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Goals of the form P Q

Recap

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P If possible, re-express the goal in another form and use a previous strategy for the re-expressed goal.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P If possible, re-express the goal in another form and use a previous strategy for the re-expressed goal. Some useful laws to transform a goal Associative laws Contrapositive law Commutative laws DeMorgans laws Conditional laws Distributive laws Conditional laws P Q is equivalent to P Q P Q is equivalent to (P Q)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Assume P is true and try to reach a contradiction. Once you have reached a contradiction, you can conclude that P must be false.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Form of nal proof Suppose P is true. Proof of contradiction goes here. Thus, P is false.

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If you are doing a proof by contraction, try making P your goal. if you can prove P, then the proof will be complete, because P contradicts the given P.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Form of nal proof Proof of P goes here. Since we already know P, this is a contradiction.

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

To use a given of the form P If possible re-express this given in some other form.

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Modus ponens If we have givens P Q and P then we can conclude Q is true. Some advice

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Modus ponens and modus tollens can be very useful in proofs and should probably be applied immediately whenever applicable in a proof

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Let x stand for an arbitrary object and prove P(x).

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Form of nal proof Let x be arbitrary. [Proof of P(x) goes here]. Since x was arbitrary, we can conclude that xP(x)

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form xP(x) Try to nd a value of x for which you think P(x) will be true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

x= (the value you decided on) Form of nal proof Let x= (the value you decided on). [Proof of P(x) goes here]. Thus xP(x)

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) Introduce a new variable x0 into the proof to stand for an object for which P(x0 ) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Givens Goal P(a) Useful if P(a) or P(a) appears in the proof somewhere.

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a given of the form xP(x) You can plug in any value say a for x and use this to conclude that P(a) is true.

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Givens Goal P(a) Useful if P(a) or P(a) appears in the proof somewhere. Form of nal proof Since p(a),

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q Prove P and Q seperately givens of the form P Q Treat this as two separate givens: P and Q seperately

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

A B \ C is equivalent to x(x A x B \ C )

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x is arbitrary Goal x A x B\C

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

x (B \ C ) is equivalent to x B x C /

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By apply the rule conjunction Goal x B x C /

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By denition of Goal x C /

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A B, and A and B are disjoint. Prove that A B \ C. Givens AB AC = x A By expaning A C = Goal

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose x A. Since A B, it follows that x B, and since A and C are disjoint, we must have x C . Thus, x B \ C . Since x was an arbitrary element of A, we can conclude that AB \C

Method

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q Prove P Q and Q P seperately givens of the form P Q Treat this as two separate givens: P Q and Q P seperately

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal x (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Let x be arbitrary

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even) (x 2 is even P Q x is even)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Applying P Q rule

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z Goal (x is even P Q x 2 is even)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z x is even Goal x 2 is even

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z(x = 2k) Goal k Z(x 2 = 2k)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Denition of even

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z x =2k Goal k Z(x 2 = 2k)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose x is an integer. Prove that x is even i x 2 is even Givens x Z k Z x =2k Goal (x 2 = (2 k)2 )

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose x is even. Then for some integer k, x =2 k. Therefore, x 2 = 4 k 2 , so since 22 is even. Thus, if x is even then x 2 is even. Similarly other direction also holds

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

xP(x) xP(x)

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q

Suppose lnotxP(x). Let x be arbitrary, and suppose P(x). Since we have a specic x for which P(x) is true, it follows that x.P(x), which is a contradiction. Therefore, P(x).

Example

How To Prove It D. Gift Samue Recap the form PQ

Goals of the form P Q

Suppose A,B, and C are sets. Then A (B \ C ) = (A B) \ C For every integer, 6 | n i 2 | n and 3 | n

the form P Q

To prove a goal of the form P Q