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Outline

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

Recap

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

the form P Q Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal PQ

After using strategy Givens P Goal Q

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal PQ

After using strategy Givens P Goal Q

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Form of nal proof Suppose P. [Proof of Q goes here]. Therefore, P Q.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal PQ

After using strategy Givens Q Goal P

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

To prove a goal of the form P Q Assume P is true and then prove Q

Recap the form PQ


Goals of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal PQ

After using strategy Givens Q Goal P

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Form of nal proof Suppose Q is false. [Proof of P goes here]. Therefore, P Q.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P If possible, re-express the goal in another form and use a previous strategy for the re-expressed goal.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P If possible, re-express the goal in another form and use a previous strategy for the re-expressed goal. Some useful laws to transform a goal Associative laws Contrapositive law Commutative laws DeMorgans laws Conditional laws Distributive laws Conditional laws P Q is equivalent to P Q P Q is equivalent to (P Q)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Double negation law Idempotent laws Quantier negation law

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal P

After using strategy Givens P Goal Contradiction

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal P

After using strategy Givens P Goal Contradiction

Form of nal proof Suppose P is true. Proof of contradiction goes here. Thus, P is false.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens P Goal Contradiction

After using strategy Givens P Goal P

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens P Goal Contradiction

After using strategy Givens P Goal P

Form of nal proof Proof of P goes here. Since we already know P, this is a contradiction.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If possible re-express this given in some other form.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Modus ponens If we have givens P Q and P then we can conclude Q is true.

Modus tollens If we have givens P Q and Q then we can conclude P is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Modus ponens If we have givens P Q and P then we can conclude Q is true. Some advice

Modus tollens If we have givens P Q and Q then we can conclude P is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Modus ponens and modus tollens can be very useful in proofs and should probably be applied immediately whenever applicable in a proof

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal xP(x)

After using strategy Givens Goal P(x)

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens Goal xP(x)

After using strategy Givens Goal P(x)

Form of nal proof Let x be arbitrary. [Proof of P(x) goes here]. Since x was arbitrary, we can conclude that xP(x)

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

Before using strategy Givens Goal xP(x)

After using strategy Givens Goal P(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

x= (the value you decided on)

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

Before using strategy Givens Goal xP(x)

After using strategy Givens Goal P(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

x= (the value you decided on) Form of nal proof Let x= (the value you decided on). [Proof of P(x) goes here]. Thus xP(x)

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens xP(x) Goal -

After using strategy Givens P(x0 ) Goal

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens xP(x) Goal -

After using strategy Givens P(x0 ) Goal

Form of nal proof Let P(x0 ).

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens xP(x) Goal -

After using strategy

Givens Goal P(a) Useful if P(a) or P(a) appears in the proof somewhere.

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Before using strategy Givens xP(x) Goal -

After using strategy

Givens Goal P(a) Useful if P(a) or P(a) appears in the proof somewhere. Form of nal proof Since p(a),

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q Prove P and Q seperately givens of the form P Q Treat this as two separate givens: P and Q seperately

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C.

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = Goal AB \C

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = Goal AB \C

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

A B \ C is equivalent to x(x A x B \ C )

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x is arbitrary Goal x A x B\C

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A Goal x B \C

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

x (B \ C ) is equivalent to x B x C /

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A Goal x B C /

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By apply the rule conjunction Goal x B x C /

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By denition of Goal x C /

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By expaning A C = Goal

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A Goal

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose x A. Since A B, it follows that x B, and since A and C are disjoint, we must have x C . Thus, x B \ C . Since x was an arbitrary element of A, we can conclude that AB \C

Method
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q Prove P Q and Q P seperately givens of the form P Q Treat this as two separate givens: P Q and Q P seperately

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal x (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Let x be arbitrary

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even) (x 2 is even P Q x is even)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Applying P Q rule

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z x is even Goal x 2 is even

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z(x = 2k) Goal k Z(x 2 = 2k)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Denition of even

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z x =2k Goal k Z(x 2 = 2k)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z x =2k Goal (x 2 = (2 k)2 )

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z x =2k Goal x2 = 4 k2

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose x is even. Then for some integer k, x =2 k. Therefore, x 2 = 4 k 2 , so since 22 is even. Thus, if x is even then x 2 is even. Similarly other direction also holds

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) Goal lnotxP(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) xP(x) Goal contradiction

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) P(x) Goal contradiction

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) Plugging x P(x) Goal contradiction

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) Goal xP(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) x be an arbitrary Goal P(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) P(x) Goal Contradiction

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x) Givens xP(x) P(x) Goal xP(x)

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose lnotxP(x). Let x be arbitrary, and suppose P(x). Since we have a specic x for which P(x) is true, it follows that x.P(x), which is a contradiction. Therefore, P(x).

Example
How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ
Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A,B, and C are sets. Then A (B \ C ) = (A B) \ C For every integer, 6 | n i 2 | n and 3 | n

the form P Q
To prove a goal of the form P Q