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Introduction LTE Architecture Eiko Seidel
Introduction LTE Architecture
Eiko Seidel
3GPP Network Evolution
3GPP Network Evolution

Directions

3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low
3GPP Network Evolution Directions Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low

Simple, flat, IP based architecture low complexity, low latency IP based low cost network, reuse of backhaul Separate control and user plane scalability, low latency Move all radio into base station only very fast adaptations

Separate control and user plane scalability, low latency Move all radio into base station only very
Separate control and user plane scalability, low latency Move all radio into base station only very
Separate control and user plane scalability, low latency Move all radio into base station only very

2

LTE Architecture Summary

scalability, low latency Move all radio into base station only very fast adaptations 2 LTE Architecture
LTE Architecture/Terminology
LTE Architecture/Terminology

MME (Mobility Management Entity)

EPS (Evolved Packet System)

eNB (evolved Node B)

S1 -U S1-MME S1-M ME MME Serving Gateway X2 -1S U S1- MEM X2 eNB
S1 -U
S1-MME
S1-M ME
MME
Serving Gateway
X2
-1S U
S1-
MEM
X2
eNB
eNB
eNB
U-1S
X2

3

LTE Architecture Summary

UE

User Equipment

EPC (Evolved packet Core)

E-UTRAN

(Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

Architecture Summary UE User Equipment EPC (Evolved packet Core) E-UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
Logical and physical interfaces
Logical and physical interfaces

X2 interface is a logical interface ! Physical path might look very different

interfaces X2 interface is a logical interface ! Physical path might look very different 4 LTE

4

LTE Architecture Summary

interfaces X2 interface is a logical interface ! Physical path might look very different 4 LTE
Topologies
Topologies

Traditional 2G/3G hierarchy

One to many relation top down Changed from UMTS Rel. 5 Iu Flex option

top down Changed from UMTS Rel. 5 Iu Flex option 5 LTE Architecture Summary GGSN SGSN

5

LTE Architecture Summary

GGSN

SGSN

RNC

NB

Flexible topology

Avoids single point of failure Load balancing and scalability Reduction of relocations in ACTIVE

single point of failure Load balancing and scalability Reduction of relocations in ACTIVE PDN GW Serving

PDN GW

Serving GW

MME

eNB

single point of failure Load balancing and scalability Reduction of relocations in ACTIVE PDN GW Serving
Pooling concept
Pooling concept
Pooling concept Pools of nodes are created to have some centralized control Node selection is done

Pools of nodes are created to have some centralized control Node selection is done at registration within the pool nodes “Stateful” network elements with UE context in every node

6

LTE Architecture Summary

within the pool nodes “Stateful” network elements with UE context in every node 6 LTE Architecture
Overload protection
Overload protection
Overload protection Active load balancing between network nodes possible Node specific weight factors also influence

Active load balancing between network nodes possible Node specific weight factors also influence the node selection

8

LTE Architecture Summary

network nodes possible Node specific weight factors also influence the node selection 8 LTE Architecture Summary
Overall LTE Architecture
Overall LTE Architecture
HSS HLR AuC PCRF PDN Home Subscriber Server Home Location Register Authorization Center Policy and
HSS
HLR
AuC
PCRF
PDN
Home Subscriber Server
Home Location Register
Authorization Center
Policy and Charging Rules Function
Packet Data Network

9

LTE Architecture Summary

Register Authorization Center Policy and Charging Rules Function Packet Data Network 9 LTE Architecture Summary
LTE/SAE QoS Architecture
LTE/SAE QoS Architecture

Service Data Flow(s)

LTE/SAE QoS Architecture Service Data Flow(s) UL Packet Filter(s) Application Service Data Flow(s) E-UTRAN EPC Internet

UL Packet

Filter(s)

Application
Application

Service Data Flow(s)

E-UTRAN EPC Internet UE eNB Serving PDN Peer GW GW Entity End-to-end Service EPS Bearer
E-UTRAN
EPC
Internet
UE
eNB
Serving
PDN
Peer
GW
GW
Entity
End-to-end Service
EPS Bearer
External
Bearer
Radio Bearer
S1 Bearer
S5/S8
Bearer
Radio
S1
S5/S8
Gi
Radio Bearer S1 Bearer S5/S8 Bearer Radio S1 S5/S8 Gi DL Packet Filter(s) Information about EPS

DL Packet

Filter(s)

Information about EPS Bearer Parameter from PCRF

(e.g. IP flows, QoS description, labels)

14

LTE Architecture Summary

Information about EPS Bearer Parameter from PCRF (e.g. IP flows, QoS description, labels) 14 LTE Architecture
User Plane Architecture
User Plane Architecture
Application IP IP Relay Relay PDCP GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U PDCP GTP-U RLC RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP
Application
IP
IP
Relay
Relay
PDCP
GTP-U
GTP-U
GTP-U
PDCP
GTP-U
RLC
RLC
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
MAC
MAC
L2
L2
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
LTE-Uu
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi
UE
eNodeB
Serving GW
PDN GW

GTP

GPRS Tunnel Protocol

PDCP

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

RLC

Radio Link Control

MAC

Medium Access Control

16

LTE Architecture Summary

Data Convergence Protocol RLC Radio Link Control MAC Medium Access Control 16 LTE Architecture Summary
Control Plane Architecture
Control Plane Architecture

Constrained in terms of security, reliability and data loss to provide reliable control procedures

NAS NAS Relay RRC S1-AP RRC S1-AP PDCP PDCP SCTP SCTP IP IP RLC RLC
NAS
NAS
Relay
RRC
S1-AP
RRC
S1-AP
PDCP
PDCP
SCTP
SCTP
IP
IP
RLC
RLC
MAC
MAC
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
UE
eNodeB
MME

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LTE Architecture Summary

SCTP IP IP RLC RLC MAC MAC L2 L2 L1 L1 L1 L1 S1-MME LTE-Uu UE
S1-MME Interface Procedures
S1-MME Interface Procedures

SAE Bearer Service Management function

Setup, release and modification

Mobility (handover) functions for UEs in LTE_ACTIVE

Intra-LTE Handover Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover

Paging function for UEs in LTE_IDLE

Paging within the Tracking Area (set of cells)

NAS Signalling Transport function

S1-interface management functions

Other functions

Error indication Network Sharing Function Roaming and Area Restriction Support Function NAS Node Selection Function Initial Context Setup Function MME Load Balancing Overload Function

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LTE Architecture Summary

Function Initial Context Setup Function MME Load Balancing Overload Function 19 LTE Architecture Summary
X2 Control Plane (X2-C)
X2 Control Plane (X2-C)

Logical point to point interface between eNBs Interface between eNodeB might not be a physical interface Only point to point

Reliable transport (PER < 10 -8 ) Flow control

Typical delay ca. 5

SCTP

S1 MME

-

as on

20ms

20

LTE Architecture Summary

X2-AP

SCTP

IP

Data link layer

Physical layer

delay ca. 5 SCTP S1 MME - as on 20ms 20 LTE Architecture Summary X2-AP SCTP
X2-C Interface Procedures
X2-C Interface Procedures

User specific procedures

Mobility procedures to support handover

Handover request to prepare handover

PDCP status report during handover for lossless handover

Delete context after completion of the procedure

Global procedures

Setting up X2 interfaces and resetting

Including security and exchange of eNB configuration data

eNB configuration update

Change of the served cell IDs, global ID, group ID for pooling etc

Load management between eNBs

Regular load measurement exchange

Support of intercell interference coordination

Handover procedures in active mode Error indication

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LTE Architecture Summary

of intercell interference coordination Handover procedures in active mode Error indication 21 LTE Architecture Summary
Self-Organizing Networks
Self-Organizing Networks

Term is used for many, many different things

LTE supports various SON functions

to automate network configuration/optimization processes reduce need for centralized planning and human intervention

SON functions are enabled by

exchange of messages between neighbour eNBs (mostly X2) exchange of messages between eNBs and MMEs (partly S1) UE reporting measurements to the eNBs (partly Uu – air)

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LTE Architecture Summary

between eNBs and MMEs (partly S1) UE reporting measurements to the eNBs (partly Uu – air)
Standardised SON functions
Standardised SON functions

Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) function

eNB automatically builds and maintains its neighbour relations based on UE reports

Automatic Physical Cell Identity (PCI) selection

eNB automatically selects its own PCI based on UE reports and information received from neighbour eNBs

Dynamic configuration of X2/S1 interfaces

eNB dynamically configures the S1MME interface with the serving MMEs and the X2 interface with neighbour eNBs

RACH parameters optimization

eNBs exchange information about their used PRACH resources to avoid interference and RACH collisions

Mobility parameters optimization

eNBs automatically adapts mobilityrelated parameters to enhance mobility robustness or for loadbalancing reasons

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LTE Architecture Summary

‐ related parameters to enhance mobility robustness or for load ‐ balancing reasons 23 LTE Architecture