ar e given t o t he
differ ent paper s. Finally, in t he conclusion, I summar ize and speculat e
somewhat about t he implicat ions of t he r esult s.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
3
2. Int r oduct ion
Fi bre opti c sensors
Defi ni t i ons
A fibre optic sensor consist s of an opt ical sensing element which under t he
influence of t he quant it y t o be measur ed modulat es light , and opt ical fibr es
t o guide t he light t o and fr om t he sensing element . When also t he sensing
element consist s of opt ical fibr es, t he sensor is intrinsic, and when t he fibr es
ar e only ut ilized t o guide t he light t o and fr om t he sensing element , which is
it self ext er nal t o t he fibr e, t he sensor is extrinsic. In lit er at ur e, t he t er m
fibr e opt ic sensor is somet imes r eser ved for t he int r insic sensor s only.
This definit ion does not include pyr omet er s t hat use an opt ical fibr e
bet ween t he collect ing opt ics and t he det ect or . For mally it also excludes t he
pyr omet r ic devices t hat measur e t he t emper at ur e of a met allic film on t he
fibr e end and similar devices wher e t he sensing element emit s light ,
alt hough t hey ar e oft en consider ed t o be fibr e opt ic sensor s.
Anot her class of sensor s t hat should be ment ioned in t his cont ext ar e t he
opt ically power ed elect r onic sensor s or hybrid sensor s. As all t heir connec-
t ions wit h t he out side wor ld ar e opt ical, t hey shar e many of t he advant ages
of t he fibr e opt ic sensor s, while at t he same t ime t hey allow t he use of est ab-
lished elect r onic sensing pr inciples. They ma y a lso pr ovide a wa y for
convent ional sensor s t o be int egr at ed int o opt ical sensor net wor ks.
Hi st or i ca l not es
Opt ical measur ement met hods have long been used: opt ical t elephone
t r ansmission was pat ent ed in 1880, and pat ent s fr om 1927 (Mar coni Co.)
and 1934 (Amer ican Telephone & Telegr aph Co.)
1
show t he pr inciples of
opt ical fibr es, wavelengt h mult iplexing, et c. Wit hout usable opt ical fibr es
and laser light sour ces, however , lit t le pr ogr ess was made. In t he 1960s t he
laser was invent ed and opt ical fibr es became available, figur e2. The r apid
development in t he opt ical communicat ions field has since t hen made
opt ical and elect r o-opt ical component s available at r easonable pr ices also for
measur ement applicat ions.
In t he fir st fibr e opt ic sensor s t hat wer e developed, bundles of opt ical
fibr es wer e used
2
, but similar sensor s wit h single fibr es soon appear ed
3
.
Dur ing t he ear ly 70s many of t he commonly used sensing pr inciples wher e
developed
4,5,6,7,8
. Since t hen, t he t echnological advances of t he fibr e opt ic
communicat ions r esear ch and development have immediat ely been t aken
advant age of in t he sensor communit y.
Hans S ohlstrm
4
Limit for the
silica fibre
1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Year
F
i
b
r
e

l
o
s
s

[
d
B
/
k
m
]
Fig.2. The minimum losses of fibres developed for optical communications.
The t r uly unique feat ur es of t he fibr e opt ic sensor s, t heir immunit y t o
elect r omagnet ic int er fer ence and t heir elect r ical isolat ion, wer e r ecognized
fr om t he ver y st ar t , and scenar ios fr om t he sevent ies indicat ed a complet e
swit ch t o opt ica l mea sur ement t echnologies. Wha t wa s not , however ,
t hor oughly r ecognized was t hat indust r y r eally needed r eliable st andar dized
equipment wit h pr oven per for mance, not labor at or y pr ot ot ypes. Aft er a
gener al disappoint ment at t he end of t he 80s, t her e is now in t he 90s a
r enewed opt imism, t hough on a mor e r ealist ic scale, as t he fir st indust r ial
pr ot ot ypes of fibr e opt ic sensor s ar e being int r oduced. One of t he leading
applicat ion ar eas for t his is t he elect r ical power indust r y, one of t he ar eas
wher e t he or iginal int er est fir st st ir r ed, indicat ing t he impor t ant r ole of
t ime and a pioneer ing applicat ion in t he accept ance of new t echnologies.
Pr i nci pl es
J ust as wit h t he convent ional elect r ic sensor s t he number of combinat ions of
measur ement quant it y, sensing pr inciple and out put par amet er is lar ge.
The out put par amet er , t he t ype of modulat ion t hat car r ies t he infor mat ion
fr om t he sensing element is a possible pr inciple of classificat ion.
The opt ical power or t he intensity of t he r et ur ned light is a fundament al
par amet er . In fact , int ensit y is t he only quant it y we can measur e. All ot her
quant it ies must in some way be conver t ed t o int ensit ies at one or mor e
det ect or s and possibly wit h a var iat ion wit h t ime.
The use of t he t er m intensity her e is somewhat unclear . I n t en si t y or
radiant intensity is, accor ding t o int er nat ional st andar ds, defined as power
per solid angle. Alt hough t his quant it y is modulat ed when t he t ot al power is
modulat ed, it would in pr inciple be mor e cor r ect t o speak of optical power
and power modulation. The use of t he t er m int ensit y as a r elat ive measur e
of power is, however , est ablished in lit er at ur e and will also be followed in
t his t ext .
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
5
In an ext r insic int ensit y sensor t he modulat ion can t ake place in an
opt ical syst em wit h moving par t s
9
, a piece of mat er ial wit h an envir on-
ment ally dependent opt ical loss
10
, et c. In an int r insic sensor t he modula-
t ion is caused by a var iat ion in t he opt ical pr oper t ies of t he fibr e it self.
Sever al loss mechanisms can be exploit ed, micr obending
11,12
, r eflect ions
fr om gr at ings in t he fibr e
13
, t emper at ur e dependent scat t er ing in t he
fibr e
14
, losses caused by dopant s in t he fibr e and light decoupling fr om t he
fibr e
15
ar e some examples.
Sever al of t hese ar e loss mechanisms t hat ar e always pr esent in a fibr e
opt ic syst em. This indicat es a major weakness of an int ensit y based sensor :
t her e is in pr inciple always a loss var iat ion in t he opt ical syst em and t his
could not dir ect ly be discr iminat ed fr om var iat ions in t he measur and. Oft en
however , some known pr oper t ies of t he measur and signal can be used t o
separ at e it fr om t he loss var iat ion.
To complet ely r emove t he uncer t aint y t hat is cr eat ed by t he loss var ia -
t ion, a syst em wit h a r efer ence channel can be used. In such a syst em t wo
light int ensit ies ar e measur ed. If t he r elat ion bet ween t he influence of t he
loss and t he influence of t he measur and is differ ent for t he t wo channels,
t he influence of t he loss can be r emoved. One r ealizat ion of t his is t he
balanced syst em in which t he sum of t he t wo det ect ed int ensit ies is affect ed
by t he syst em loss a nd t he dist r ibut ion bet ween t hem only by t he
measur and. A similar appr oach is t o use t he int ensit y var iat ions wit h t ime
t o achieve a syst em t hat is independent of t he absolut e int ensit y. The use of
fluor escence decay for t emper at ur e sensing has been st udied
16
.
The wavelengt h of t he light can be used t o car r y infor mat ion in sever al
ways. The sensing element can cause a wavelengt h dependent loss and
t r ansmit only cer t ain wavelengt hs of t hose emit t ed fr om a br oadband light
sour ce
17
. The sensing element can also r eceive light wit h one wavelengt h
and emit light wit h anot her . The infor mat ion can t hen lie in t he spect r al
cont ent of t he emit t ed light
18
, in which case it is a t r ue wavelengt h modu-
lat ion, or in t he int ensit y of t he conver t ed light , in which case it is bet t er
descr ibed as an int ensit y based syst em, per haps wit h a r efer ence channel.
The ph ase of t he light is used in t he ver y sensit ive int er fer omet r ic
sensor s
19
. In such a sensor t he fr ee-pat h ar ms of a convent ional int er -
fer omet er ar e r eplaced by opt ical fibr es t hat make t he int er fer omet er much
mor e r ugged and at t he same t ime ver y sensit ive t o any change in t he
effect ive r efr act ive indices or lengt hs of t he fibr es. The changes can for
example be caused by an absolut e r ot at ion, making t he device a r ot at ion
sensor ; t he envir onment al pr essur e, making it a ver y sensit ive hydr ophone
or a magnet ost r ict ive per t ur bat ion, making it a ver y sensit ive magnet o-
met er .
The polarizat ion st at e of t he light can also be ut ilized in t he sensing
element . The most usual examples of t his ar e sensor s using t he Far aday
effect , as will be fur t her discussed below, but ext r insic elect r o-opt ic elect r ic
field sensor s
20
and pr essur e sensor s based on phot oelast ic effect s in ext r in-
sic sensor s
21
or in fibr es
22,2 3
ca n a lso be found in lit er a t ur e. The
Hans S ohlstrm
6
polar izat ion st at e can, however , not be used as t he infor mat ion car r ying
par amet er in t he fibr e.
Most of t he sensor s t hat use polar izat ion modulat ion in t he sensing
element int er nally conver t it t o an int ensit y modulat ion. Alt er nat ively, it
could be conver t ed t o t wo differ ent int ensit ies cr eat ing a balanced syst em,
cf. above. The use of a polar izat ion maint aining opt ical fibr e makes it
possible t o t r ansmit t hese t wo channels in one fibr e cor e.
Si ngl e-mod e or mul t i mod e
Out of t he above ment ioned par amet er s, only t he wavelengt h and t he int en-
sit y can be maint ained when t he light pr opagat es along a multimode fibr e.
The opt ical loss var iat ion always pr esent in a pr act ical syst em, however ,
limit s t he applicabilit y of int ensit y as t he infor mat ion car r ier . The many
differ ent pr opagat ion modes allowed in t he mult imode fibr e, give r ise t o a
disper sion t hat dest r oys t he phase infor mat ion and causes a bandwidt h
limit at ion for t he int ensit y infor mat ion.
The cor e of a single-mode fibr e is so t hin, nor mally 510m, t hat only
one mode is allowed. For monochr omat ic light it has no disper sion. The
small disper sion associat ed wit h t he spect r al widt h of t he light can, in many
inst ances, be ignor ed. The phase infor mat ion is r et ained in t he single-mode
fibr e. The phase dr ift associat ed wit h changes of t he opt ical lengt h of t he
fibr e must , however , be t aken int o account . The polar isat ion st at e cannot be
maint ained for any longer lengt hs of fibr e because t he almost per fect
cir cular symmet r y of t he fibr e makes t he t wo or t hogonal polar izat ion modes
degener at e, allowing t he polar izat ion st at e t o change under t he influence of
t he fibr e bir efr ingence.
The polarizat ion maint aining (p. preserving) fibr e is a special t ype of
single-mode fibr e wit h a cor e t hat is ellipt ical or has an anisot r opic index of
r efr act ion. This r emoves t he degener acy of t he fibr e polar izat ion modes,
allowing t hem t o exist independent ly of each ot her . Polar ized light coupled
int o t he fibr e will, t hus, be dist r ibut ed int o t he t wo polar izat ion modes and
will t hen t r avel along t he fibr e wit hout mode coupling. The polar izat ion
st at e is in fact not gener ally maint ained as t he phase r elat ion bet ween t he
t wo or t hogonal component s pr esent at t he input is lost due t o t he differ ence
in pr opagat ion const ant for t he t wo modes. The int ensit y r at io bet ween t he
light in t he t wo modes is however maint ained. Only for t he special case
wher e only one polar izat ion mode is excit ed t he fibr e is r eally polar izat ion
maint aining.
Pl a na r wa vegui d es
J ust as light can be guided in an opt ical fibr e which is a cir cular waveguide,
it can be guided in a planar waveguide. The simplest st r uct ur e is t he planar
slab guide, figur e3, wher e a planar film of r efr act ive index n
f
is sandwiched
bet ween a subst rat e and a cov er mat er ial wit h lower r efr act ive indices
(n
f
>n
s
, n
c
). Oft en t he cover mat er ial is air (n
c
=1). In t he slab guide t her e is
no confinement of t he light in t he plane of t he film.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
7
Subst r at e, n
s
Cover, n
c
Film, n
f
h
Fig.3. The planar slab waveguide.
The light is guided in t he same way as in an opt ical fibr e, t hough con-
fined only in one dimension. J ust as wit h t he fibr e, t her e ar e single-mode
and mult imode guides. Some of t he mat er ial combinat ions used for planar
guides have much lar ger index differ ences t han nor mally used in fibr es.
Beca use of t his, wa veguide t hicknesses, h, of 1m or less a r e oft en
necessar y t o achieve st r ict single-mode guiding.
In analyzing t he guide one has t o t r eat t he case of TE (Elect ric field
transverse to the propagation direction) and TM (Magnetic field transverse to
t he propagat ion direct ion) st at e of polar izat ion separ at ely. Due t o t he
differ ent phase shift s on t ot al r eflect ion, t he pr opagat ion const ant s will be
differ ent for t he t wo cases. For small index differ ences and wit h t hick
guides, t he differ ence in pr opagat ion const ant bet ween t he TE and t he TM
mode, , is small,
=
TE

TM
In many pr act ical cases however , t he magnit ude of is not iceable.
Below, I will descr ibe how t he Far aday effect in a planar waveguide can
be t r eat ed as a coupling bet ween t he TE and TM modes of t he same or der .
This coupling cannot effect ively t ake place if t he t wo modes do not r un in
synchr onism, i. e. if is far fr om zer o.
As in a slab waveguide t her e is no confinement of t he light in t he plane of
t he waveguide, one must use t he planar equivalent of convent ional bulk
opt ica l met hods t o cont r ol t he light in t he t r a nsver se dir ect ion. The
a lt er na t ive is t o confine t he light in bot h dimensions wit h a channel
waveguide.
Magneti c fi eld measurement
Befor e dealing wit h t he opt ical magnet ic field measur ement met hods, a
shor t descr ipt ion of magnet ic field measur ement in gener al is r elevant .
Magnet ic field measur ement s ar e not only made t o measur e t he magnet ic
field it self, but also t o pr ovide indir ect infor mat ion about ot her quant it ies.
Measur ement of elect r ic cur r ent , r ot at ion speed measur ement using a
per manent magnet and a pick-up coil, acoust ic pr essur e sensing using
Hans S ohlstrm
8
Sear ch-Coil Magnet omet er
Flux-Gat e Magnet omet er
Opt ically Pumped Magnet omet er
Nuclear Pr ecession Magnet omet er
SQUID Magnet omet er
Hall-Effect Sensor
Magnet or esist ive Magnet omet er
Magnet odiode
Magnet ot r ansist or
Fibr e-Opt ic Magnet omet er
Magnet o-Opt ical Sensor
Magnet ic Sensor Technology
10
12
10
9
10
6
10
3
1 10
+3
Det ect able Field [T]
Fr om Lenz Fr om t his t hesis
Fig.4. Magnetic field sensor comparison, adapted from
26
. In addition to the
data taken from the reference, the magnetic field range for the sensors
demonstrated in this thesis is given.
dyn a mi c mi cr oph on es , a n d s u bma r i n e det ect i on u s i n g SQUI D:s
(Super conduct ing Quant um Int er fer ence Device) t o det ect per t ur bat ions of
t he ear t hs magnet ic field ar e some examples. In addit ion t o t he lar ge
pr act ical differ ences, t he r anges of magnet ic field encount er ed ar e ver y
differ ent . The measur ement of elect r ic cur r ent may involve fields exceeding
1T, while submar ine det ect ion demands a noise level ar ound 10
-11
T
24,25
.
The r equir ed bandwidt hs r ange fr om about 1Hz for submar ine det ect ion t o
GHz for EMC measur ement s.
An over view of some differ ent measur ement t echnologies is given in
figur e4. The magnet ic field r ange for t he fibr e opt ic sensor s demonst r at ed
in t his t hesis is indicat ed in addit ion t o t he dat a fr om t he r efer ence.
Evident ly, sensor s ut ilizing magnet o-opt ical effect s cover a lar ge field r ange.
Toget her wit h t he Fibr e-Opt ic Magnet omet er , t hey cover t he ent ir e r ange
given in figur e4 except t he ver y low fields t hat can only be det ect ed by
SQUID Magnet omet er s.
Measur ement of elect r ic cur r ent has been t he main applicat ion con-
sider ed in t his wor k. It is, t her efor e, appr opr iat e t o widen t he view and also
have a br ief look at cur r ent measur ement in gener al.
Measurement of electri c current
Cur r ent and per haps volt age ar e t he only quant it ies t hat can r eally be
measur ed wit h convent ional elect r ical met hods. All ot her quant it ies ar e
conver t ed t o a cur r ent or a volt age t hat can in t ur n be measur ed, e.g., by an
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
9
indicat ing inst r ument . It may t her efor e seem somewhat sur pr ising t o find
t hat t her e is a consider able int er est in unconvent ional met hods t o measur e
cur r ent in high volt age power syst ems. A cause for t his is t hat even t hough
t he measur ement is in pr inciple a simple one, it is in pr act ice complicat ed
for t wo r easons: t he power dissipat ion in t he measur ement cir cuit and t he
need t o keep t he display unit at gr ound pot ent ial.
The convent ional way t o solve t his is t o use a current t ransformer t hat
t r ansfor ms t he cur r ent down t o a r easonable level and pr ovides an isolat ion
bar r ier bet ween t he pr imar y winding at line pot ent ial and t he secondar y
winding at gr ound pot ent ial. The size and cost of such a cur r ent t r ans-
for mer , however , incr ease wit h t he line volt age. Also, cur r ent t r ansfor mer s
can only be used for AC measur ement s. For DC measur ement s, mor e
complex devices wit h Hall element s ar e oft en used.
The incr easingly complex cont r ol syst ems used in t he power t r ansmission
net wor ks also cr eat es a need for mor e point s of measur ement and a wider
r ange of measur ement sit uat ions. Cur r ent met er ing for billing pur poses is
usually done wit h equipment having an accur acy in t he or der of 0.2% and
wit h a r elat ively low bandwidt h, t ypically less t han 1 kHz. For cont r ol and
pr ot ect ion pur poses, however , er r or s of 1% or even mor e a r e usua lly
accept ed. Ther e is even a need for on/off devices t hat indicat e t he pr esence
of cur r ent over a cer t ain level.
Cur r ent t r ansfor mer s wit h opt ical downlinks as well as syst ems using
t he Far aday effect at micr owave fr equencies have been invest igat ed
27
. In
r ecent year s t he int er est has, however , been focused on fibr e opt ic syst ems.
Opti cal methods for magneti c fi eld and
electri c current measurement
Two ma i n met hod s
Most of t he wor k t hat has been published on opt ical met hods t o measur e
ma gnet ic fields concer n eit her t he Faraday ef f ect or m agn et ost ri ct i ve
perturbation of optical fibres. The Far aday effect , which is a change of t he
polar izat ion st at e of pr opagat ing light under t he influence of a magnet ic
field, is t he phenomenon ut ilized in t his wor k.
Befor e we fur t her descr ibe t he Far aday effect , a shor t descr ipt ion of t he
ot her pr inciple is appr opr iat e. In cont r ast t o t he Far aday effect , which can
be ut ilized in bot h bulk opt ical element s, planar waveguides and in fibr es,
t he magnet ost r ict ive pr inciple r equir es t he use of fibr es. The magnet ost r ic-
t ive pr inciple was fir st suggest ed in 1980
28
. It uses a magnet ost r ict ive
mat er ial which is mechanically linked t o t he fibr e, for example in t he for m
of a magnet ost r ict ive jacket on t he fibr e or a bulk magnet ost r ict ive element
ont o which t he fibr e is wound. When subject ed t o a magnet ic field t he
magnet ost r ict ive element will change it s for m, t her eby causing a st r ain and
a change of t he lengt h of t he fibr e. This change of t he opt ical lengt h can be
det ect ed if t he fibr e is placed in one ar m of a Mach-Zehnder int er fer omet er .
Hans S ohlstrm
10
The fibr e can be long and as t he phase sensit ivit y of t he int er fer omet er is
high, t his device can pot ent ially be ver y sensit ive
29
. However , it is unfor t u-
nat ely also sensit ive t o all ot her par amet er s t hat influence t he opt ical
lengt h of t he fibr e, e.g. t emper at ur e
30
. Alt hough t he measur ement of
elect r ic cur r ent was ment ioned as a possible applicat ion
31
, t he dr iving for ce
of t he development was t he pot ent ial possibilit y of det ect ing t he small
changes in t he ear t hs magnet ic field caused by passing submar ines. At fir st
nickel wa s used for t he ma gnet ost r ict ive element , a nd la t er m et al l i c
glasses
32,33
. Differ ent biasing
34
and feedback
35,36
ar r angement s have been
invest igat ed.
Many of t he pr oblems wit h t emper at ur e and vibr at ion sensit ivit y have
been over come wit h pr oper jacket ing of t he fibr e and wit h t he use of all fibr e
opt ical syst ems. This t ype of sensor offer s ext r emely high sensit ivit y, wit h
noise levels down t o 10
15
T/

Hz
37
, but it is not suit ed for elect r ic cur r ent
measur ement and ot her lar ge-signal applicat ions.
Ot her sensing pr inciples t hat have been st udied ar e: int er fer omet r ic
det ect ion of t he movement of a met al coat ed fibr e in a magnet ic field when a
cur r ent is sent t hr ough t he coat ing
38,39,40
, sur face plasmon r esonance
41
,
liquid cr yst als
42
and r esist or heat ing
43
. The use of a cur r ent t r ansfor mer
t hat is in t ur n int er r ogat ed by a fibr e opt ic int er fer omet er has also been
t r ied
44
.
In t his cont ext , t he possibilit ies t o use convent ional cur r ent t r ansfor mer s
t oget her wit h an opt ical dat a link for cur r ent measur ement s in high volt age
syst ems should be ment ioned. The equipment at high pot ent ial could t hen
be power ed by pick-off fr om t he power line
45
, or be a hybr id sensor ,
opt ically power ed t hr ough t he fibr e
46
.
The Fa r a d a y effect
When a mat er ial exhibit ing t he Faraday effect is placed in a magnet ic field
and a beam of linear ly polar ized light is sent t hr ough it in t he dir ect ion of
t he field, a r ot at ion of t he plane of polar izat ion of t he light will occur ,
figur e5.
The phenomenon was discover ed in 1845 by Michael Far aday. Ot her
names for t he same effect ar e t he magneto-optical rotation (MOR), magnetic
circular birefringence (MCB) or t he magneto-optical effect. The last t er m is,
however , mor e gener al and may also include ot her effect s.
The effect is non-r ecipr ocal in nat ur e. This means t hat when t he dir ec-
t ion of light pr opagat ion is r ever sed, t he dir ect ion of r ot at ion as seen fr om a
fixed r efer ence syst em, is not r ever sed. A light beam t hat passes t wice
t hr ough t he medium in opposit e dir ect ions will t hus acquir e a net r ot at ion
which is t wice t hat of a single pass.
The Fa r a da y r ot a t ion is pr opor t iona l t o t he ma gnet iza t ion of t he
mat er ial,
=

L
kM
.
dl
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
11
E
H
l

Fig.5. The Faraday effect


wher e is t he polar izat ion r ot at ion, M is t he magnet izat ion, L is t he light
pat h and k is a const ant t hat is dependent on t he mat er ial in quest ion, t he
wavelengt h and t he t emper at ur e. (Bold let t er s denot e vect or quant it ies.)
In par amagnet ic and diamagnet ic mat er ials t he magnet izat ion and, t hus,
also t he polar izat ion r ot at ion is pr act ically pr opor t ional t o t he magnet ic
field st r engt h, H. One can t hen descr ibe t he r ot at ion in t er ms of t he Verdet
constant, V,
=

L
V
.
H
.
dl=
{ }
accor dingt ot hegeomet r yoffigur e5 = V
.
H
.
l
wher e H is t he component of t he magnet ic field st r engt h par allel t o t he light
pr opagat ion dir ect ion. (The Ver det const ant is somet imes expr essed in
t er ms of t he magnet ic flux densit y, B, which for t hese mat er ials is linear ly
r elat ed t o t he magnet ic field st r engt h, B=H.)
In fer r i- and fer r o-magnet ic mat er ials t he magnet izat ion is not linear ly
r elat ed t o t he magnet ic field st r engt h, and a Ver det const ant cannot be
used.
In addit ion t o t he magnet ic cir cular bir efr ingence, a linear bir efr ingence
can be induced by a magnet izat ion per pendicular t o t he light pr opagat ion
dir ect ion. This is called MLB (magnet ic linear birefringence), Voi gt or
Cotton-Mouton effect , t hough t he last name or iginally denot ed a similar
effect in fluids due t o molecule or ient at ion in t he magnet ic field. Ther e may
also be a magnet ic field dependent differ ence in opt ical absor pt ion bet ween
t he linear or t he cir cular polar izat ion st at es, MLD (magnetic linear dichro-
ism) and MCD (magnet ic circular dichroism)
47,48
. One should, however ,
keep in mind t hat t her e seems t o be a consider able confusion concer ning t he
names for t hese effect s in lit er at ur e.
Besides magnet ic field sensing, t he main applicat ion of t he Far aday effect
is in isolat or s and cir culat or s for micr owave or opt ical fr equencies t hough in
t hese a pplica t ions, t he effect is used in a st a t ic r a t her t ha n dyna mic
manner .
The isolat or is a device t hat allows power t o flow in one dir ect ion, while
t he ot her dir ect ion is blocked. The basic design consist s of a polar izer
followed by a 45 Far aday r ot at or and a second polar izer wit h it s polar iza -
t ion dir ect ion 45 fr om t hat of t he fir st one. The 45 angle, however , makes
Hans S ohlstrm
12
High-fr equency field h
x
Pr ecession
m
x
m
y
St eady magnet ic field
Fig.6. Electron precession: The high-frequency field h
x
creates magnetiza-
tion both in the x- and the y-direction. After
50
.
t he basic isolat or design unsuit able for opt ical waveguide implement at ion,
and a number of var iat ions of t he pr inciple have been t r ied
49
.
A cir culat or is a similar device but wit h t hr ee por t s, in which power
incident on one por t will emer ge at t he next por t .
The or i gi n of t he Fa r a d a y effect
The Far aday effect ar ises fr om t he int er act ion of t he elect r on or bit and spin
wit h a magnet ic field. The elect r on or bit for ms a magnet ic dipole t hat t ends
t o align in an applied const ant field. As it , fr om a classical viewpoint , is a
spinning par t icle, it will r eact t o a per t ur bing moment um at r ight angles t o
t he spin axis by precessing about t he or iginal spin axis, just as a spinning
t op would do. The elect r on spin behaves similar ly, t hough t his is not obvious
fr om a classical viewpoint . The per t ur bing moment um can be caused by an
elect r omagnet ic wave of opt ical or micr owave fr equency. The closer t his
fr equency is t o t he pr ecessiona l fr equency t he mor e ma r ked is t he
int er act ion. If t hey coincide t her e is a r esonance, called par amagnet ic
r esonance or fer r omagnet ic r esonance, depending on t he act ual mat er ial
pr oper t ies.
Macr oscopically, t he pr ecession has t he effect of cr eat ing a magnet izat ion
at r ight angles t o bot h t he applied const ant magnet ic field and t o t he per t ur -
bat ion, cf. figur e6.
The magnet ic suscept ibilit y of t he mat er ial will, under t he influence of
t he st eady magnet ic field (in t he z-dir ect ion), become a t ensor wit h off-
diagonal component s of t he for m,
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
13

yx
=i

2
0

xy
=+i

2
0

wher e is t he angular fr equency of t he applied high-fr equency field,


0
is
t he pr ecession angular fr equency and
M
is a fact or t hat depends on t he
mat er ial and t he magnet izat ion. The expr essions become somewhat simpler
if we consider inst ead t he magnet ic suscept ibilit y for a left or r ight cir cu-
lar ly polar ized per t ur bing high fr equency field,

R
=

L
=

0
+

R
=
0

_
1+

L
=
0

_
1+

0
+
In t hese expr essions we r ecognize t he r esonances discussed above. If loss
t er ms ar e included, t he r esonances will be damped and t he per meabilit ies
will have imaginar y par t s, causing loss and dichr oism.
The st r ong int er act ion bet ween neighbour ing at oms in fer r i- and fer r o-
magnet ic mat er ials causes t hese mat er ials t o have sever al r esonances at
differ ent fr equencies and wit h differ ent st r engt hs, cr eat ing r at her compli-
cat ed fr equency (wavelengt h) dependencies for bot h t he r eal and t he imagi-
nar y t er ms.
Li ght pr opa ga t i on i n ma gnet o-opt i ca l ma t er i a l s
To under st and how t he Far aday effect influences t he light pr opagat ion, t he
wave equat ion is a suit able st ar t ing point . For an infinit e medium wit h no
ext er nal elect r ical polar izat ion, t he wave equat ion can be wr it t en,

2
E(r, t )=

2
E(r,t )
t
2
The solut ion t o t his is a plane wave wit h t he phase velocit y given by,
u=
1

Waves wit h differ ent cir cular polar izat ion st at es will have differ ent :s,
and t hus t r avel wit h differ ent speeds.
A linear ly polar ized wave can be seen as t he sum of t wo cir cular ly
polar ized waves wit h equal amplit ude but opposit e dir ect ions of r ot at ion. As
t hese t wo waves pr opagat e wit h differ ent speeds, t hey will acquir e a phase
differ ence pr opor t ional t o t he t r avelled dist ance. In t er ms of t heir sum, t he
Hans S ohlstrm
14
phase differ ence has t he effect of r ot at ing t he linear st at e of polar izat ion by
an angle which is equal t o half t he phase change.
If we want t o st udy t he influence of t he Far aday effect on t he light
pr opagat ion in a waveguide wit h differ ent pr opagat ion const ant s for t he TE
and TM modes, t his simple r easoning is not applicable. Inst ead one can use
t he coupled-mode formalism
51
. In t his for malism one st udies how a small
per t ur bat ion causes a coupling bet ween t he or t hogonal eigenmodes of t he
unper t ur bed medium. In t he lit er at ur e t his per t ur bat ion is nor mally in t he
elect r ical per mit t ivit y , causing an elect r ic polar izat ion P . As only t he
pr oduct of and appear in t he wave equat ion, t he Far aday effect can be
t r eat ed as a per t ur bat ion in of t he following for m,
=

]
1
1
1
1 0 i 0
i 0 0
0 0 0

.

0
=

2
0

Wit h t his appr oach, one finds for t he case wit h only one of t he modes
exit ed, t hat t he power in t he ot her mode can be r epr esent ed by,
F=
1

_
1+

2
2

sin
2

]
1
1
1

2
+

2
2

.
z
wher e is t he differ ence bet ween t he pr opagat ion const ant s of t he t wo
modes, is t he polar izat ion r ot at ion per unit lengt h in a homogeneous
medium, and z is t he dist ance along t he pr opagat ion dir ect ion. If =0 t his
simplifies t o,
F= sin
2
(
.
z)
Fr om t he above, it is evident t hat should be smaller t han if any
appr eciable amount of power is t o be coupled bet ween t he modes.
El ect r i c cur r ent sensi ng usi ng t he Fa r a d a y effect
Glass sensing elements
The fir st opt ical cur r ent t r ansducer s ut ilizing t he Far aday effect used bulk
opt ical glass element s int er r ogat ed by an open pat h light beam, figur e7.
Using t wo det ect or s, and a polar izat ion separ at ing pr ism, a syst em which
is not affect ed by var iat ions in t he opt ical loss, can be achieved, figur e8
52
.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
15
I

B
E
Polar izer
Polar izer
P
0
P=P
0
cos
2
(/4)
Fig.7. The simplest form of an optical current sensor utilizing the Faraday
effect.
Polar izer
Det .
Det .
Laser
I
B
Polar izat ion
split t er
Fig.8. A bulk optic current measurement system with polarization state
detection. As the Faraday effect is non-reciprocal the two-way pass through
the sensing element effectively doubles the rotation.
The sensor is sensit ive t o t he t ot al magnet ic field, t hus, also t o t he
cont r ibut ions fr om ot her conduct or s near by. Also, t he dist ance bet ween t he
conduct or and t he sensing element will influence t he scale fact or . Wit h t wo
sensing element s, one on each side of t he conduct or , a differ ent ial syst em is
achieved, r educing t he influence fr om conduct or s at lar ge dist ances.
53
An iron core r educes t he posit ion dependence and t he influence of ext er -
nal fields, but as t he ir on cor e must have a r elat ively lar ge gap t o accommo-
dat e t he glass sensing element , some sensit ivit y t o t he conduct or posit ion
and t o ext er nal fields will r emain.
A mor e fundament al appr oach is t o use a basic pr oper t y of t he magnet ic
field encir cling t he conduct or ,
O

L
H
.
dl =

S
i
.
ds = I
wher e i is t he cur r ent densit y t hr ough t he sur face S, wit h t he cont our L,
and I is t he t ot al cur r ent t hr ough S.
This means t hat if t he sensing light pat h complet ely encir cles t he con-
duct or , fig 9, t he sensor becomes insensit ive t o ext er nal fields and indepen-
dent of t he conduct or posit ion in t he sensing element . This can be appr oxi-
mat ed wit h a bulk sensing element wit h a cent r al hole for t he conduct or or
sensing element assembled fr om sever al pieces of glass. The r eflect ions at
t he cor ner s must be suit ably ar r anged not t o influence t he polar izat ion st at e
of t he light .
54
Hans S ohlstrm
16
Conduct or
Polar izer
In
Polar izer
Out
Far aday
r ot at or
element
Fig. 9. A glass sensing element that encircles the conductor, after
55
The ear ly exper iment s wer e made wit h glass sensing element s having
r elat ively small Ver det const ant s, t ypically about 10
5
r ad/A, r equir ing long
sensing element s for good sensit ivit y. Alt hough YIG (Y
3
Fe
5
O
12
) and ot her
mat er ials wit h much lar ger polar izat ion r ot at ion wer e st udied
56
, no t r ans-
ducer s using such mat er ials wer e pr esent ed. Mult iple r eflect ions wer e,
however , t r ied t o r educe t he physical size of t he sensing element wit hout
sacr ificing opt ical pat h lengt h
57,58
.
Devices t o measur e bot h t he cur r ent and t he volt age simult aneously wer e
also pr esent ed.
59,60
Wit h opt ical fibr es many of t he pr oblems associat ed wit h t he open opt ical
pat h could be eliminat ed
61
. The possibilit ies wit h opt ical fibr es, however , go
fur t her t han t hat . The sensing element can be made fr om an opt ical fibr e.
Alt hough t he Ver det const ant of t he fibr e mat er ial is not high, about
4
.
10
-6
r ad/A, a measur able r ot at ion can be achieved wit h a long fibr e, and
wit h t he fibr e wound r ound t he conduct or , a good appr oximat ion of t he
closed line int egr al of t he field is achieved.
Ther e was a consider able int er est in t his t ype of device at t he end of t he
70s and t he r esult s wer e pr omising
62
. The bending of t he fibr e in t he coil,
however , ca uses a t emper a t ur e dependent linea r bir efr ingence t ha t
quenches t he cir cular bir efr ingence caused by t he Far aday effect . Sever al
met hods have been t r ied t o over come t his pr oblem.
If t he fibr e is t wist ed, a cir cular bir efr ingence bias is int r oduced, which
is magnet ic field independent and lar ge enough t o quench t he linear bir e-
fr ingence. This bias bir efr ingence is, however , t emper at ur e dependent
63
.
Wit h t he sensing fibr e divided int o sect ions wit h opposit e t wist s, t he bias
r ot at ion and t he t emper at ur e dependence can be cancelled and wit h t he use
of polar izat ion maint aining fibr e for t he downlead, t he vibr at ion sensit ivit y
is r educed
64
. A similar appr oach is t o use a fibr e wit h a st r ong bir efr ingence
which is a lmost cir cula r
6 5
. This cir cula r bir efr ingence is st r ongly
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
17
t emper at ur e dependent . Techniques t o compensat e for t his have, however ,
been st udied
66
.
The fibr e can be wound int o a coil in such a way t hat t he beat lengt h (t he
fibr e lengt h t hat causes a phase differ ence of 2 bet ween t he t wo or t hogonal
linear polar izat ion modes) is equal t o t he cir cumfer ence of t he fibr e coil.
When an ext er nal field is t hen applied t o t he fibr e coil, t he per iodic mag-
net ic field t hat is in t his way applied t o t he fibr e will cause a net polar iza -
t ion r ot at ion.
67,68,69
. A pr incipally similar scheme is t o use a polar izat ion
maint aining fibr e wit h a ver y shor t beat lengt h and ar r ange a per iodic
magnet ic field wit h t he same per iod
70
.
A mor e fundament al appr oach is t o anneal t he coiled fibr e t o r emove t he
t emper at ur e dependent linear bir efr ingence
71
.
Also, t he Far aday effect is t emper at ur e dependent . The use of a t emper a -
t ur e dependent linear ly bir efr ingent opt ical element has been suggest ed as
a way t o int r oduce a t emper at ur e dependent par t ial quenching of t he
Far aday effect , t her eby r educing t he effect ive t emper at ur e dependence
72
.
In addit ion t o t he simple polar izat ion det ect ion syst em descr ibed above, a
number of int er fer omet r ic syst ems t o det ect t he polar izat ion r ot at ion has
been pr esent ed
73
. Closed-loop syst ems
74
a nd het er odyne det ect ion
syst ems
75
have been st udied. A syst em for simult aneous measur ement of
t wo cur r ent s has also been pr esent ed
76
. To eliminat e t he influence of
r ecipr ocal effect s in t he fibr e, some of t hese syst ems ut ilize S agnac int er -
fer omet er s
77,78
. The non-r ecipr ocit y of t he Far aday effect also makes it
possible t o use a Fabry-Perot r esonat or t o incr ease t he effect ive polar izat ion
r ot at ion
79
.
Exper iment s wit h t echniques t o make t he sensor out put independent of
var iat ions in t he Ver det const ant
80
, or t o conver t t he polar izat ion r ot at ion
t o a spect r al modulat ion
81
, have been made.
The measurement bandwidth of Far aday sensor s wit h bulk glass or fibr e
coil sensing element s is limit ed by t he t r ansit t ime of t he light in t he
sensing element
82
,
B
3dB
=
0.44

=0.44
.

c
n

1
2r

1
N
wher e c/n is t he speed of light in t he fibr e, N t he number of t ur ns in t he
fibr e coil and r is t he r adius of t he fibr e coil. Wit h N=100, r =0.1 and n=1.5 a
bandwidt h of 1.4MHz is achieved. Obviously, t her e is a t r ade-off bet ween
sensit ivit y and bandwidt h. Wit h high pulsed cur r ent s t he sensing element
can be made shor t , giving ver y lar ge bandwidt hs. A number of syst ems wit h
bulk glass
83
or fibr e sensing element s
84,85
for measur ement of t r ansient
cur r ent s in t he 10
6
A r a nge ha ve been pr esent ed. Ot her specia lized
applicat ions such as aer ospace
86
cur r ent measur ing and space plasma
cur r ent measur ement s
87
have been st udied. Ther e is also a pot ent ial for
dist r ibut ed magnet ic field sensing
88
.
Alt hough t he use of an opt ical fibr e coil for cur r ent measur ement s may in
pr inciple seem st r aight for war d, t he pr act ical applicat ion of t he t echnology
Hans S ohlstrm
18
is, however , complicat ed by t he linear bir efr ingence of t he fibr e and many
opt ical cur r ent met er ing devices t hat ar e inst alled in t he high volt age power
lines ar e of t he bulk opt ical t ype
89,90
.
Other materials
Opt ical fibr es wit h high Ver det const ant s may incr ease t he applicabilit y of
cur r ent sensing using fibr e sensing element s. Ter bium doped silica fibr e
91
,
wit h a Ver det const ant of 1.2
.
10
5
r ad/A, and doped plast ic fibr e
92
, wit h a
Ver det const ant of 2
.
10
5
r ad/A, have been developed.
The alt er nat ive solut ion is t o use a compact sensing element made fr om a
mat er ial wit h a Far aday r ot at ion lar ger t han t hat of t he glasses. A small
sensor hea d is a n a dva nt a ge in ma ny a pplica t ions, including cur r ent
measur ement using an ir on cor e.
BGO (Bi
12
GeO
20
)
93
, BSO(Bi
12
SiO
20
)
94,95
and ZnSe
96
offer Ver det
const ant s of about 7
.
10
5
r ad/A, which is about an or der of magnit ude
higher t han t hat of t he silica fibr e mat er ial. Cer t ain glasses also have
Ver det const ant s t hat ar e almost as high. A consider ably higher Ver det con-
st ant , about 2
.
10
3
r ad/A, is achieved wit h Cd
1x
Mn
x
Te
97,98,99,100,101,102
.
YIG and subst it ut ed YIG offer polar izat ion r ot at ions which, for many
applicat ions, is lar ger t han t hat of Cd
1x
Mn
x
Te by a bout a n or der of
magnit ude. As YIG is a fer r imagnet ic mat er ial, it can, however , not be
dir ect ly compa r ed t o t he pa r a ma gnet ic a nd dia ma gnet ic ma t er ia ls
ment ioned. Since YIG is t he mat er ial chosen in t his wor k, it will be fur t her
descr ibed below.
YIG
YIG, Yttrium iron garnet is a ferrimagnetic gar net cr yst al wit h t he composi-
t ion Y
3
Fe
5
O
12
. It is t r anspar ent for light wit h a wavelengt h longer t han
about 1.1m. At 1.3m and 1.5m, wavelengt hs at which r eliable light
sour ces and det ect or s ar e r eadily available, t he opt ical loss is ver y low. YIG
ha s a subst a nt ia l Fa r a da y r ot a t ion in la r ge pa r t s of t he opt ica l a nd
micr owave spect r um. Cr yst als of opt ical qualit y can be gr own fr om flux
melt s or gr own epit axially on subst r at es. Epit axially gr own films can be
used as high qualit y opt ical waveguides exhibit ing t he Far aday effect
103
.
YIG cr yst al mat er ial, oft en in t he for m of polished spher es, ar e used in
micr owave component s.
The cr yst al lat t ice of YIG is r hombohedr al, almost cubic, wit h t he ir on
at oms occupying t wo differ ent kinds of sit es in t he lat t ice, figur e10. For t his
r eason t he for mula is somet imes wr it t en Y
3+
3
Fe
3+
2
Fe
3+
3
O
2
12
.
The magnet ic pr oper t ies of t he cr yst al ar e mainly det er mined by t he ir on
at oms. The ir on at oms in t he t wo kinds of sit es int er act ant ifer r omagnet i-
cally wit h each ot her , giving a net magnet ic moment equal t o t hat of one
at om. The Yt t r ium is magnet ically polar ized by t he field fr om t he ir on
at oms, but it has lit t le influence on t he st r engt h of t he magnet ic int er act ion.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
19
Y
3+
, et c.
O
2
Fe
3+
, et c.
Tet r ahedr al sit e
Oct ahedr al sit e
Dodecahedr al sit e
Fig.10. The different kinds of atomic sites in YIG, after
106
.
Fig.11. Qualitative behaviour of the different contributions to the net
magnetization of rare earth garnets having a compensation point. From
107
.
This is evident fr om t he fact t hat all rare-earth iron garnets (RIG, R
3
Fe
5
O
12
wher e R is a r ar e ear t h) have a Cur ie t emper at ur e of about 550K
104
. The
Cur ie t emper at ur e is t he t emper at ur e at which t he t her mal agit at ion
br eaks down t he magnet ic or der ing of t he at oms and t he mat er ial ceases t o
be fer r oma gnet ic. The Cur ie t emper a t ur e ca n t her efor e be used a s a
measur e of t he st r engt h of t he magnet ic int er act ion. The Cur ie t emper at ur e
for pur e YIG is 559K
105
. The net magnet ic moment for t he r ar e ear t h
gar net s is, however , influenced by t he r ar e ear t h, in sever al cases giving
compensation points, wher e t he t emper a t ur e dependent magnet ic moment s
of t he differ ent kinds of at oms cancel each ot her at a specific t emper at ur e,
figur e11. YIG, however , does not have any compensat ion point .
It is possible t o subst it ut e par t of t he yt t r ium wit h ot her r ar e ear t hs,
giving mixed r ar e ear t h gar net s. Also, ot her subst it ut ions can be made, but
t his nor mally has lit t le effect on t he magnet ic int er act ion. Bismut h subst i-
t ut ion is an except ion as it incr eases t he st r engt h of t he magnet ic int er -
act ion, t her eby incr easing t he Cur ie t emper at ur e.
If t he ir on is subst it ut ed, t he magnet ic int er act ion is weakened, giving a
lower Cur ie t emper at ur e.
Hans S ohlstrm
20
Fig.12. Two-dimensional domain pattern in thin sample with an out of
plane anisotropy.
The lattice constant of pur e YIG is such t hat it can be epit axially gr own
on subst r a t es of GGG, Ga dolinium ga llium ga r net (Gd
3
Ga
5
O
12
). Such
subst r at es of high qualit y ar e r eadily available. For subst it ut ed films, t he
subst it ut ions of t he film and subst r at e must be combined t o give t he pr oper
lat t ice const ant s.
The magnetic anisotropy in pur e YIG is mainly cubic and not so st r ong.
St r ain, however , st r ongly affect s t he magnet ic anisot r opy
108
. Epit axially
gr own YIG films can, t her efor e, have easy dir ect ions of magnet izat ion in t he
plane of t he film, or per pendicular ly t o it , depending on t he film st r ain
caused by t he lat t ice mismat ch. In addit ion t o t he st r ain anisot r opy, t her e
can also be a gr owt h-induced anisot r opy, ar ising fr om a cer t ain or der ing of
t he magnet ic ions in t he gr owt h pr ocess.
Because of t he fer r imagnet ic pr oper t ies of t he mat er ial, volumes of equal
dir ect ion of magnet izat ion, so called magnet i c domai ns will for m. The
doma ins a r e sepa r a t ed by t hin Bloch walls wher e t he ma gnet iza t ion
dir ect ion is changed. The domain size is det er mined by a magnet ost at ic
ener gy balance t hat depends on t he mat er ial pr oper t ies and t he sample
geomet r y.
Wit h t hin bulk sa mples a nd epit a xia lly gr own films wit h suit a ble
anisot r opy, t he domains can for m t wo-dimensional pat t er ns ext ending
t hr ough t he ent ir e t hickness of t he film, figur e12. Under cer t ain condit ions
t his pat t er n degener at es t o small cir cular domains, bubbles. These bubbles
can be moved ar ound in t he film, cr eat ed and annihilat ed by small per t ur -
bat ions in t he field. This is t he phenomenon t hat was used in t he bubble
memor ies, in which mor e t han 1Mbit of infor mat ion could be st or ed in t he
for m of a bubble pat t er n in 1cm
2
of ir on gar net film
109
.
For a lar ge sample wit h many domains, t he act ual for m of t he individual
domains and t heir movement when an ext er nal field is applied seems t o be
st ochast ic. For t he ent ir e sample or a lar ge par t of t he sample t he behaviour
of t he domains, however , aver ages out and t he net magnet izat ion r eflect s
t he var iat ions in t he applied magnet ic field. Ther e is however a t endency for
t he domain walls t o st ick t o imper fect ions in t he mat er ial, such as lat t ice
dislocat ions, causing discont inuit ies in t he magnet izat ion change.
The dir ect ion of magnet izat ion of t he individual domains will also change
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
21
under t he influence of an applied field. The magnet ic anisot r opy will,
however , keep t he magnet izat ion appr oximat ely along t he easy dir ect ions.
When t he net magnet izat ion of t he sample cannot be adjust ed t o t he
ext er nal field t hr ough r edist r ibut ion of t he domains bet ween t he easy
dir ect ions only, a r ot at ion of t he magnet izat ion dir ect ion wit hin t he domains
will occur . For a ver y st r ong a pplied field, t he ma gnet iza t ion will be
complet ely aligned wit h t he field.
The r a pidit y wit h which t he ma gnet iza t ion of t he ma t er ia l ca n be
changed is limit ed by t he dynamic pr oper t ies of t he domain wall move-
ment s. This gives an upper fr equency limit somewher e in t he 10MHz t o
GHz r ange
110
. Ver y lit t le wor k has however been done in measur ing t he
fr equency r esponse of YIG mat er ial based devices
111
.
The cont r ibut ion t o t he magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion per unit lengt h fr om t he
differ ent at oms can be descr ibed by a for mula fr om
112
,
= (A
m
+A
e
)M
o
Fe
+(B
m
+B
e
)M
t
Fe
+(C
m
+C
e
)M

R
The indices m and e indicat e cont r ibut ions fr om differ ent kinds of
r esona nces a nd t he super scr ipt s o a nd t indica t e oct a hedr ic a nd
t et r ahedr ic posit ions for t he ir on at oms. Appar ent ly, t he cont r ibut ions fr om
t he ir on at oms in t he t wo kinds of sit es ar e differ ent . In t he r efer ence,
A
e
/B
e
=1.72 is given.
The magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion incr eases wit h decr easing wavelengt h fr om
3m t o 0.5m
113
. At 1.15m, t he sat ur at ion r ot at ion is about 200/cm
(3.5
.
10
2
r ad/m) for pur e YIG. Bismut h subst it ut ion can incr ease t his value
by a fa ct or of mor e t ha n 10 depending on t he composit ion; 7400/cm
(13
.
10
3
r a d/m) ha s been r epor t ed a t 1.15m
114
. The ma gnet o-opt ica l
r ot at ion is t emper at ur e dependent , but it has been shown t hat subst it ut ions
can r educe t his dependence subst ant ially
115,116
.
It is impor t ant t o r emember t hat t he magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion of fer r i-
magnet ic mat er ials, just as t he magnet izat ion, micr oscopically always has
t he sat ur at ion value. When measur ement s show ot her values, it is eit her
because t he magnet izat ion is not par allel t o t he measur ing light beam or
beca use t he light pa t h goes t hr ough sever a l doma ins wit h differ ent
magnet izat ion dir ect ions.
The r ar e ear t h gar net s also possess a magnet ic linear bir efr ingence in t he
or der of 100/cm (1.7
.
10
2
r ad/m)
117,118
. For bismut h subst it ut ed YIG,
lit er at ur e dat a also indicat e a magnit ude which is about half t hat of t he
magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion
119
.
The index of r efr act ion for pur e YIG is 2.15. As t he index for GGG is 1.95,
a YIG film on a GGG subst r at e can for m a high qualit y opt ical waveguide.
Using ion beam et ching, or wet et ching and mult ilayer gr owt h, it is
possible t o make strip or channel waveguides in YIG film
120
. The t echnolo-
gies used t o define t he channel ar e, however , not so well developed. Fur -
t her mor e, all changes made in t he magnet o-opt ical film will change not only
t he opt ica l pr oper t ies, but a lso t he ma gnet ic pr oper t ies such a s t he
anisot r opy, et c.
Hans S ohlstrm
22
3. St ar t ing point s for t he sensor development wor k
A conclusion fr om t he above descr ipt ion of YIG and ot her r ar e ear t h gar net s
is t hat t hey, compar ed t o ot her magnet o-opt ical mat er ials, have many
favour able feat ur es such as a lar ge magnet o-opt ic r ot at ion, well-defined
magnet ic pr oper t ies and good opt ical qualit y in t he near IR. Fur t her mor e,
par t icular ly wit h t he epit axially gr own films, many of t hese pr oper t ies can
be a lt er ed a t will t hr ough a number of subst it ut ions. Unfor t una t ely
however , some of t he pr oper t ies a r e int er linked, ma inly t hr ough t he
mechanical st r ain, in such a way t hat t hey cannot easily be independent ly
opt imized. We have, t her efor e, not consider ed it fr uit ful t o design any
devices based on a per fect magnet o-opt ical mat er ial t hat has not yet been
developed. Inst ead, our appr oach has been t o find device st r uct ur es t hat ar e
useful for a demonstration wit h exist ing mat er ials or wit h r elat ively simple
modificat ions of known composit ions. For similar r easons, no exper iment s
have specifically been made t o measur e t he bandwidt hs of t he exper iment al
sensor s. No evidence of bandwidt h limit at ions has, however , been found in
measur ement s of magnet ic fields at fr equencies up t o about 1MHz.
The most st r iking feat ur e of t his t ype of mat er ial for sensor s, is t he lar ge
Far aday r ot at ion. To achieve a polar izat ion r ot at ion of 90 (or a complet e TE
t o TM conver sion in t he waveguide case) at 1.3m, fr om less t han 1 mm t o
about 6 mm of opt ical pat h lengt h is needed, depending on t he mat er ial in
quest ion. The volume of t he sensing element can, t hus, be made ver y small,
in t he or der of 1mm
3
. Wit h a sensing volume of t his size, t he spat ial
var iat ions of t he magnet ic field can be r esolved. This is in cont r ast t o t he
sensor s using glass sensing element s. They oft en r equir e a lar ge sensing
element and/or a closed measur ement pat h.
In t he design of a measur ement syst em t hat ut ilizes a YIG or subst it ut ed
YIG sensing element eit her in t he for m of a bulk cr yst al or a waveguide,
t her e ar e a number of syst em design opt ions. To be able t o choose bet ween
t hese, we had t o acquir e a t hor ough knowledge of t he pr oper t ies of t he
mat er ial. As t he available lit er at ur e dat a, r elevant for t his applicat ion, wer e
insufficient , t his knowledge had t o be gained t hr ough measur ement s.
For t he single mode sensor s we ha ve, in or der t o a void a lignment
pr oblems, decided t o wor k wit h waveguiding sensing element s only. The
r elat ively lar ge index differ ence bet ween GGG and YIG, however , poses
some pr oblems. Guides t hat ar e single mode in t he near infr ar ed r egion ar e
ver y t hin, less t han 1m. A slab guide of t his kind will have a lar ge linear
bir efr ingence t hat pr event s t he TMTE conver sion.
A number of t echniques have been used t o solve t his pr oblem. Mult ilayer
st r uct ur es wit h a layer bet ween t he GGG and t he ir on gar net film have
been invest igat ed
121
. A magnet ic field t hat shift s it s dir ect ion wit h a per iod
t hat is equal t o t he beat lengt h bet ween t he TE and TM modes can also be
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
23
used. In t his way, a net conver sion can be obt ained even wit h a r elat ively
lar ge
122
.
At an ear ly st age of our pr oject a per iodic cover st r uct ur e in GGG on t op
of t he YIG waveguide was suggest ed as a means t o achieve a net conver sion
wit h a single mode YIG waveguide
123
.
We have, however , used anot her appr oach. Because of t he high opt ical
qualit y of t he YIG waveguides, t he coupling bet ween t he differ ent modes in
a mult imode guide is negligible for t he pr opagat ion dist ances in quest ion.
As it is also possible t o achieve a fibr e t o waveguide coupling t hat only
excit es t he fundament al mode of t he waveguide, a r elat ively t hick guide can
effect ively be used for single mode use
124
. For t he fundament al mode, t his
kind of guide has a r elat ively small t hat can be cancelled by a moder at e
st r ain-induced int r oduced dur ing t he film gr owt h
125
. The magnet ic
pr oper t ies of t he film ar e also influenced by t he st r ain necessar y t o achieve
a small net but it is possible t o achieve a usable device wit h t his
appr oach.
Some of t he cr it ical design decisions t hen wer e:
To use or not t o use a magnet ic bias field.
One fibr e for sending light t o t he sensing element and for r eceiving t he
signal, or separ at e fibr es for t he t wo funct ions.
The select ion of a suit able opt ical configur at ion t hat allows a measur able
pola r iza t ion modula t ion a nd a n a ccept a ble opt ica l loss. A cha nnel
waveguide st r uct ur e or a slab guide combined wit h some ot her means of
cont r olling t he light pr opagat ion ar e t wo of t he opt ions for t his pur pose.
The available select ion of film t ypes for waveguiding sensor s was quit e
small. The YIG films wer e or iginally developed for bubble memor y use and
have lat er been modified for use in display unit s, pr int er s
126,127
, wave-
guiding opt ical isolat or s
128
and sensor s.
For t he mult imode sensor s, which ar e of a mor e immediat e int er est fr om
t he applicat ion point of view, a design which is suit able for pr oduct ion must
be select ed.
I n t he mult imode ca se a la r ger select ion of useful ma t er ia ls wa s
available. The bulk YIG mat er ial t hat we init ially used for t he mult imode
sensor s was or iginally pr oduced for micr owave applicat ions and had t o be
cut and polished t o opt ical qualit y. Lat er when t he t hick (100m) epit axi-
ally gr own films wit h lar ge magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion wer e developed, mainly
for opt ical isolat or use, we could use t his t ype of mat er ial for t he mult imode
sensor s.
As t he mat er ial char act er izat ion measur ement s went on, we wer e gr adu-
ally able t o t r ansfor m t he or iginal sensor ideas envisioned at t he st ar t of t he
pr oject , int o pr act ical sensor designs. In r ealit y, of cour se, t he influence also
went t he ot her way: The sensor design ideas made fur t her measur ement s
necessar y. Below, however , t he mat er ial char act er izat ion measur ement s
and t he sensor pr ot ot ype exper iment s ar e pr esent ed in separ at e sect ions.
Hans S ohlstrm
24
4. Mat er ial char act er izat ion measur ement s
Bulk materi als
Mea sur ement opt i ons
The magnet ic and magnet o-opt ical measur ement s t hat can be made on bulk
YIG cr yst als can be divided int o t wo cat egor ies, t hose made on homoge-
neously magnetically saturated samples and t hose made on non-sat urat ed
samples. Micr oscopically, t he sat ur at ed st at e is t he only one t hat exist s and
macr oscopically, it is t he only well-defined st at e. Examples of phenomena
t hat ar e st udied ar e t he influence of mat er ial composit ion, t emper at ur e,
wavelengt h, et c. on t he sat ur at ion r ot at ion. Such measur ement s ar e of
int er est not only fr om an applicat ion point of view, but also for mat er ial
science, as t hey pr ovide infor mat ion about t he nat ur e of t he magnet ic int er -
act ions. Result s fr om t hese t ypes of measur ement s ar e, however , r elat ively
well cover ed in lit er at ur e, and will not be fur t her descr ibed her e.
For sensor applicat ions, t he pr oper t ies of YIG also at low applied fields
ar e of int er est . These include t he domain st r uct ur e and how it is influenced
by t he cr yst a l or ient a t ion, sa mple geomet r y, sa mple t r ea t ment a nd
t emper at ur e.
Some measur ement s such as t he measur ement of t he net magnet izat ion
of t he sample and it s dependence on ext er nal fact or s, can be made using
magnet ic met hods
129
. Most of t hese r esult s can, however , also be indir ect ly
obt ained fr om magnet o-opt ical measur ement s and as our main int er est is in
t he magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies, t his is t he appr oach we have t aken. The
opt ical met hods also facilit at e changes of t he measur ement volume, which is
a key measur ement par amet er .
If t he sample is t hin and t he domains ar e lar ge enough, a focused light
beam, figur e13a, allows t he behaviour of a single domain or domain wall t o
be st udied. Ideally, wit h a beam passing t hr ough only one domain, one
should obt ain t he same r esult s as t hose obt ained for a homogeneously
sat ur at ed mat er ial. One can t hen st udy changes in t he domain magnet i-
zat ion dir ect ion and t he effect on t he magnet izat ion and magnet o-opt ical
r ot at ion caused by, for example, t emper a t ur e.
Wit h a large diamet er beam, figur e13 b, t he cont r ibut ions fr om t he
differ ent domains will be aver aged. The exact nat ur e of t he aver aging
pr ocess is r at her complicat ed as t he pat t er n of t he domains will act as a
phase gr at ing. For a t hin sample wit h a t wo-dimensional domain pat t er n as
in figur e13, t he r esult ing polar izat ion r ot at ion can oft en be appr oximat ed
using t he ar ea r at io bet ween t he t wo kinds of domains.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
25
E
B

Measur ement object


I
1
=I
0
cos
2

I
2
=I
0
sin
2

I
0
Fig.14. Measurement system principle.
Fig.13 a. S mall measurement volume.
Fig.13 b. Large measurement volume.
Mea sur ement set -up
To st udy t he magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies of bulk mat er ials, a measur ement
syst em a ccor ding t o t he pr inciple shown in figur e14 ha s been used.
Linear ly polar ized light is sent t hr ough t he measur ement object . The beam
t r ansmit t ed by t he measur ement object has it s plane of polar isat ion r ot at ed
by an angle . In a polar izat ion split t ing Wollast on pr ism, t he beam is split
int o t wo or t hogonal polar izat ion component s wit h t he int ensit ies I
1
and I
2
.
Fr om t hese t wo values, and t he input int ensit y I
0
, t he polar izat ion r ot at ion
and t he opt ical loss of t he mat er ial can be calculat ed.
Ot her polar izat ion det ect ion pr inciples such as t he use of polar izat ion
modulat ion or r ot at ing analyser s ar e also possible
130
. The simple t wo-
det ect or syst em was chosen mainly because it was also adapt able for
evaluat ion of sensor pr ot ot ypes.
The holder for t he measur ement object was t emper at ur e cont r olled and
sur r ounded by coils allowing a magnet ic field of ar bit r ar y dir ect ion t o be
Hans S ohlstrm
26
Polar izer Polar izer
YIG
sample
IR vidicon
or ar r ay
Lens
Fig.15. Domain visualizing set-up.
Fig.16. Magneto-optical rotation versus the applied magnetic field for a
222mm YIG cube as measured with a 200m diameter light beam with
=1.15m.
gener at ed. To allow aut omat ic calibr at ion and measur ement r out ines, t he
syst em was designed wit h comput er ized cont r ol and dat a acquisit ion.
For a qualit at ive display of domain pat t er ns, a set -up accor ding t o
figur e15 was used.
Mea sur ement r esul t s
Large measurement volume
Our fir st measur ement s of t he magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion ver sus t he applied
field wer e ma de wit h a 200m dia met er light bea m t hr ough a cube
222mm of YIG, figur e16. This r at her discour aging r esult was, however
soon supplement ed wit h ot her r esult s indicat ing t hat a lar ger light beam
diamet er and sample annealing impr oved t he r esult s, cf. t he pr ot ot ype
sensor r esult s below.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
27
We also found t hat a t hinner sample wit h a t wo-dimensional domain
st r uct ur e gave a mor e r epr oducible r esult , t hough at t he cost of a lower
r ot at ion, about 5 for a single pass t hr ough a 0.3mm YIG slice.
Lat er , however , epit axially gr own Bi-subst it ut ed t hick YIG films giving
22.5 r ot at ion in a 0.13mm film became available. The domains in t his t ype
of film ar e also smaller , giving a mor e efficient aver aging effect . The well-
cont r olled gr owt h condit ions for t hese films should also give a smaller
number of defect s which should allow t he domain walls t o move mor e fr eely.
S mall measurement volume
When a 0.13mm t hick (YbTbBi)IG film on a GGG subst r at e is obser ved in
t he IR t hr ough suit a bly a r r a nged pola r izer s in a set -up a ccor ding t o
figur e15, a t wo-dimensional domain pat t er n is obser ved. The aver age
domain widt h is in t he or der of 12m. The applicat ion of an ext er nal
magnet ic field changes t he ar ea r at io bet ween t he t wo kinds of domains,
figur e17a,b. At high field levels, close t o sat ur at ion, t he major it y of t he
small domains disappear , leaving a pat t er n wit h a lower spat ial per iodicit y,
figur e 17c. For t his specific mat er ial, t he r emaining domains shr ink t o
bubble-like for m just befor e sat ur at ion, figur e 17d.
When measur ement s on mat er ials of t his kind ar e t o be int er pr et ed, one
should r emember t hat t he per iodic domain st r uct ur e will wor k as a phase
gr at ing for t he light component wit h a polar izat ion st at e t hat is per pendicu-
lar t o t hat of t he input beam. Fig 17e,f,g show examples of diffr act ion
pat t er ns obt ained wit h t he (YbTbBi)IG film for similar condit ions as t hose
used for 17a,c,d. The diffr act ion pat t er ns have been r ecor ded wit h a set -up
similar t o t he one in figur e15, t hough wit h t he camer a focused on infinit y,
i.e. t he light sour ce. The second polar izer is set t o block t he cent r al beam
when no field is applied. The cent r al beam is, however , not complet ely
ext inguished in 17e. Wit h field applied, t he cent r al beam will have it s
polar isat ion r ot at ed, and it will t hus pass t he second polar izer and sat ur at e
t he CCD ar r ay. The polar izat ion of t he diffr act ed light is always per pendic-
ular t o t hat of t he input beam.
Fig. 17a. Domains in 0.13mm
(YbTbBi)IG film with no external
field applied. Picture height
corresponds to 0.54mm.
Fig. 17e. Diffraction from a domain
pattern like the one in 17a. The
diffraction angle is approximately
2.6, corresponding to a domain
width of 12m.
Hans S ohlstrm
28
Fig. 17b. Domains in 0.13mm
(YbTbBi)IG film with 50mT applied
perpendicularly to the film. The do-
main pattern is nearly unchanged.
Only the width ratio has changed.
Fig. 17c. Domains in 0.13mm
(YbTbBi)IG film with slightly less
than 100mT applied perpendicu -
larly to the film. S ome of the do-
mains from a and b are still visible.
Fig. 17f. Diffraction from domain
pattern similar to the one in 17c.
First order diffraction at 1.6,
indicating a domain width of 20m.
S econd order diffraction just visible.
Fig. 17d. Domains in 0.13mm
(YbTbBi)IG film with about 100mT
applied perpendicularly to the film.
Fig. 17g. No diffraction is observed
when all domains have disappeared.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
29
Fig.19. Polarization rotation as measured with a 30m diameter beam
scanned across a 0.3mm thick YIG sample. Applied field perpendicular to
slice plane 33mT. Measured at 20C and 100C.
a) b)
Fig.18. Domain patterns in 0.3mm slice of pure YIG.
a)with no external field applied.
b) with a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the plane of the sample.
Similar r esult s obt ained wit h a 0.3mm YIG slice ar e shown in figur e18.
The aver age domain widt h is, in t his case, in t he or der of 0.1mm.
To get mor e quant it at ive r esult s we used t he above ment ioned measur e-
ment syst em wit h t he beam focused down t o a diamet er smaller t han t he
domain widt h. Result s as t he one in figur e19 wer e t hen obt ained.
In t his figur e, t he domain st r uct ur e at t wo differ ent t emper at ur es is
shown. It can be seen t hat bot h t he r ot at ion wit hin t he domains and t he
domain pat t er n differ . The polar izat ion r ot at ion in each domain is smaller
at t he higher t emper at ur e. Our measur ement s of polar izat ion r ot at ion
ver sus magnet ic field over a lar ger volume, however , show an incr ease in
t he sensit ivit y (d/dB) wit h t emper at ur e. This can be explained by a sat u-
r at ion field H
s
t hat decr eases wit h incr easing t emper at ur e. These r esult s,
t hat ar e bot h in agr eement wit h wor k published by ot her s, indicat e a way t o
r educe t he t emper a t ur e dependence of sensor s ma de fr om YI G a nd
subst it ut ed YIG mat er ial
131
.
Hans S ohlstrm
30
Monit or or
comput er
CCD ar r ay Polar izer
Laser
1152 nm
Sample Polar izer
Fig.20. Experimental set-up for the grating based measurements
Sensor d esi gn consi d er a t i ons
Fr om t he measur ement r esult s, we wer e able t o dr aw some conclusions
concer ning how t o design sensor s based on bulk YIG cr yst als:
A t hin cr yst al wit h a one-layer ed domain pat t er n , simplified t he analysis
and gave good r esult s, t hough at t he cost of a r educed r ot at ion.
A pr obing light beam much wider t han t he domain size, and pr efer ably
cover ing a lar ge par t of t he cr yst al sur face, r educed t he effect of single
domain behaviour .
Annealing t he cr yst al aft er sawing and polishing impr oved t he r esult s.
Wavegui des
Mea sur ement opt i ons
Most of t he magnet o-opt ical measur ement s on waveguiding samples ar e,
pr incipa lly, simila r t o t hose ma de on bulk sa mples. The sit ua t ion is,
however , complicat ed by t he r ole of t he linear bir efr ingence. Fur t her mor e,
t he cases differ in t he means by which t he light is coupled int o and out of
t he mat er ial. For t he waveguide char act er izat ion measur ement s, met hods
based on hologr aphic gr at ing, pr ism and end-fir e light coupling, have been
used.
The gr at ing based met hod was used t o det er mine accur at ely t he linear
bir efr ingence and t he sat ur at ion value of t he magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion. In
t hese measur ement s a gr at ing, which is for med in phot or esist on t op of t he
waveguide, wor ks as a dist r ibut ed light coupler . A sket ch of t he measur e-
ment set -up is shown in figur e20.
The sample is t ur ned t o t he coupling angle cor r esponding t o t he mode t o
be st udied. As t he coupling angle is, wit hin t he diver gence of t he laser
beam, t he same for t he TE and TM modes of t he same or der , a polar izer and
a r et ar der can be used t o excit e an ar bit r ar y st at e of polar izat ion at t he
input point . As t he light pr opagat es along t he guide, a small fr act ion will
cont inuously be coupled out , allowing t he evolut ion of t he int ensit y and t he
polar izat ion st at e t o be st udied.
To det er mine t he linear bir efr ingence and t he magnet o-opt ical r ot at ion,
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
31
TM
TM
TE
Rut ile
pr isms
Fig.21. Prism coupling method.
t he spat ial dist r ibut ions of t he out coupled light under differ ent magnet ic
field and input polar izat ion condit ions is r ecor ded
132
.
Even t hough t he gr at ing met hod can be used t o measur e t he polar izat ion
r ot at ion under differ ent magnet ic field condit ions, it is mor e convenient t o
use t he pr ism coupling met hod t o st udy t he var iat ions in t he r ot at ion once
t he sat ur at ion value is det er mined.
A pr ism wit h an index of r efr act ion equal t o or higher t han t hat of t he
guide is br ought int o cont a ct wit h t he guide by mecha nica l pr essur e,
figur e21. Light impinging on t he pr ismguide int er face wit h a suit able
angle can t hen couple t o a waveguide mode. Similar ly, light can be coupled
out t hr ough a second pr ism. For YIG waveguides, r ut ile is a suit able pr ism
mat er ial. As r ut ile is bir efr ingent , t he TE and TM modes will have differ ent
coupling angles. Wit h only one of t he polar izat ion modes excit ed at t he
input , t he fr act ion of light conver t ed can easily be monit or ed under differ ent
magnet ic field condit ions. J ust as in t he bulk measur ement case, we have
used a comput er cont r olled mea sur ement set -up t o pr ovide r eleva nt
magnet ic field var iat ions.
A number of exper iment s wer e also made wit h t he fibr e end coupled
dir ect ly t o t he waveguide edge (but t -coupled). This met hod, in cont r ast t o
t he pr ism met hod, does not involve any mechanical per t ur bat ion of t he
sample dur ing t he measur ement . On t he ot her hand, t he samples must be
specially pr epar ed wit h polished edges.
Resul t s of t he wa vegui d e mea sur ement s
The gr at ing based met hod was used in an ear ly st age of t he pr oject t o select
samples wit h sufficient ly small linear bir efr ingence t o allow a lar ge TETM
mode conver sion in t he fundament al mode. Most of t he samples we have
used allowed a conver sion of 90% or mor e. The r esult s shown in t his
summar y, except wher e is ot her wise indicat ed, ar e obt ained wit h 6.4m
t hick samples of Gd,Ga subst it ut ed YIG film on GGG subst r at e wit h a
sat ur at ion polar izat ion r ot at ion of 150/cm (2.6
.
10
2
r ad/m) at =1.15m.
This mat er ial was known t o be easy in plane, i.e. t he magnet izat ion of t he
Hans S ohlstrm
32
Fig.22. TM to TE mode conversion versus a magnetic field applied in the
plane of the film and parallel to the light propagation direction. The
interaction length was 4mm.
Fig.23. TM to TE conversion, measured through a butt-couple fibre, versus
the magnetic field applied in the plane of the film and parallel to the light
propagation direction. The parameter is the pressure applied to the coupling
prism.
film could move r elat ively easily in t he plane of t he film but could not easily
be t ur ned fr om t he plane of t he film
133,134
.
Our fir st r esult s wit h pr ism coupling seemed, just a s in t he bulk
measur ement case, somewhat discour aging, figur e22. Wit h a 50T field
applied par allel or ant i-par allel t o t he light pr opagat ion dir ect ion, t he
conver sion is r at her high and bet ween t hose t wo ext r emes, t he conver sion
goes down. Ther e is, however , a lar ge hyst er esis, and t he magnet izat ion
appar ent ly changes in st eps.
We found t hat t he mechanical waveguide st r ain induced by t he pr essur e
applied t o t he pr isms was r esponsible for par t of t he hyst er esis. This is
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
33
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Field angle
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.
Signal
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Field angle
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.
Signal
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Field angle
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.
Signal
Fig.24. The conversion versus the direction [rad] of an applied field for a
two-way light pass in a 7.6mm long sample. a) 100T field magnitude, b)
1mT field magnitude c) 5mT field magnitude (thick line) and theoretical
calculation (thin line)
demonst r at ed by t he r esult s shown in figur e23. Her e, t he conver sion is
mea sur ed t hr ough a fibr e, but t -coupled t o t he edge of t he wa veguide
sample. A coupling pr ism was also applied t o t he sample using differ ent
amount s of pr essur e. Evident ly t he pr essur e applied t o t he pr ism influenced
t he magnet ic behaviour .
Wit h t he mat er ial used a bias field, in t he plane of t he film and per pen-
dicular t o t he field t o be measur ed, was found t o be necessar y t o obt ain an
unambiguous and smoot h r esult even wit h t he pr ism r emoved. To select an
appr opr iat e magnit ude for t his bias field, we applied a field of const ant
amplit ude but wit h var iable angle in t he plane of t he guide. The conver sion
was t hen plot t ed ver sus t he angle of t he applied field. One could t hen
obser ve t he var iat ion in conver sion and, t hus, also how t he magnet izat ion
followed t he dir ect ion of t he applied field. St ar t ing wit h a ver y weak field,
figur e24a, we not iced t hat even t hough t he magnet izat ion followed t he
applied field t her e was a st r ong anisot r opy. Wit h higher field magnit ude,
Hans S ohlstrm
34
figur e24b, we could obser ve how t he magnet izat ion dir ect ion mor e and
mor e closely followed t he dir ect ion of t he field. In figur e24c, wit h a 5mT
field, t he magnet izat ion almost complet ely follows t he dir ect ion of t he
applied field. Alt hough t her e ar e some deviat ions fr om t he t heor et ical cur ve,
t he measur ed cur ve is smoot h and fr ee fr om hyst er esis. This indicat es t hat
t he 5mT field wa s st r ong enough t o cr ea t e a single doma in wit h a
magnet izat ion which could t hen be r ot at ed by t he field t o be measur ed.
In or der t o st udy t he magnet ic behaviour of a channel st r uct ur e in t he
film, exper iment s wer e made wit h st r ip waveguides delimit ed by par allel
slit s sawn t hr ough t he waveguiding film. The hyst er esis pr oblems wer e,
however , found t o incr ease. A pr obable explanat ion is t hat t he channel
st r uct ur e, and t he r ough sawn edges, affect ed t he domain st r uct ur e. Some
exper iment s wit h et ching of YIG wer e also made
135
.
Sensor d esi gn consi d er a t i ons
Fr om measur ement s such as t hose descr ibed above, we dr ew t he conclusion
t hat wit h t his t ype of mat er ial, which was known t o have a r elat ively small
anisot r opy, a bias field of about 5mT was needed t o achieve a r epr oducible
sensor behaviour .
The use of a bias field, however , limit s t he applicabilit y of t he sensor in
sever al ways. The bias field may dist ur b t he measur ement sit uat ion in an
unaccept able way. If t he bias field is t o be supplied by a per manent magnet ,
t he effect s of st r ong over load fields on t his magnet must be consider ed. It
may also pr ove difficult t o find a magnet mat er ial t hat maint ains t he bias
field const ant over t he t emper at ur e r ange r equir ed. On t he ot her hand,
t her e is in pr inciple also a possibilit y t o use a t emper at ur e dependent bias
field t o pa r t ly compensa t e t he t emper a t ur e dependence of t he sensor
mat er ial.
An alt er nat ive appr oach is, as will be shown below, t o use a mat er ial
wit h a st r ong anisot r opy.
Par t ly because of t he r esult s t hat wer e obt ained in t he channel wave-
guide exper iment s, and par t ly because of t he ext ent of pr ocess development
wor k necessar y t o make channel waveguide st r uct ur es, we also decided t o
use slab guides only.
Pa per r efer ence
The design and performance of the measurement system for bulk samples are
discussed in paperA. In this paper, some examples of results are also given.
The results are more fully described in paper C, and the sensor design rules
are given in paper B.
The different waveguide characterization methods and the role played by the
pressure applied to the prisms are covered in paper E.
The use of a variable in-plane field t o select a suit able bias field, is
described in paper G.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
35
GGG
YIG
Fig.25. Basic sensing principle
5. Sensor s.
Si ngle-mode systems
The sensing element of a measur ement syst em wit h polar izat ion maint ain-
ing single-mode fibr es could, in pr inciple, be eit her waveguiding or bulk
opt ical. To avoid alignment pr oblems, we have decided t o wor k only wit h
waveguiding sensing element s in our single mode syst ems. Wit h a t hickness
of 510m, t he sensing element s have been capable of car r ying sever al
modes, but we have shown t hat it is possible t o use t hem effect ively as
single mode guides, but t -coupled t o fibr es.
The ot her t wo coupling met hods t hat we have used in t he char act er iza -
t ion wor k can also be used in sensor configur at ions. The pr ism coupling
met hod, however , lacks t he r uggedness and pot ent ially low cost t hat t he
but t -coupling and gr at ing met hods have. While we have pr efer r ed t he
simple but t -coupling in our sensor s, gr at ing coupling is a good alt er nat ive,
par t icular ly for t hinner guides which cannot be effect ively but t -coupled t o
fibr es.
The basic pr inciple of a waveguiding sensing element in combinat ion
wit h polar izat ion pr eser ving fibr es is demonst r at ed in figur e25. One of t he
polar izat ion modes of t he fibr e is used t o car r y linear ly polar ized light
(whit e ar r ow) t o t he sensing element , wher e it is launched int o t he funda -
ment al TE mode of t he planar waveguide. In t he waveguide, par t of t he
opt ical power is conver t ed t o t he TM mode (gr aded ar r ows). The light is
t hen coupled int o t he r et ur n fibr e, which is or ient ed in such a way t hat each
of t he modes of t he planar guide mat ches one of t he fibr e polar izat ion
modes. At t he out put end of t he fibr e, t he light fr om t he t wo fibr e modes is
separ at ed and det ect ed. The det ect or out put s ar e t hen combined t o give an
int ensit y independent signal t hat is a measur e of t he magnet ic field.
Wit h t his configur a t ion it is not possible t o det ect t he sign of t he
Hans S ohlstrm
36
0.4 mm
10 mm
Fig. 26. Two-fibre sensor with 3.7m Bi-substituted waveguide.
magnet ic field. Fields t hat ar e par allel t o, or ant i-par allel t o t he light pr opa -
gat ion dir ect ion, cause TE t o TM coupling fact or s t hat ar e equal in magni-
t ude and, consequent ly, t hey cause equal amount s of light t o be coupled int o
t he TM mode. However , if t he r et ur n fibr e is mount ed wit h it s bir efr ingence
axes at t45 t o t hose of t he waveguide, t he amplit ude in each of t he fibr e
modes will be a linear combinat ion of t he amplit udes of t he TE and TM
wa veguide mode fields lea ving t he wa veguide, giving a suit a ble a nt i-
symmet r ic sensor behaviour . This is in analogy wit h a convent ional bulk
opt ic polar izat ion r ot at ion measur ement set -up wit h t he analyzer r ot at ed
45 or 45 fr om t he input polar izer or ient at ion.
The absence of a lat er al light confinement leads t o a sever e light loss
when a configur at ion as t he one in figur e25 is used. The loss can be of
accept able size only if t he sensor is ver y shor t . Consequent ly, t her e is t hen a
t r ade-off bet ween polar izat ion r ot at ion and loss, but wit h mat er ials having
a ver y lar ge Far aday r ot at ion, it is possible t o find a useful compr omise.
This is demonst r at ed by t he r esult s obt ained wit h a sensor using a shor t
bismut h-subst it ut ed YIG waveguide having a sat ur at ion magnet o-opt ic
r ot at ion of about 1000/cm (1.7
.
10
3
r a d/m) a t 1.15m, figur e 26. This
waveguide had a st r ong out -of-plane anisot r opy.
The idea was t hat t his anisot r opy should r eplace t he bias field necessar y
wit h t he ot her waveguiding sensor s. The sensor out put ver sus t he applied
field is shown in figur e 27. A hyst er esis effect appear s for field magnit udes
less t han 1mT. For such field levels, t he magnet izat ion dir ect ion is almost
per pendicular t o t he film plane. For lar ger field levels, t he per for mance is as
expect ed, i.e. a smoot h field ver sus conver sion r elat ionship. It is also evident
fr om t he non-symmet r y of t he cur ve t hat t he r et ur n fibr e was not cor r ect ly
mount ed, but was r ot at ed slight ly off t he int ended angular posit ion wit h it s
bir efr ingence axes at 45 fr om t hose of t he input fibr e. The imper fect ions of
t his exper iment al pr ot ot ype should, however , not conceal t he fact t hat t he
design pr inciple is wor king. Wit h a not her ma t er ia l ha ving a st r onger
anisot r opy it may be a viable concept .
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
37
a)
Polar izat ion
maint aining fibr es
YIG waveguide Mir r or ed
edge
b)
Polar izat ion
maint aining fibr e
YIG waveguide Mir r or ed
edge
Fig.28. Configurations for waveguiding sensors with focusing reflectors.
a) With two fibres. b) With one fibre.
Fig. 27. S ensor output versus the applied field for a sensor according to
figure 26.
An appr oach t hat in addit ion t o solving t he loss pr oblems also allows t he
input and out put fibr es t o be mount ed side by side inst ead of in line on
opposit e edges of t he waveguide, is t o make a focusing r eflect or on t he
waveguide, figur e28a. In t he exper iment al sensor s, t his r eflect or was made
by polishing t he r ear edge int o a semicir cular for m. A t hin gold coat ing was
t hen applied. Et ched waveguide mir r or s or gr at ing r eflect or s ar e alt er -
nat ives t hat could be t aken int o consider at ion. An exper iment al pr ot ot ype is
shown in figur e 29.
As t he Far aday effect is nonr ecipr ocal in nat ur e, t he mode conver sion of
t he for war d and backwar d t r ip will add, making t he effect ive int er act ion
lengt h t wice t he sensing element lengt h.
This is t he single-mode sensor design for which we have r ecor ded t he
lar gest amount of t est dat a. Result s obt ained wit h a sensor pr ot ot ype wit h a
7.6mm long Gd,Ga subst it ut ed YIG waveguide of t he kind pr eviously
ment ioned, ar e shown in figur e 29. A bias field of 5mT was used accor ding
t o t he sensor design consider at ions in t he pr evious sect ion of t he summar y.
Hans S ohlstrm
38
Fig.29. Experimental sensor according to fig 28a.
Fig. 30. S ensor output versus the applied field for the folded two-fibre
design. Bias field 5 mT perpendicular to the axis of the sensing element.
The r esult s show t he expect ed sensor funct ion wit h a cent r al smoot h
sensing r ange and a slope r ever sal at appr oximat ely t2mT, figur e30. This
indicat es t hat t he opt ical power couples back int o t he mode which it was
or iginally launched int o, equivalent t o a polar izat ion r ot at ion of mor e t han
45. A sensor wit h a shor t er int er act ion lengt h would give a monot onous
r elat ionship.
Test s made wit h a spect r um analyzer , confir m t he good signal qualit y
and indicat e a det ect or and amplifier noise level equivalent t o about 8nT in
a 1Hz bandwidt h wit h a 5mT bias field. The det ect ion limit of t he sensing
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
39
Fig.31. Experimental one-fibre sensor according to figure28b.
element is, t hus, lower t han t his value. By incr easing t he bias field, t he
measur ement r ange can, of cour se, also be scaled t o higher values.
We have also made a sensor wher e t he same polar izat ion maint aining
fibr e is used t o guide t he light bot h t o and fr om t he sensing element , figur es
28b and 31. In such a configur at ion, t he 45 displacement of t he r et ur n fibr e
needed t o achieve dir ect ional discr iminat ion, is obviously not possible. For
syst ems cover ing lar ge dist ances, it is an advant age wit h only one fibr e.
Typically, however , such syst ems will include discont inuit ies in t he fibr e,
e.g. r emovable connect or s wit hout index mat ching. Reflect ions fr om such
discont inuit ies will be a pr oblem in a one-fibr e syst em. The r eflect ed power
will int er fer e wit h t he light r et ur ning fr om t he sensing element . As t he
phase angle bet ween t he unwant ed r eflect ion and t he signal is det er mined
by t he lengt h of t he opt ical pat h t o t he sensing element , which will var y
wit h t he envir onment , r apid amplit ude var iat ions will t ake place. Alt hough
only one of t he channels is affect ed, t he per for mance of t he balanced sensing
syst em can be sever ely degr aded.
The opt oelect r onic unit needed in a one-fibr e syst em is also much mor e
complex t han t he one in a t wo-fibr e syst em. In addit ion t o t he polar izat ion
split t er , an ext r a beamsplit t er , t o couple t he laser light int o t he fibr e, is
needed, figur e 32. As t he light has t o pass t his ext r a beamsplit t er t wice, t he
loss int r oduced is lar ge. Fur t her mor e, t he r isk of st r ay light fr om t he laser
falling on t he det ect or s is subst ant ial.
Hans S ohlstrm
40
Fig. 33. Output signal from one-fibre sensor according to figure 28 b with an
optoelectronic unit according to figure 32. A bias field of 3mT in the plane of
the waveguide is used.
Laser diode
1.3 m
Polar izer
Beam-
split t er
Wollast on
pr ism
Det ect or s
Polar izat ion
maint aining fibr e
Fig. 32. Optoelectronic unit for one-fibre sensing system.
Using a 1.3m laser wit h shor t coher ence lengt h we have, however ,
obt ained good r esult s wit h a one fibr e syst em wit h no r emovable connect or s
and wit h t he fibr e ends obliquely cut t o avoid r eflect ions, figur e 33. The
sensing element is similar t o t he one used in t he t wo-fibr e sensor . The non-
symmet r y of t he cur ve is, at least par t ly, due t o t he non-symmet r y of t he
sensing element caused by t he oblique mount ing of t he fibr e.
The syst ems descr ibed her e ar e balanced, i.e., t he sum of t he opt ical
power fr om t he t wo channels is independent of t he measur and and only
dependent on t he syst em loss, while t he dist r ibut ion of power bet ween t he
t wo cha nnels is idea lly only dependent on t he mea sur a nd. This is
complet ely t r ue for t he light pa t h t o t he sensing element but only
appr oximat ely so for t he pat h fr om t he sensing element t o t he det ect or s.
Loss mechanisms t hat unequally affect t he t wo fibr e polar izat ion modes in
t he r et ur n fibr e, will influence t he out put signal.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
41
polar izer s YIG mu l t
i
m
o
de fi br es
mir r or
Fig.35. Folded multimode sensor design
Multi mode systems
Ir on gar net mat er ials can also be ut ilized in mult imode fibr e opt ic magnet ic
field sensor s. Such sensor s pr ovide a t echnologically simpler appr oach t hat
may be mor e appr opr iat e for many applicat ions. Figur e34 shows t he basic
pr inciple. Light is launched int o and r et ur ns fr om t he sensing element
t hr ough mult imode opt ical fibr es. Polar izer s ar e placed on bot h sides of t he
cr yst al. The int ensit y of t he light t r ansmit t ed t hr ough t he second polar izer
depends on t he polar izat ion r ot at ion in t he cr yst al.
polar izer polar izer YIG
mu l
t
i
m
ode fi br e mu l t i mode fi br
e
Fig. 34. Basic principle for the intensity based multimode sensors.
Differ ent r elat ive or ient at ions of t he t r ansmission axes of t he t wo sensor
polar izer s will pr oduce ver y differ ent sensor char act er ist ics. To achieve a
sensit ivit y t o t he dir ect ion of t he applied magnet ic field, a maximum unam-
biguous r ange and a maximum sensit ivit y t o small fields, an angle of 45
bet ween t he polar izer axes can be chosen. In t his case, t he polar izat ion
r ot at ion in t he sensing element should not exceed 45. For cer t ain applica -
t ions, ot her polar izer or ient at ions ar e mor e favour able.
In most applicat ions, it is unpr act ical t o have t he fibr es on opposit e sides
of t he sensing element . Thanks t o t he non-r ecipr ocit y of t he Far aday effect
it is, just as in t he single-mode case, possible t o use a folded design,
figur e35. In t his illust r at ion, I have also indicat ed t he use of a t hick YIG
film r at her t han a bulk cr yst al.
The DC field char act er ist ics of such a sensor is shown in figur e36. The
sensor was r ealized wit h an epit axially gr own 0.13 mm t hick (YbTbBi)IG
layer on a GGG subst r at e. The t hickness of t he layer was chosen t o give a
single pass maximum r ot at ion of 22.5 at 1.3m.
The sat ur at ion point s fall at appr oximat ely t100mT. Using a spect r um
analyzer t he out put signal was measur ed for differ ent levels of applied
1kHz field fr om 27mT (1% dist or t ion) down t o 270nT.
The measur ement r esult s ar e summar ized in figur e 37, wher e t he signal
amplit ude is plot t ed ver sus t he applied 1kHz field amplit ude. Appar ent ly
t he sensor is, wit hin t he exper iment al accur acy, linear over a r ange of at
least 100dB. The exper iment al dat a show a 1Hz noise equivalent magnet ic
field of 1T. By decr easing t he opt ical loss of t he sensor and by impr oving
Hans S ohlstrm
42
t he amplifier , a r educt ion of t his value t o 100nT should be wit hin r each.
The accur acy of t his t ype of sensor is, in most cases, limit ed by t he loss
var iat ions in t he syst em and by t he t emper at ur e dependence of t he sensor
mat er ial. In some applicat ions, e.g. AC measur ement , t he aver age value of
t he mesur a nd is known. One ca n t hen compensa t e for t he slow loss
var iat ion. By opt imizing t he sensor mat er ial composit ion and t hickness t he
t emper at ur e dependence of t he mat er ial can be r educed consider ably, less
t han 1% bet ween 20C and 80C has been r epor t ed
136
.
A r ecent pr ot ot ype ver sion of t he mult imode sensor is shown in fig38.
Ot her ver sions ar e shown in fig 39.
Fig. 36. The magnetic field characteristics of a multimode sensor with an
epitaxially grown 0.13 mm thick (YbTbBi)IG layer on a GGG substrate.
APPLIED FIELD [dB RE 1 T]
S
I
G
N
A
L
[
d
B

R
E

S
I
G
.

A
T

2
7
m
T
]

-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20
1 Hz noise level
Fig. 37. The signal amplitude versus the applied field.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
43
Fig38. Prototype sensor developed for a field trial in co-operation with ABB
Power S ystems, with protective cover removed, lying on a piece of paper with
mm rulings. a:YIG/ GGG sensing element with gold coating, b:gradient
index lens, c:polarizers, d:fibre holder made from a piece of glass tube.
Fig39. Three versions of multimode sensors with folded design
Pa per r efer ence
The waveguiding sensors are first introduced in paper D. Results from an
experiment wit h a t wo-fibre unfolded syst em are shown, but t he paper is
mainly about t he one-fibre folded design according t o figure27b in t his
summary. Di f f erent t echni ques t o avoi d i nt erf erence ef f ect s are al so
described.
In paper F, a similar folded sensor is used but with an 1.3m semicon -
ductor laser diode light source to reduce the interference problems. A sensor
utilizing a very short piece of highly magnetically anisotropic Bi-YIG wave-
Hans S ohlstrm
44
guide is also described. In t he same paper t here is also a descript ion of a
number of multimode sensors.
The t wo-fibre folded design sensor and it s performance is t reat ed in
paperG.
The performance of the folded multimode sensor is treated in paper H.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
45
6. Conclusions
Fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor s based on ir on gar net mat er ial have a
number of favour able feat ur es. They can be made ver y compact , have lar ge
measur ement r anges and r esolut ions in t he nT r egion. The small size is an
advant age not only for t he point sensing of magnet ic fields, but also for
cur r ent measur ement t oget her wit h an ir on cor e.
Bot h single-mode and mult imode syst ems ar e demonst r at ed in t his
t hesis. The t wo t ypes of syst ems differ bot h in t heir measur ement possibili-
t ies and in mor e pr act ical handling aspect s.
Using polar izat ion maint aining single-mode fibr e and sensing element s
made fr om few-mode YIG waveguide, sever al ver sions of balanced mea -
sur ement syst em have been built . The out put signal fr om such a syst em is
appr oximat ely independent of t he syst em loss. Sensor s have been made bot h
wit h separ at e fibr es t o guide t he light t o and fr om t he sensing element and
wit h a single fibr e for bot h funct ions. The t wo fibr e ver sion is, however , less
complicat ed and has a bet t er per for mance.
While t he wa veguiding single-mode sensor s ha ve some a t t r a ct ive
feat ur es and per haps pot ent ially t he best per for mance, t he mult imode
sensor s ar e less complicat ed t o manufact ur e. As t hey can be pr oduced at a
low cost , t hey could r eplace Hall element s, not only in magnet ic field
sensor s, but also for r ot at ion speed sensing, et c. Also for elect r ic cur r ent
measur ement t hey ar e a viable alt er nat ive. While an accur acy equal t o t hat
of pr ecision cur r ent t r ansfor mer s has not yet been demonst r at ed, sensor
pr ot ot ypes suit able for ot her cur r ent monit or ing applicat ions in t he elect r ic
power gr id have been developed.
The t emper at ur e dependence of t he Far aday r ot at ion which at pr esent
limit s t he accur acy of t he sensor s can be subst ant ially r educed wit h new
sensor mat er ial composit ions.
The r enewed int er est in magnet o-opt ical mat er ials may make suit able
sensor mat er ials mor e r eadily available in t he near fut ur e.
Hans S ohlstrm
46
7. Acknowledgement s
Ther e ar e a number of per sons who have helped me dur ing t he wor k.
Fir st I would like t o expr ess my gr a t it ude t o pr ofessor Kjel l G.
S vantesson, who has been my super visor and fr iend dur ing t he major and
last par t of t he wor k, for his const ant suppor t and encour agement . Also I
would like t o t ha nk pr ofessor Gu n n ar Brod i n and pr ofessor Torgny
Brogrdh who have, for differ ent per iods of t ime, been my super visor s.
I would also like t o t hank my co-wor ker Ulf Holm, not only for his
collabor at ion in t he wor k and good advice, but also for t he many almost
endless, but indeed fr uit ful, discussions about wor k and life in gener al.
Bengt Molin is not ment ioned as a co-wor ker in t he paper s, but his help
wit h t he mechanical design and fabr icat ion of t he sensor s and labor at or y
equipment has been ver y impor t ant , and I would like t o t hank him for t his.
In fact , I would like t o t hank t he ent ir e st aff of t he Inst r ument at ion
Labor at or y and a number of ot her per sons at KTH, who have all, in var ious
ways, helped me. Carolyn Kyrning, who has helped me t o r emove a number
of language mist akes in t he summar y, should also be ment ioned. New
er r or s have, however , undoubt edly been added aft er war ds.
Finally, I would like t o t hank my wife and childr en for t heir suppor t and
for making t he t hesis wor k possible by t aking over a lot of r esponsibilit ies
dur ing t he last mont hs of int ense wor k.
The t hesis is based on wor k suppor t ed by t he Nat ional Swedish Boar d for
Technical Development (STU).
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
47
Refer ences
1
J . Hecht , Vict or ian exper iment s and opt ical communicat ions, IEEE S pectrum, p.69
73, Febr uar y 1985.
2
C. Menadier , C. Kissinger and H. Adkins, The fot onic sensor , Instruments & Control
S ystems, vol.40, p.114120, 1967.
3
J . A. Powell, A simple t wo-fiber opt ical displacement sensor , Rev. S ci. Instrum.,
vol.45 no.2, 1974.
4
D. E. N. Davies and S. Kingsley, Met hod of phase-modulat ing signals in opt ical fibr es:
Applicat ion t o opt ical-t elemet r y syst ems, Electronics Letters, vol.10, p.2122, 1974.
5
J . A. Bucar o, H. D. Dar dy, E. F. Car ome, Fiber -opt ic hydr ophone, J ournal of the
Acoustical S ociety of America, vol.62, p.1302, 1977.
6
J . P.Dakin, D. A. Kahn, A novel fibr e-opt ic t emper at ur e pr obe, Optical and
Quantum Electronics, vol.9, p.540, 1977.
7
C. D. But t er and G. B. Hocker , Fiber opt ics st r ain gauge, Applied Optics, vol.17,
no.18, p.28672869, 1978.
8
K. A. J ames, W. H. Quick and V. H. St r ahan, Fiber opt ic sensor s for milit ar y,
indust r ial and commer cial applicat ions, Proc. of the International Telemetering
Conference, p.777782, Inst r ument Societ y of Amer ica, 1978.
9
H. Sohlst r m and U. Holm, A fibr e opt ic displacement sensor , Acta IMEKO, p.183
192, 1982.
10
I. Kajt ano and A. T. Fr iber g, A silicon-based fibr e-opt ic t emper at ur e sensor , J . Phys.
E: S ci. Instrum., vol.21. p.652656, 1988.
11
J . N. Fields, C. K. Asawa, O. G. Ramer and M. K. Bar onski, Fiber opt ic pr essur e
sensor , J . Accust. S oc. Am., vol.67, no.3, p.816818, 1980.
12
M. Kr igh, O. St eijer , O. Per s, G. Edwall, Fibr e-opt ic dar k-field micr o-bend sensor ,
S PIE Proc. Fiber Optic S ensors, vol.586, p.216222, 1985.
13
W. W. Mor ey, G. Melt z and W. H. Glenn, Fiber opt ic Br agg gr at ing sensor s, S PIE
Proc. Fiber Optic and Laser S ensors VII , vol.1196, p.98107, 1989.
14
J . P.Dakin and D. J . Pr at t , Dist r ibut ed opt ical fibr e Raman t emper at ur e sensor using
a semiconduct or light sour ce and det ect or , Electronics Letters, vol.25, p.S56S57,
1989.
15
G. P.Hancke, A fiber -opt ic densit y sensor for monit or ing t he st at e-of-char ge of a lead
acid bat t er y, IEEE Tr ans. on Inst r ument at ion and Measur ement , vol.39, no.1,
p.247250, 1990.
16
K. A. J ames, V. H. St r ahan and W. H. Quick, Analysis and Preliminary Design of
Optical S ensors for Propulsion Control, NASA CR-159519, Rockwell Int er nat ional,
Anaheim, USA, 1979. (Available NTIS.)
17
S. St ueflot t en, T. Chr isensen, S Iver sen, J . O. Hellvik, K. Alms and T. Wien, An
infr ar ed fibr e opt ic gas det ect ion syst em, Proc. S econd Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre
sensors (OFS 2), p.8790, VDE-Ver lag, Ber lin, 1984.
18
B. Hk, Ch. Ovr n and L. J onsson, Faser opt ische sensor familie zur messung von
t emper at ur , vibr at ion und dr uck (Fibr e-opt ic sensor family for t he measur ement of
t emper at ur e, vibr at ion and pr essur e), Technisches Messen, vol.53, no.9, p.322330,
1986.
Hans S ohlstrm
48
19
D. A. J ackson and J . D. C. J ones, Int er fer omet er s, Optical Fiber S ensors: vol.2;
S ystems and Applications, B. Culshaw and J . Dakin, p.329380, Ar t ech House,
Nor wood, 1989.
20
M. Kanoi, G. Takahashi, T. Sat o, M. Higaki, E. Mor i and K. Omur a, Opt ical volt age
and cur r ent measur ing syst em for elect r ic power syst ems, IEEE Trans. on Power
Delivery, vol.PWRD-1, no.1, 1986.
21
P.Dar io, D. Femi and F. Vivaldi, Fiber -opt ic cat het er -t ip sensor based on t he
phot oelast ic effect , S ensors and Actuators, vol.12, p.3547, 1987.
22
W. J . Bock, T. R. Wolinski and A. Bar wicz, Development of a polar imet r ic opt ical fiber
sensor for elect r onic measur ement of high pr essur e, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation
and Measurement , vol.39, no.5, p.715721, 1990.
23
M. N. Char asse, M. Tur pin and J . P.Le Pesant , Dynamic pr essur e sensing wit h a side
hole bir efr ingent opt ical fibr e, Optics Letters, vol.16, no.13, p.10431045, 1991.
24 D. A. J ackson and J . D. C. J ones, Int er fer omet er s, Opt ical Fiber Sensor s: vol.2;
Syst ems and Applicat ions, B. Culshaw and J . Dakin, p.329380, Ar t ech House,
Nor wood, 1989.
25
A. R. Davis, S. S. Pat r ick, A. Dandr idge and F. Bucholt z; Remot e fibr e-opt ic AC
magnet omet er , Electronics Letters, vol.28, no.3, p.271273, 1992.
26
J . E. Lenz, A r eview of magnet ic sensor s, Proc. of the IEEE, vol.78, no6, p.973989,
1990.
27
M. N. Rzewuski and M. Z. Tar nawecky, Unconvent ional met hods of cur r ent det ect ion
and measur ement in EHV and UHV t r ansmission syst ems, IEEE Trans. on
Instrumentation and Measurement , vol.IM-24, no.1, 1975.
28
A. Yar iv and H. V. Winsor , Pr oposal for det ect ion of magnet ic fields t hr ough
magnet ost r ict ive per t ur bat ion of opt ical fibr es, Optics Letters, vol.5, no.3, p.8789,
1980.
29
J . J ar zynski, J . H. Cole, J . A. Bucar o and C. M. Davis jr ., Magnet ic field sensit ivit y of
an opt ical fiber wit h magnet ost r ict ive jacket , Applied Optics, vol.19, no.22, p.3746
3748, 1980.
30
H. I. Heat on, Ther mal st r aining in a magnet ost r ict ive opt ical fiber int er fer omet er ,
Applied Optics, vol.19, no.22, p.37193720, 1980.
31
A. Dandr idge, A. B. Tvet en and T. G. Giallor enzi, Int er fer omet r ic cur r ent sensor
using opt ical fibr es, Electronics Letters, vol.17, no.15, p.523524, 1981.
32
K. P.Koo and G. H. Sigel J r , Char act er ist ics of fiber -opt ic magnet ic field sensor s
employing met allic glasses, Optics Letters, vol.7, no.7, p.334336, 1982.
33
A. D. Ker sey, M. Cor ke, D. A. J ackson and J . D. C. J ones, Det ect ion of DC and low-
fr equency AC magnet ic fields using an all single-mode fibr e magnet omet er ,
Electronics Letters, vol.19, no.13, p.469471, 1983.
34
K: P.Koo and G. H. Sigel, Det ect ion scheme in a fiber -opt ic magnet ic field sensor fr ee
fr om ambiguit y due t o mat er ial magnet ic hyst er esis, Optics Letters, vol.9, no.6,
p.257259, 1984.
35
A. D. Ker sey, M. Cor ke and D. A. J ackson, Closed loop D. C. field fibr e opt ic
magnet omet er , Proc. S econd Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre sensors (OFS 2), p.5154,
VDE-Ver lag, Ber lin, 1984.
36
C. J . Nielsen, All fiber magnet omet er wit h magnet ic feedback compensat ion, Proc.
S PIE Fiber Optic and Laser S ensors III, vol.566, p.286293, 1985.
37
F. Bucholt z, D. M. Dagenais and K. P.Koo, High-fr equency fibr e-opt ic magnet omet er
wit h 70fT/ Hz r esolut ion, Electronics Letters, vol.25, no.25, p.17191720, 1989.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
49
38
K. A. Ar unkumar , An ult r asensit ive fiber -opt ic magnet ic field sensor , Pre-prints
Annual meeting of Optical S ociety of America, 1985.
39
G. Tanogan, D. I. Per sechini, R. J . Mor r ison and J . A. Wysocki, Cur r ent sensing wit h
met al-coat ed mult imode opt ical fibr es, Electronics Letters, vol.16, no.25, p.958959,
1980.
40
B. S. Rampr asad and T. S. Radha Bai, Speckle-based fibr e-opt ic cur r ent sensor ,
Optics and Laser Technology, J une, p.156158, 1984.
41
B. Moslehi, M. W. Fost er and P.Har wey, Opt ical magnet ic and elect r ic field sensor s
based on sur face plasmon polar it on r esonant coupling, Electronics Letters, vol.27,
no.11, p.951953, 1991.
42
S. Sat o and M. Kushima, Liquid-cr yst al elect r ic and magnet ic field sensor s, Mol.
Cryst. Liq. Cryst., vol.141, p.229235, 1986.
43
G. L. Mit chell, E. W. Saaski and J . W. Pace, Gigaher z RMS cur r ent sensor s for
elect r omagnet ic compat ibilit y t est ing, Proc. S PIE Fiber Optic and Laser S ensors VIII,
vol.1367, p.266272, 1990.
44
Y. N. Ning, B. C. B. Chu and D. A. J ackson, Int er r ogat ion of a convent ional cur r ent
t r ansfor mer by a fiber -opt ic int er fer omet er , Optics Letters, vol.16, no.18, p.1448
1450, 1991.
45
L. E. Ber kebile, S. Nilsson and S. C. Sun, Digit al EHV cur r ent t r ansducer , IEEE
Trans. on Power Apparatus and S ystems, vol.PAS-100, no.4, p.14981504, 1981.
46
M. Adolfsson, C.-H. Einvall, P Lindber g, J . Samuelsson, L. Ahlgr en and H. Edlund,
EHV ser ies capacit or banks. A new appr oach t o plat for m t o gr ound signalling, r elay
pr ot ect ion and super vision, IEEE Power Engineer ing Societ y Summer Meet ing in
Por t land Or egon, 1988.
47
G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics, Holt Rinehar t and Winst on, New Yor k,
1975.
48
J . F. Dillon jr ., Magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies of magnet ic gar net s, Proc. of the Intern.
S chool of Physics Enrico Fermi; Course LXX: Physics of Magnetic Garnets, A.
Paolet t i, Nor t h-Holland, Amst er dam, 1978.
49
K. Ando, Nonr ecipr ocal devices for int egr at ed opt ics, S PIE Proc. Electro-Optic and
Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, vol.1126, p.5865, 1989.
50
H. W. Kat z (edit or ), S olid S tate Magnetic and Dielectric Devices, J ohn Wiley & Sons
Inc., New Yor k, 1959.
51
A. Yar iv, Coupled-mode t heor y for guided-wave opt ics, IEEE J . of Quantum
Electronics, vol.QE-9, no.9, p.919933. 1973.
52
T. Sasano, Laser CT and laser PD for EHV power t r ansmission lines, Electrical
Engineering in J apan, vol.93, no.5, 1973.
53
A. J . Roger s, Opt ical t echnique for measur ement of cur r ent at high volt age, Proc.
IEE, vol.120. no.2. p.261267, 1973.
54
T. Yoshinio and Y. Ohno, Highly sensit ive all-opt ical met hod for measur ing magnet ic
fields, Fiber and Integrated Optics, vol.3, no.4, p.391399, 1981.
55
C. Car t er and J .St it es, A magnet o opt ic cur r ent t r ansducer , InTech, J une 1987,
p.4146.
56
G. Massey, D. C. Er ickson and R. A. Kadlec, Elect r omagnet ic field component s: t heir
measur ement using linear elect r oopt ic and magnet oopt ic effect s, Applied Optics,
vol.14, no.11, p.27122719, 1975.
Hans S ohlstrm
50
57
Yu. A. Gamazov, S. F. Glagolev, V. P.Zubkov, T. P.Kor oleva, A. D. Kr ast ina, L. A.
Kuznet sova and L. G. Revin, 8-kA Magnet oopt ical measur ing DC t r ansducer ,
Measurement Techniques (US A), vol.26, no.12, p.10241026, 1984.
58
Y. n. Ning, B. C. Chu and D. A. J ackson, Miniat ur e Far aday cur r ent sensor based on
mult iple cr it ical angle r eflect ions in a bulk-opt ic r ing, Optics Letters, vol.16, no.24,
p.19961998, 1991.
59
A. J . Roger s, Elect r ogyr at ion effect in cr yst alline quar t z, Electronics Letters, vol.12,
no.4, p.103104.
60
A. J . Roger s, Met hod for simult aneous measur ement of cur r ent and volt age on high-
volt age lines using opt ical t echniques, Proc. IEE, vol.123. no.10. p.957960, 1976.
61
K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshit a, T. Takioka and Y. Ida, Fiber opt ic measur ing syst em
for elect r ic cur r ent by using a magnet oopt ic sensor , IEEE J ournal of Quantum
Electronics, vol.QE-18, no.10, p.16191623, 1982.
62
A. Papp and H. Har ms, Magnet oopt ical cur r ent t r ansfor mer . 1: Pr inciples, Applied
Optics, vol.19, no 22, p.37293734. 1980.
H. Aulich, W. Beck, N. Douklias, H. Har ms, A. Papp and H. Schneider ,
Magnet oopt ical cur r ent t r ansfor mer . 2: Component s, Applied Optics, vol.19, no 22,
p.37353740. 1980.
A. Papp and H. Har ms, Magnet oopt ical cur r ent t r ansfor mer . 3: Measur ement s,
Applied Optics, vol.19, no 22, p.37413745. 1980.
63
S. C. Rashleigh and R. Ulr ich, Magnet o-opt ic cur r ent sensing wit h bir efr ingent
fiber s, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.34, no.11, p.768770, 1979.
64
J . Lizet , S. Valet t e and D. Langeac, Reduct ion of t emper at ur e and vibr at ion
sensit ivit y of a polar imet r ic cur r ent sensor , Electronics Letters, vol.19, no.15, p.578
579, 1983.
65
L. Li, J .-R. Qian and D. N. Payne, Cur r ent sensor s using highly bir efr ingent bow-t ie
fibr es, Electronics Letters, vol.22, no.21, p.11421144, 1986.
66
R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne and L. Li, Cur r ent monit or using ellipt ical bir efr ingent
fibr e and act ive t emper at ur e compensat ion, Proc. S PIE Fiber Optic S ensors II,
vol.798, p.283287, 1987.
67
S. Donat i and V. Annovazzi Lodi, A fiber sensor for cur r ent measur ement s in power
lines, Alta Frequenza, vol.53, no.6, p.310314, 1984.
68
S. N. Ant onov, Sensit ive fiber -opt ic magnet ic field t r ansducer , Sov. Phys. Tech.
Phys., vol.36, no.3, p.357358, 1991.
69
G. W. Day, D. N. Payne, A. J . Bar low, and J . J . Ramskov-Hansen, Far aday r ot at ion in
coiled, monomode opt ical fiber s: isolat or s, filt er s, and magnet ic sensor s, Optics
Letters, vol.7, no.5, 1982.
70
W. Chu, D. McSt ay and A. J . Roger s, Cur r ent sensing by mode coupling in fibr e via
t he Far aday effect , Electronics Letters, vol.27, no.3, p 207208, 1991.
71
D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day and S. M. Et zel, Annealing of linear bir efr ingence in
single-mode fiber coils: Applicat ion t o Opt ical Fiber Cur r ent Sensor s, J ournal of
Lightwave Technology, vol.9, no.8, p.10311037, 1991.
72
P.A. Williams, G. W. Day and A. H. Rose, Compensat ion for t he t emper at ur e
dependence of Far aday effect in diamagnet ic mat er ials: Applicat ion t o opt ical fibr e
sensor s, Electronics Letters, vol.27, no.13, p.11311132, 1991.
73
R. P.Tat am, M. Ber wick, P.Akhvan Leilabady, J . D. C. J ones and D. A. J ackson,
Applicat ions of Far aday r ot at ion using monomode opt ical fibr e, Proc. S PIE Fibre
Optics 87: Fifth Int Conf. on Fibre Optics and Opto-Electronics, vol.734, p.178192,
1987.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
51
74
A. D. Ker sey and A. Dandr idge, Opt ical fibr e Far aday r ot at ion cur r ent sensor wit h
closed-loop oper at ion, Electronics Letters, vol.21, no.11, p.464465.
75
A. D. Ker sey and D. A. J ackson, Cur r ent sensing ut ilizing het er odyne det ect ion of t he
Far aday effect in single-mode opt ical fiber , J ournal of Lightwave Technology,
vol.LT-4, no.6, p.640644, 1986.
76
S. P.Bush and D. A. J ackson, Dual channel Far aday-effect cur r ent sensor capable of
simult aneous measur ement of t wo independent cur r ent s, Optics Letters, vol.16,
no.12, p.955957, 1991.
77
P.Akhavan Leilabady, A. P.Wayt e, M. Ber wick, J . D. J ones and D. A. J ackson, A
pseudo-r ecipr ocal fibr e-opt ic Far aday r ot at ion sensor : cur r ent measur ement and dat a
communicat ion applicat ions, Optics Communications, vol.59, no.3, p.173176, 1986
78
H. Ar dit t y, Y. Bour bin, M. Papuchon and C. Puech, Un capt eur ampr emt r ique a
fibr e opt ique (A fibr e opt ic cur r ent sensor ), Revue technique Thomson-CS F, vol.13,
no.3, p.521539, 1981.
79
F. Mayst r e and A. Ber t holds, Magnet o-opt ic cur r ent sensor using a helical-fiber
Fabr y-Per ot r esonat or , Optics Letters, vol.14, no.11, p.587589, 1989.
80
M. Abe, M. Shimosat o, Y. Kozuka and M. Imaeda, Magnet oopt ic cur r ent field sensor
wit h sensit ivit y independent of Ver det const ant and light int ensit y, IEEE Translation
J ournal on Magnetics in J apan, vol.6, no.5, 1991.
81
M. Lequime and C. Meunier , Fiber opt ic magnet ic field sensor using spect r al
modulat ion encoding, Proc. S PIE Fiber Optic and Laser S ensors VIII, vol.1367,
p.236242, 1990.
82
A. Ker sey, F. Bucholt s and A. Dandr idge, Sensit ivit y-bandwidt h limit at ions in
opt ical-fibr e Far aday-r ot at ion cur r ent sensor s, Int. J ournal of Optoelectronics, vol.3,
no.4, p.323332, 1988.
83
R. Malewski and J . Szukalski, Measur ing impulse cur r ent s magnet o-opt ically,
Elteknik (S weden), no.11, p.2223, 1970.
84
L. Veeser , D. Kania, B. Fr eeman, P.Kr use, and E. Zimmer man, Measur ement of
megaamper e cur r ent s wit h opt ical fiber s, Proc. S PIE: Proc. of the Los Alamos
Conference on Optics83, vol.380, p.300304, 1983.
85
H. S. Lassing, A. A. M. Oomens and R. Wolt jer , Development of a magnet o-opt ic
cur r ent sensor for high, pulsed cur r ent s, Rev. S ci. Instrum (US A), vol.57, no.5,
p.851854, 1986.
86
R. L. Pat t er son, A. H. Rose, D. Tang and G. W. Day, A fiber -opt ic cur r ent sensor for
aer ospace applicat ions, IEEE AES systems Magazine, Dec., 1990.
87
F. Pr imdahl, P.Heg, C. J . Nielsen and J . E. Schr der , A New Method for Measuring
S pace Plasma Current Densities by the Faraday Rotation of Laser Light in Optical
Monomode Fibers, 1986.
88
A. J . Roger s, Point and dist r ibut ed polar imet r ic opt ic-fibr e sensor s, J ournal of
Optical S ensors, vol.1, no.6, p.457472, 1986.
89
S. J . Weikel, Applicat ion of magnet o opt ic cur r ent sensor s, Proc. of the IS A90 Int.
Conf and Exhib. 1990; Advances in Instrumentation and Control; Proc, vol.45 par t 4,
p.15891596, 1990.
90
T. D. Maffet one, T. M. McClelland, 345kV subst at ion opt ical cur r ent measur ement
syst em for r evenue met er ing and pr ot ect ive r elaying, IEEE Trans on Power Delivery,
vol.6, no.4, p.14301437, 1991.
91
T. Yu, Q. Li, R. Chen and J . Yan, Magnet -sensit ive opt ical fiber and it s applicat ion in
cur r ent sensor syst em, SPIE Pr oc. Fiber Opt ic and Laser Sensor s IX, vol.1584,
p.135137, 1991.
Hans S ohlstrm
52
92
S. Mut o, N. Seki, T. Suzuki, Plast ic fiber isolat or and cur r ent sensor , J apanese J . of
Appl. Phys., vol.31, no.3B, par t 2let t er s, p.L346348, 1992.
93
K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshit a, N. Mikami and Y. Ida, Fiber -opt ic cur r ent and
volt age sensor s using a Bi
12
GeO
20
single cr yst al, J ournal of Lightwave Technology,
vol.LT-1, no.1, p.9397, 1983.
94
A. B. Semenov, A. N. Rodinov, V. V. Kut saenko, V. M. Vat ut in, V. K. Gor chakov and V.
T. Pot apov, Light -guide magnet oopt ical sensor for st udy of pulsed magnet ic fields,
Instruments and Experimental Techniques, vol.34, no.1, p. 209211, 1991.
95
S. Ihar a, T. Mit sui, K. Tada, H. Takimot o, K. Tsujii, Y. Kuhar a, M. Tat sumi, Y.
Mur akami, A. Kawakami and S. Miyamot o, The development of BSO/fiber -opt ic
magnet ic field and volt age sensor s, S umitomo Electric Technical Review, no.23,
p.175184, 1984.
96
K. It aka, K. Fujieda and T. Har a, Fault sect ion det ect ing syst em for power cable
using opt ical magnet ic field sensor , APSCOM-91 (Hong Kong) IEE 348, p.644649,
1991.
97
N. Kullendor f and B. Hk, Temper at ur e independent Far aday r ot at ion near t he
bandgap in Cd
1x
Mn
x
Te, Appl. Phys. Letters, vol.46, p.10161018, 1985.
98
M. A. But ler and S. J . Mar t in, Opt ical fiber magnet ic field sensor wit h nanosecond
r esponse t ime, Int . Conf. on Solid-st at e sensor s and act uat or s; Philadelphia, 1985.
99
Aksionov, V. I. Konov, P.I Nikit in, A. M. Pr okhor ov, A. I. Savchuk, a. V. Savit ski and
K. S. Ulyanit ski, New aspect s of giant exit on Far aday r ot at ion in Cd
1x
Mn
x
Te
semimagnet ic compound: Fundament als and applicat ions, S ensors and Actuators A,
vol.A23, no.13, p.875878, 1990.
100
N. Mikami, C. Nagao, T. Sawada, H. Takahashi, Y. Fur ukawa and E. Aikawa,
Temper at ur e dependence of magnet ic field sensor s using (Cd
1x
Mn
x)
Te and a light -
emit t ing-diode light sour ce, J Appl. Phys., vol.96, no.1, p.433438, 1991.
101
E. Aikawa, A. Ueda, M. Wat anabe, H. Takahashi and M. Imat aki, Development of
new concept opt ical zer o-sequence cur r ent /volt age t r ansducer s for dist r ibut ion
net wor k, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol.6, no.1, p.414420, 1991.
102
T. Sawada, Y. Takada and K. Sat o, Gr owt h t echnique and opt ical char act er izat ion of
(Cd,Mn)Te for fiber -opt ic magnet ic field sensor s, J . of Crystal Growth, vol.117,
p.826829, 1992.
103
P.K. Tien, R. J . Mar t in, S. L. Blank, S. H. Wemple and L. J . Var ner in, Opt ical
waveguides of single-cr yst al gar net films, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.21, no.5, p.207209,
1972.
104
S. Geller , Cr yst al and st at ic magnet ic pr oper t ies of gar net s, Proc. of the International
S chool of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXX, A. Paolet t i, 155, Nor t h-Holland,
Amst er dam, 1978.
105
M. A. Gilleo, Fer r omagnet ic insulat or s: Gar net s, Ferromagnetic Materials Vol.2, P
Wohlfar t h, Nor t h Holland, Amst er dam, 1980.
106
N. Oht a, Y. Hosoe and Y. Sugit a, Submicr on magnet ic bubble gar net s, Recent
magnetics for electronics, Y. Sakur ai, Nor t h Holland, Amst er dam, 1983.
107
P.Par oli, Magnet o-opt ical devices based on gar net films, Thin S olid Films, vol.114,
p.187216, 1984.
108
P Hansen, Magnet ic anisot r opy and magnet ost r ict ion in gar net s Proc. of the
International S chool of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXX, A. Paolet t i, 56133,
Nor t h-Holland, Amst er dam, 1978.
109
N. Oht a, Y. Hosoe and Y. Sugit a, Submicr on magnet ic bubble gar net s, Recent
magnetics for electronics, Y. Sakur ai, p.1528, Nor t h Holland, Amst er dam, 1983.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
53
110
S. N. Bar ybin, A. N. Gr igor enko, V. I. Konov and P. I. Nikit in, Magnet ic field fibr e-
opt ical sensor s based on Far aday effect , S ensors and Actuators A, vol.2527, p. 767
774, 1991.
111
M. N. Deet er , A. H. Rose and G. W. Day, Fast , sensit ive magnet ic-field sensor s based
on t he Far aday effect in YIG, J ournal of Lightwave Technology, vol.8, no.12,
p.18381842, 1990.
112
J . F. Dillon jr ., Magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies of magnet ic gar net s, Proc. of the Intern.
S chool of Physics Enrico Fermi; Course LXX: Physics of Magnetic Garnets, A.
Paolet t i, Nor t h-Holland, Amst er dam, 1978.
113
P.Hansen and J .-P.Kr umme, Magnet ic and magnet o-opt ical pr oper t ies of gar net
films, Thin S olid Films, vol.114, no.1/2, p.69107, 1984
114
K. Ando, Nonr icipr ocal devices for int egr at ed opt ics, S PIE Proc. Electro-Optic and
Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, vol.1126, p.5865, 1989.
115
Y. Tsujimot o, O. Kamada, T. Taniuchi and S. Ser izava, Temper at ur e st abilized
magnet ic-field sensor s using mixed r ar e-ear t h gar net cr yst als, OFC 83 New Or leans.
116
Y. Asahar a and N. Nakamur a, The r ar e-ear t h ir on gar net film wit h small
t emper at ur e dependence of sensit ivit y used in magnet ic field sensor s, fr om Elect r onic
mat er ials Labor at or y, Sumit omo Met al Mining Co., Lt d., 1-6-1 Suehir o-cho, Ohme-shi,
Tokyo 198, J apan.
117
P.Par oli, Magnet o-opt ical devices based on gar net films, Thin S olid Films, vol.114,
p.187216, 1984.
118
K. G. Svant esson, "Measur ement s on magnet oopt ical waveguides by means of a
dist r ibut ed gr at ing coupler ", J . Magn. S oc. J pn., vol.11 Supplement No S1, p.405
408, 1987.
119
K. Ando, Waveguide opt ical isolat or : a new design, Applied Optics, vol.30, p.no.9,
p.10801084, 1991.
120
K. Ando, Nonr icipr ocal devices for int egr at ed opt ics, S PIE Proc. Electro-Optic and
Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, vol.1126, p.5865, 1989.
121
M. Moner ie, A. Lecler t , P.Anizan, G. Moisan and P.Auvr ay, Disposit ifs
magnet oopt iques en couches minces a accor d de phase: ut ilizat ion d'une double
het er oepit axie de gr enat s fer r omagnet iques, Opt. Commun., vol.19, p.143146, 1976.
122
P.K. Tien, R. J . Mar t in, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Cr aw and S. L. Blank, Swit ching and
modulat ion of light in magnet oopt ic waveguides of gar net films, Appl. Phys. Lett.,
vol.21, no.8, p.394396, 1972.
123
E. Ber glind, Frslag p en ny periodisk optisk vgledare fr magnetfltsmtning (A
proposal for a new periodic optical waveguide for magnetic field measurement), Repor t
I83-4035, Inst it ut e of Micr oelect r onics (IM), St ockholm, Sweden, 1983. (In Swedish.)
124
U. Holm and K. Svant esson, Mode select ive light coupling fr om a single-mode fibr e t o
a few-mode planar waveguide, t o be published.
125
K. G. Svant esson, t o be published.
126
P.Par oli, Magnet o-opt ical devices based on gar net films, Thin S olid Films, vol.114,
p.187216, 1984.
127
B. Hill and K. P.Schmidt , Speicher nde licht st euer - und display-komponent en,
Funkshau, no.20, p.5760, 1981.
128
K. Ando, Nonr icipr ocal devices for int egr at ed opt ics, S PIE Proc. Electro-Optic and
Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, vol.1126, p.5865, 1989.
129
R. M. Bozor t h, Fer r omagnet ism, chap. 19, D. Van Nost r and Company Inc., New Yor k,
1951.
Hans S ohlstrm
54
130
P.S. Hague, Techniques of measur ement of t he polar izat ion-alt er ing pr oper t ies of
linear opt ical syst ems, S PIE Proc. Optical Polarimetry, vol.112, p.211, 1977.
131
Y. Asahar a and N. Nakamur a, The r ar e-ear t h ir on gar net film wit h small
t emper at ur e dependence of sensit ivit y used in magnet ic field sensor s, fr om Elect r onic
mat er ials Labor at or y, Sumit omo Met al Mining Co., Lt d., 1-6-1 Suehir o-cho, Ohme-shi,
Tokyo 198, J apan.
132
K. G. Svant esson, "Measur ement s on magnet oopt ical waveguides by means of a
dist r ibut ed gr at ing coupler ", J . Magn. S oc. J pn., vol.11 Supplement No S1, p.405
408, 1987.
133
G. Dor iat h, R. Gaudr y, and P.Har t emann, "A sensit ive and compact magnet omet er
using Far aday effect in YIG waveguide", J ournal of Applied Physics, vol.53, no.11,
p.82638265, 1982.
134
Pr ivat e communicat ion by Dr . H. LeGall and Dr . J . M. Desvignes, CNRS, Meudon,
Fr ance.
135
M. St r mber g, Vtetsning av YIG samt deponering av dielektriska skikt med
brytningsindex nra 2 (Wet etching of YIG and deposition of layers with indices of
refraction close to 2), Repor t I84-2002, Inst it ut e of Micr oelect r onics (IM), St ockholm,
Sweden, 1984. (In Swedish.)
136
Y. Asahar a and N. Nakamur a, The r ar e-ear t h ir on gar net film wit h small
t emper at ur e dependence of sensit ivit y used in magnet ic field sensor s, fr om Elect r onic
mat er ials Labor at or y, Sumit omo Met al Mining Co., Lt d., 1-6-1 Suehir o-cho, Ohme-shi,
Tokyo 198, J apan.
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
55
Comment s on t he aut hor ship of t he paper s
The paper s upon which t his t hesis is based, ar e wr it t en by myself and one
or mor e co-aut hor s fr om t he fibr e opt ic sensor gr oup at t he Inst r ument at ion
Labor at or y. Tor gny Br ogr dh and Kjell Svant esson have been my super -
visor s, and t heir cont r ibut ions have pr imar ily been t o pr ovide good ideas
and guidance. Also, t heir help in t he act ual wr it ing of t he t ext has been
impor t ant . It is, however , difficult t o quant ify t hese cont r ibut ions.
Most of t he act ual r esear ch wor k has been car r ied out by Ulf Holm and
myself. Below I will indicat e our differ ent cont r ibut ions t o t he paper s. In t he
cases wher e Kjell Svant esson has made mor e act ive cont r ibut ions t o t he
wor k, t his will also be indicat ed.
Paper A
Ulf Holm and I have t aken equal par t s in t he development of t he measur e-
ment syst em. The mat hemat ical analysis of t he per for mance was however
made by Ulf Holm alone.
Papers B and C
Ulf Holm and I have made equal cont r ibut ions t o t his wor k.
Paper D
I have done a major par t of t his wor k. The use of a few-mode waveguide
wit h select ive excit a t ion wa s, however , or igina lly suggest ed by Kjell
Svant esson and t he basic concept s behind t he sensor design wer e joint ly
devised by t he pr oject gr oup. Ulf Holms ma in cont r ibut ion is in t he
applicat ion of phase modulat ion t o r educe t he influence of t he r eflect ed
light .
Paper E
This paper gives an over view of differ ent met hods applied in our char act er i-
zat ion measur ement s. The gr at ing met hod was devised by Kjell Svant esson
and t he r esult s shown in t he paper wer e obt ained by him and Ulf Holm. The
wor k on pr ism coupling and edge coupling was mainly done by myself.
Paper F
This paper gives a summar y of our sensor wor k up t o t hat t ime. Most of t he
wor k on mult imode sensor s was done by Ulf Holm and t he wor k on single-
mode syst ems was done by myself.
Paper G
This is pr imar ily my wor k. Alt hough he is not ment ioned as a co-aut hor , Ulf
Holm has assist ed in developing t he model used in fig 6c, 7 and 8.
Paper H
This is pr imar ily my wor k.
Hans S ohlstrm
56
Paper abst r act s
A: Measurement system for magneto-opti c sensor materi als
U Holm, H Sohlst r m and T Br ogr dh
A syst em for t he measur ement of magnet o-opt ic pr oper t ies of IR-t r ans-
par ent mat er ials is descr ibed. The syst em is designed for t he char act er iza -
t ion of fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor mat er ials. Measur ement r esult s on
YIG-cr yst als ar e pr esent ed. The accur acy of Far aday r ot at ion and light
t r ansmission measur ement s ar e t2mr ad and t2% r espect ively. Impor t ant
feat ur es for t he sensor char act er izat ion ar e light beam scanning, t emper a -
t ur e cont r ol and flexible magnet ic field gener at ion. A deskt op comput er is
used for syst em cont r ol and dat a acquisit ion. The syst em is expect ed t o be of
gr eat impor t ance for fut ur e sensor development .
B: YIG-sensor desi gn for fi bre opti cal magneti c fi eld measurement
U. Holm, H. Sohlst r m and T. Br ogr dh,
Aiming at t he design of a magnet ic field sensor ut ilizing t he Far aday
effect , we give in t his paper a descr ipt ion of measur ement s of magnet o-
opt ical pr oper t ies of YIG. We also give sensor design r ules based upon t hese
measur ement s.
C: Measurement of YIG crystal characteri sti cs for the desi gn of
opti cal magneti c fi eld sensors
U. Holm and H. Sohlst r m
Measur ement s of t he magnet o-opt ic pr oper t ies of YIG cr yst als, aiming at
t he design of fiber opt ic magnet ic field sensor s ar e pr esent ed. The Far aday
polar izat ion in YIG samples of differ ent shapes, in applied fields 60mT t o
+60mT is given. The effect s of t emper at ur e, per pendicular fields and
sample t r eat ment is st udied. Wit h t hin, 0.3mm samples, t he linear it y of t he
r elat ionship bet ween applied field and polar izat ion r ot at ion is found t o be
good wit h deviat ions fr om linear it y of less t han 1%.
D: A Polari zati on Based Fi bre Opti cal Sensor System Usi ng a YIG
Opti cal Wavegui de for Magneti c Fi eld Sensi ng
Hans Sohlst r m, Ulf Holm and Kjell Svant esson
A sensor syst em ut ilizing a polar izat ion maint aining fibr e for t he opt ical
signal t r ansmission and a planar opt ical waveguide for magnet ic field
measur ement s is pr esent ed. The syst em is based on polar izat ion modulat ion
Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
57
or iginat ing fr om t he TE t o TM mode conver sion in a magnet o-opt ical t hin
film of Gd,Ga subst it ut ed YIG (Yt t r ium Ir on Gar net ).
E: Characteri zati on of Magneto-opti cal Thi n Fi lms for Sensor Use
Hans Sohlst r m, Ulf Holm and Kjell G. Svant esson
As a par t of a fibr e opt ical sensor development pr oject we have made an
evaluat ion of differ ent opt ical waveguiding t echniques t o st udy t he pr oper -
t ies of t hin magnet o-opt ical films. Because of t he applicat ion t he met hods
ar e focused on t he det er minat ion of t he Far aday r ot at ion, t he linear bir e-
fr ingence and t he dynamics and anisot r opy of t he magnet ic pr oper t ies of t he
samples. Measur ement s using hologr aphic gr at ing, pr ism and edge (end-
fir e) light coupling t o differ ent subst it ut ed YIG films ar e pr esent ed. The
advant ages of t he differ ent met hods ar e discussed and it is shown t hat t he
launching t echnique may affect t he pr oper t ies t o be measur ed. Film st r ess
caused by t he pr ism coupling met hod is found t o influence t he magnet ic
anisot r opy.
F: Magneto-Opti cal Garnet Materi als i n Fi bre Opti c Sensor Systems
for Magneti c Fi eld Sensi ng
Kjell Svant esson, Hans Sohlst r m and Ulf Holm
Ma gnet o-opt ica l ga r net ma t er ia ls such a s YIG, undoped a s well a s
subst it ut ed, exhibit a lar ge Far aday r ot at ion. This fact makes t hem pot en-
t ially suit able as sensing element s in fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor
syst ems.
We descr ibe bot h an int ensit y based mult imode syst em using bulk mat e-
r ials and a singlemode polar izat ion based syst em using waveguiding films.
A number of differ ent mat er ial composit ions, such as undoped YIG, (Gd,Ga)-
and differ ent Bi- subst it ut ed YIG have been used for t he sensor element s.
Measur ement r esult s ar e pr esent ed and discussed. A det ect ion limit in t he
T r ange and a measur ement r ange exceeding 10
4
have been achieved.
G: A wavegui de based fi bre opti c magneti c fi eld sensor wi th
di recti onal sensi ti vi ty.
Hans Sohlst r m, Kjell Svant esson
In t his paper we r epor t on t he design and per for mance of an ext r insic
guided wave fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor . The sensor ut ilizes a subst i-
t ut ed YIG (Yt t r ium Ir on Gar net , Y
3
Fe
5
O
12
) t hin film as t he waveguiding
sensing element . A polar izat ion maint aining fibr e downlead was used t o
pr ovide insensit ivit y t o bot h power and loss fluct uat ions. The design makes
it possible t o det er mine bot h t he magnit ude and t he sign of t he magnet ic
field.
Hans S ohlstrm
58
Measur ement r esult s indicat e a usable measur ement r ange of at least
sever a l mT wit h a noise equiva lent ma gnet ic field level of less t ha n
8nT/

Hz.
H: The performance of a fi bre opti c magneti c fi eld sensor
uti li zi ng a magneto-opti cal garnet
Hans Sohlst r m, Kjell Svant esson
The design and per for mance of a mult imode fibr e opt ic magnet ic field
sensor ut ilizing t he Far aday effect in an epit axially gr own t hick (YbTbBi)IG
film is r epor t ed. The sensor is found t o be linear over a r ange of mor e t han
100dB.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
59
Paper r epr int s
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper A
U Holm, H Sohlst r m and T Br ogr dh
Measur ement syst em for magnet o-opt ic sensor mat er ials
J . Phys. E: S ci. Instrum., vol. 17, p. 885889, 1984.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper B
U. Holm, H. Sohlst r m and T. Br ogr dh
YIG-sensor design for fibr e opt ical magnet ic field measur ement
OFS 84, R. Th. Ker st en and R. Kist , p. 333336, VDE-Ver lag, Ber lin, 1984.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper C
U. Holm and H. Sohlst r m
Measurement of YIG crystal characteristics
for the design of optical magnetic field sensors
TR84.01, Inst r ument at ion Labor at or y;
Royal Inst it ut e of Technology, St ockholm, 1984.

Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper D
H. Sohlst r m, U. Holm and K. Svant esson
A Polar izat ion Based Fibr e Opt ical Sensor Syst em
Using a YIG Opt ical Waveguide for Magnet ic Field Sensing
S pringer proceedings in Physics 44: Optical Fiber S ensors, H. J . Ar dit t y,
J . P. Dakin, and R. Th. Ker st en, p. 273278, Spr inger -Ver lag, Ber lin, 1989.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper E
H. Sohlst r m, U. Holm and K. G. Svant esson
Char act er izat ion of Magnet oopt ical Thin Films for Sensor Use
S PIE Proc Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications,
J . P. Cast er a, vol. 1126, p. 7784, 1989.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper F
K. Svant esson, H. Sohlst r m and U. Holm
Magnet o-opt ical gar net mat er ials in fibr e opt ic
sensor syst ems for magnet ic field sensing
S PIE Proc Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications II,
H. Dammann, vol. 1274, p.260269, 1990.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper G
H. Sohlst r m and K. Svant esson
A waveguide based fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor
wit h dir ect ional sensit ivit y
S PIE Proc Fiber Optic S ensors: Engineering and Applications,
A. J . Br uinsma and B. Culshaw, vol. 1511, p. 142148, 1991.
Hans S ohlstrm: Fibre Optic Magnetic Field S ensors Utilizing Iron Garnet Materials
Paper H
H. Sohlst r m and K. Svant esson
The per for mance of a fibr e opt ic magnet ic field sensor
ut ilizing a magnet o-opt ical gar net
Fiber and Integrated Optics, vol. 11, p.135139, 1992.
Also pr esent ed at t he OFS 8 confer ence in Mont er ey, J an. 92.